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THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE, 

AND 

JOURNAL 

OF IMPROVEMENT IN 

ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING, AND FURNISHING, 

AND IN THE VARIOUS ARTS AND TRADES 
CONNECTED THEREWITH. 




ansfonSo 



£Rj4mhl 



Conducted ey J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S. H.S. &c. 

AUTHOR OF THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF COTTAGE, FARM, AND VILLA ARCHITECTURE 

AND FURNITURE. 

VOL. V. 



LONDON: 
LONGMAN, ORME, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS, 

PATERNOSTER ROW ; AND 

WEALE, ARCHITECTURAL LIBRARY, HIGH HOLBORN. 

1838. 



London : 

Prints! by A. Spottiswoode, 

NewlStrcct-Sqimre. 



PREFACE. 



With this Fifth Volume of the Architectural Magazine, the work 
is brought to a close ; a circumstance which would occasion its 
Conductor much more regret than it does, were it not for the fol- 
lowing reasons : — 

The great object of the Architectural Magazine has been, to render 
the subject of Architecture familiar to the general reader ; or, in 
other words, to give it popularity. Accordingly, the volumes already 
published embrace every department of Architecture, both as an Art 
of Design and Taste, and as an Art of Construction ; they may be 
considered as including a popular view of all the leading features of 
Architecture and Building. The work, therefore, in its present 
limited extent, is more likely to be extensively read, than if it had been 
carried on to an indefinite number of volumes. 

The Architectural Magazine consists of a collection of papers, the 
object of which is to render Architecture familiar to the general 
reader ; and, by this means, to diffuse such a knowledge of the subject, 
both as an Art of Design and Taste, and as one of Construction, as 
shall form a solid foundation for the progress of architectural improve- 
ment. Every accession of knowledge is an increase of enjoyment ; 
and, by instructing the eye in the exterior forms and ornaments of 
buildings, and in the materials and principles of their construction, a 
new source of pleasure will be opened up. Besides this, a more inti- 
mate knowledge of Architecture and Furniture will not only produce 
increased domestic comforts, by enabling all householders to detect 
defective arrangements, imperfections of construction, and inefficient 
modes of lighting, warming, and ventilating, but will enable them to 
perceive where improvements may be best made in the department of 
fitting up and furnishing. 

The progress of architectural improvement no doubt depends in 
some degree on the progress which architects make in the knowledge 
of their art ; but it depends much more on an increase of architectural 
taste on the part of the public. As long as the public are compara- 
tively ignorant of what is recpaired for the comfort of their own dwel- 
lings, so long will they be unable to distinguish between architects of 
inferior skill, and those who possess a competent knowledge of their 
profession ; but as soon as the taste of the public has been cultivated, 
and householders have obtained a sufficient knowledge of the subject 
to enable them to detect faults, and to feel the advantages of good 
methods of arrangement and construction, then architects will be com- 
pelled to study to suit the wishes of their employers. Hence, to en- 
lighten the public generally with regard to Architecture, and the arts 
immediately connected with it, has been the great object of the Archi- 
tectural Magazine. The Encyclopcedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa 
Architecture and Furniture, was undertaken with a view to the same 
end ; and to that work the Architectural Magazine may be considered 
as the sequel ; bringing down the progress of architectural improve- 
ment to the year 1839. ^50 (v3 

Bagsicatcr, Dec. 21. 1838. J. C. L. 

a 2 



CONTENTS. 



Original Communications : — 
Historical mid Statistical 
The Poetry of Architecture 
The Philosophy of Architecture 

Architectural Criticism 
Architectural Practice 
Building - - 

Warming and Ventilating 
Furniture - - 

Engineering - - - 

Land-Surveying ... 

Reviews : — 

General History of Architecture 
Ancient Egyptian Architecture 
Architectural Dictionaries 
Architectural Education 
Architectural Criticism 
Top* "graphical and Descriptive Architec- 
ture - 
Architectural Designs 
Geometry of Architecture 
Perspective - - - 
Building - - - 
Warming and Ventilating 
Engineering . 



Page 



Relative Subjects 
Catalogue 
Literary Notices 
Miscellaneous Intelligence : — 
General Notices 
Foreign Notices : — 

Prance 

Germany 

Italy 

(Jreece 
Wallachia - 

Norway 

Jamaica 

North America 
Domestic Notices : — 

England 

Scotland 

Ireland 
Retrospective Criticism 
Queries and Answers - 
Institute of British Architects 
Obituary 
List of Engravings 
List of Contributors 



Page 

- vi 

- vi 

- vii 



vu 
vii 
vii 
vii 
vii 
vii 
vii 
vii 

vii 

viii 
viii 

■ viii 
viii 

• viii 

viii 

- viii 

■ ix 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



Historical and Statistical. 

A Summary View of the Progress of Archi- 
tecture in Britain during the year!1838; with 
some Notices relative to its Advancement 
in foreign Countries, By the Conductor 

Historical Notice of Solomon's Temple: with 
some preliminary Remarks on the Taber- 
nacle. Prom Lectures on Archa-ology, de- 
livered in Paris by M Raeul Rocheite, and 
published in "I/E'chodu Blonde savant." 
Translated for the " Architectural Maga- 
zine," by M. L. 154 

The sacred Tombs of the Valley of Jehosha- 
phaL By M. Raoul Ruchette - - 301 

The Poetry of Architecture. 

The Poetry of Architecture: — 

e Cottage - - -7 

The Mountain Cottage, Switzerland - 56 

The Mountain Cottage, Westmoreland - l 1 ? 

Supplementary Notice to the Paper on the 

I viand Cottage, Italy - - 105 

A Chapter on Chimneys - - 145 

The Cottage, continued - - 193 

The Villa - - . 241 

The Mountain Villa, — I«igo di Como _ - 889 

Note* to th< Italian Villa, No, 3. p. 244. ~ - 

The Villa, continued 

The Lowland Villa.— England . - S8£ 

The English Villa, — Principle* of Com- 

• .mi .... 433 
Tne British Villa The Cultivated, or Blue, 
Country, — Principles ol Composition - 481 

The Kritivh \ ill a. Hill, or llmwn, Coun- 

trv. — Principle* ol Composition - 5S3 

Whetner works of Art may. with propriety, 
be combined with the Sublimity of Nature; 

and what would be the HLOSI appropriate 
Situation for the Monument to the Memory 



of Sir Walter Scott, in Edinburgh ? By 
Kata Phusin - - - 625 

The Philosophy of Architecture. 

Architectural Metaphysics. Erom the "Bri- 
tish and Foreign Review." - - 636 

On the Philosophy of Architecture. From 
the German of Weinbrenner Translated 
for the " Architectural Magazine " by ML. 392 

Architectural Criticism. 

Are Architectural Monuments only to be 
erected among Architectural Objects f By 
W. - - - - - 499 

Candidus'a Note-Book. Fasciculus x. to XI v., 

1 1- 81ft 857. 448. 565 

Critical View of the Architecture of New 
Vork. By M.F., a late Member of the Pro- 
fession in England - - 641 

Hone Architectonics;; or, Rough Notes on 
Architectural Subject*. By Nemo. No. 1. 

Architectural Nomenclature - - 495 

Remarks on the present State of Architecture 
in Britain, ana on the Institute of British 
Architect*, By a Provincial Architect - 1 

On the Establishment of a Society inr the 
Restoration of Vncient Buildings. By M. lt>2 

Brief Hints tor the Preservation of the Archi- 
tectural Remain* of the Middle Age*. By 
I U Lamb, P.l.B.A. - - - 159 

Note: "ii Modern Architecture. No. 3. to 5, 
Bj \ miens - - - 63. 215. 41y 

Suggestions relative to the best Models of 

Style t" be adopted In designing the new 
Houses of Parliament in the Gothic Taste. 
Bj Henry Noel Humphreys - - 49 

Remarks on Competition Design* for rebuild- 
ing the Royal Exchange. By Henry Noel 

Humphrey* .... no 
The Royal Exchange Competition. By Can- 
di, lus' .... 865 



CONTENTS. 



Fragments connected with Architecture and 
the Arts, from a Provincial Tour. By 
Henry Noel Humphreys 

A few Reflections upon Windows. By Henry 
Noel Humphreys ... 648 

On the System and Principles pursued by the 
Gothic Architects, from the Eleventh to the 
Fifteenth Centuries inclusive, in the Embel- 
lishment by Colour of the Architectural 
Members and other Parts of their Religious 
and Civil Edifices. By Frederick Lush - 198 

The Cheapside Obelisk. By T. - - 372 

Ideal Restoration ofthe Athenian Olympieum. 
By Charles E. A. Blair, Architect - 105 

Architectural Practice. 

Design for a Suburban Residence to be erected 
at Stuttgart, by Direction of His Majesty 
the King of Wiirtemberg. By E. B. Lamb, 
Fellow of the Royal Institute of British 
Architects - - - - 18 

Some Account ofthe Girard College for Or- 
phans, now erecting at Philadelphia, "from 
the Designs and under the Superintendence 
of Thomas U. Walter, Architect. Drawn 
up from Materials printed and published in 
Philadelphia, and from the verbal Commu- 
nications of Mr. Walter - - 446 

Notice of the new Church at Charmouth, 
lately erected from the Designs of Charles 
Fowler, Architect, F.I.B.A., &c. Commu- 
nicated by Mr. Fowler ... 509 

Design for a Church. By Edward Brigden, 
Architect, Bristol - - - 223 

Design for a Union Workhouse. By Chris- 
topher Eales, Architect - - 510 

A short Notice of the Kirk of Alyth, recently 
erected, in Perthshire. By a Subscriber 572 

Description of Covent-Garden Market, Lon- 
don, built from the Designs of Charles 
Fowler, Architect, F.I.B.A. By the Con- 
ductor - ... 665 

Two Designs for Monuments. By Herman 
Herman, Architect, Munich - - 575 

An Account of an immense Chimney, recently 
built at Carlisle ; with Suggestions for ap- 
plying Chimneys or Cones, of immense 
Height, to scientific Purposes. By P. A. 165 

A Method of Building an Obelisk without 
Scaffolding, as adopted by T. Slack of Lang- v 
holm - - - - 502 

Design for a Villa, comprising Two distinct 
Residences. By W. H. Leeds - - 554 

A Design for a Labourer's Cottage or Gate 
Lodge, in the Grecian Style. By Edward 
Brigden, Architect, Bristol - - 74 

Experiments made for the Purpose of ascer- 
taining and exhibiting the necessary 
Strength of Piers to be employed at the 
Angles of Buildings, carrying Arches over 
Doors and Windows. By William Bland 408 

Remarks on the Construction of Waterloo 
Bridge and London Bridge. By an Archi- 

, tect. Communicated by T. B. W. - 255 

On Selecting the Position of a House on the 
Side of a Hill. By N. - - - 29 



A House for an Invalid. By T. K. - 459 

The Corrugated Cast-iron Roof of the Coal 
Depot of the London Gas- Works, Vaux- 
hall. By M. D. - - - 66 

Notice of an Improvement to a Cottage Fire- 
place. By M. Saul - - - 225 

Building. 
Hints on Construction : addressed to Archi- 
tectural Students. By George Godwin, 
Jun., F.S.A. and M.I.A. Nos. 1. to 6. -250. 
304.361.411. 464. 514.577. 

Warming and Ventilating. 

Official Report made to Charles Boyd, Esq., 
Collector of Her Majesty's Customs, for the 
Information ofthe Hon. Board of Commis- 
sioners, upon Bernhardt's Stove Furnaces. 
By Andrew Ure, M.D. F.R.S., &c. Com- 
municated by the Author - - 31 

Reply of M. F. A. Bernhardt, Architect, to 
the official Report of Dr. Ure, F.R.S., on 
his new System of Warming and Ventilat- 
ing, published in the " Architectural Ma- 
gazine" for January, 1838. - -182 

Report as to the Safety and Efficiency of 
Joyce's Patent Heating Apparatus. By J. 
T. Cooper, and Professor Brande 

A Stove on a new Construction, for heating 
any large Apartment, or the House of 
Commons. By R. Mallet - - 167 

On the Ventilation of large Buildings by the 
Intervention of Openings in the Windows. 
Bv R. Mallet - - 258 

On Furniture. By E. B. Lamb, F.I.B.A. - 27 

Furniture. 

Design for an Architectural Bookcase. By 
G. B. W. . - - - 598 

An Architect's Desk. By E. B. Lamb, 
F.R.I.B.A. - - - 262 

Design for a Sofa, by L. - - - 604 

A temporary Table, or Ironing-Board, for 
small Country Cottages. By W. S. - - 75 

Notice of Two Rocking Chairs. By James 
Frewin, Builder - 664 

Notice of a new Fastening for a Dressing- 
room Swing-Glass. By W. F. D. - - 605 

Description of a cheap portable Shower-Bath, 
invented by James Milne, Brass-Founder, 
Edinburgh. Communicated by Mr. Milne 468 

On the Essentials requisite for the perfect 
Filtration of Water for domestic Use. By 
John Isaac Hawkins, Civil Engineer - 659 

Engineering. 

On the most proper sectional Form to be 
given to Weirs or River Dams. By Robert 
Mallet - - - - - 261 

Land-Surveying. 

Notice of an Instrument to be used in Land- 
Surveying, for reducing the Length of 
Lines over undulating Surfaces to the 
Length of the Base, or level Line. By 
Richard Varden, Architect - - 663 



REVIEWS. 



General History of Architecture. 
An Historical Essay on Architecture. By 
the late Thomas Hope. Illustrated from 
Drawings made by him in Italv and Ger- 
many - - - 171. 317. 422. 475. 611 

Ancient Egyptian Architecture. 
Manners and Customs of the Ancient 
, Egyptians ; including their private Life, 
Government, Laws, Arts, Manufactures, 
Religion, and early History ; derived from 
a Comparison of the Paintings, Sculptures, 
and Monuments, still existing, with the 
Accounts of ancient Authors. Illustrated 
bv Drawings of those Subjects. By J. G. 
Wilkinson, F.R.S., M.R.S.L.,&c - -310 



Architectural Dictionaries* 
Britton's Dictionary of the Architecture and 

Archaeology ofthe Middle Ages - 417 

A Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, 
Roman, Italian, and Gothic Architec- 
ture - - ... SO 

Architectural Education. 

An Address on the Subject of Education, as 
connected with Design in every Depart- 
ment of British Manufacture ; together 
with Hints on the Education of the Poor 
generally. By Geo. R. Lewis - . 268 

A Letter to His Royal Highness the Duke 
of Sussex ; with a Plan for the Promotion 
of Art, Science, and Literature, by the 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



' moderate but Ineffectual Assistance of 
Government By Thomas L. Donaldson, 
Architect - - - - -77 

Architectural Criticism. 

Prolusiones Architectonics; or, Essays on 
Subjects connected with Grecian and 
Roman Architecture. I5y William Wilkins, 
A.M., It. A , F.R.S.J formerly a senior 
Fellow of Cams College, in the University 
of Cambridge; Regius Professor of Archi- 
tecture in the Royal Academy. Part I. - 42 

Topographical and Drsrriptivc. 

The Churches of London : a History and 
Description of the Ecclesiastical Edifices of 
the Metropolis. By George Godwin, jun., 
Architect, A.I B.A., Assisted by J. Britton, 
IS \., See The Illustrations by Robert 
William Hillings, A.I.B.A. Nos. 11 to 14. 129 

Architectural Illustrations and Account of 
the Temple Church, London. By Robert 
William Billings, Associate of the institute 
of British Architects ... 377 

Selections and Fragments of the Architecture 
of the Middle Ages; drawn from Nature 
and on Stone. By Joseph Nash - 320 

The History and Description, with graphic 
Illustrations, of Cassiobury Park, Hertford- 
shire, the Seat of the Karl of Essex. By 
John Britton, F.S. A., &c. - - -114 

Illustrations of the Public Buildings of Lon- 
don ; with Historical and Descriptive 
Accounts of each Edifice. ByPugin and 

Britton. Second Edition, greatly enlarged 
bv \V. II. Leeds, 2 vols. 8vo., London, 
1838. 606 

Architectural Designs. 
Entwurfzur Boerseauf dem Adolphs-PlaUe 
in Hamburg. Von A. de Cbiteauneuf. 

Design for an Exchange adapted for 
Adolph's Square, Hamburg, &c 

Designs for Sepulchral Monuments. By Carl 
Tottie, Architect. Engraved by Edward 

Ravenscroft. - 

Engravings : — 

Design for the New Exchange Buildings, 
Manchester, bj T. Taylor, Architect. - 

The Interior of the Chapter- Room in the 
Cathedral of Bristol, by John Willis 

Blaise I lamlet - 

1 [enburj Coll - - - - 

The Victoria Rooms, Bristol. Designed by 
Tovy .... 

Plan of the Gloucester Zoological, Botani- 
cal, and Horticultural Gardens, in the 
Park, Cheltenham. Designed by T. 
Hillings ...... 

Geometry 'of Architecture, 
Mechanics for Practical Hen. By Alexander 
.1 mieson, L.L.D., Author of a " Dic- 

tionary of Mechanical Science," and a 
"Treatise on the Elements of Algebra" H 
SteObanlce of fluids lor Practical Men, com. 

prising Hydrostatics, descriptive and con- 
structive; the whole illustrated bynume. 
rous Examoles and appropriate Diagrams. 
Bj Alexander Jainieson, I, I, 1)., Author 
..1 '■ Elements of Vlgebra," &c - - 173 

Original Geometrical Illustrations: or, the 
Book of Lint , Squares, Circles, '1 riangles, 
Polygons, &c By John Bennett, Engineer. 
Author of the " Artificer's Complete Lexi- 
con," " Labour Prices for Builders," &c. 77 

Perspective. 

A Treatise on Projection, &c. By Peter 

Nicholson - - - - - 7.") 

Lawrence's Pel pective Simplified; or. the 

Principle- el the \n, a- laid down by Dr. 

■ lor, familiarly iiiusti. - ififl 

Butt 
Practical (>' k rv atioi 1 on the Asphaltic M 

vol) 
employe d on the » ntinent, tor i 

1 fi 1 Hydraulic 



- 320 
1 

i 

- 519 

322 

322 

323 



Works, &c. ; explaining its Nature and 
Manipulation, &c. By F. \V. Simms, Civil 
Engineer, late of the Royal Observatory. 
Author of a "Treatise on the principal 
Mathematical Instruments employed in 
Surveying, Levelling, and Astronomy, &c. 81 

If'tirnting and I'enti/ating. 

On Warming and Ventilating: with Direc- 
tions for making and using the Thermometer 
Stove, or Self- regulating Fire; and other 
new Apparatus. By Neil Amott, M.D. 
F.RS., &c., Physician Extraordinary to the 
Queen, Author of the " Elements of 
Physics," \c. - . - - 120 

A Practical Treatise on Warming Buildings 
by Hot Water; and an Inquiry into the 
Laws of radiant and conducted Heat; to 
which are added, Remarks on Ventilation, 
and on the various Methods of distributing 
artificial Heat, and their effects on Animal 
and Vegetable Physiology. By Charles 
Hood, F.R.A.S. '- - - -44 

Engineering. 

Blunt's Civil Engineer and Practical Machi- 
nist: Treatises on Civil Engineering, 
Engineer Building, Machinery, Mill- Work, 
Engine-Work, Iron-Founding, &c. ; ex- 
ecuted for the Use of Engineers, Iron- 
Masters, Manufacturers, and operative 
Mechanics. By Charles John Blunt, Civil 
Engineer and Practical Machinist. Divi- 
sion B. - - - - - 78 

A Treatise on Engineering Field- Work ; 
containing Practical Land-surveying for 
Railways, &c. By Peter Bruff, Surveyor, 
ftc. 270 

Wood's Practical Treatise on Railroads, and 
Interior Communication in general - 419 

A Series of Lithographic Drawings on the 
London and Birmingham Railway, by John 
C. Bourne, with Topographical and De- 
scriptive Accounts of the Origin, Progress, 
and general Execution of that great 
National Work. By John Britton, F.S. A. 
Author Of the" Architectural and Cathedral 
Antiquities of England," " Dictionary of 
Architecture," See. Inscribed by permis- 
sion, to the Engineer and Directors of the 
Company. Folio, London, 1838 - - 609 

Stevenson's Sketch ol the Civil Engineering 

of North America; comprising Remarks 
On the Harbours, River and Lake Naviga- 
tion, Lighthouses, Steam Navigation, 
Water-Works, Canals, Roads, Railways, 
Bridges, and other Works in that Country. 171 

A Treat 1 c Itoads J wherein the Principles 

on which Roads should be made are ex- 
plained ami illustrated by the Plans, Specifi- 
cations ami Contracts madeuse ofbyThomas 
Telford, Esq., on the Holyhead Road. By 
the Right Hon. Sir I len'ry Pamell, Hart., 
Honorary Member of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers - 379 

Relative Subjects. 

Ore's Dictionary of An-. Manufactures, and 

Mines ; containing a clear Exposition of 

their Principles and Practice - -470 

Transactions of the Society of Arts, Manu- 
factures, and Commerce ' - - -420 
Lewi-'.- Portraits of British Forest Trees, 

with and witl t their Foliage; together 

with Insructions for drawing Trees Irom 
Nature, and Rules for obtaining the Height, 
Width, and true Proportion that each Pari 
bears towards another, clearly explained 
and exemplified - - - 4^1 

CATALOGUE OP WORKS OH All( lllll 1 11 111 , ,\c. 

Hopper versus Cust, on the subject of rebuild- 
ing the new if 11-es of Parliament. An 
Address to (he "Leading Men of Man- 
chester," suggested by a Letter on est 1. 
"I of Design, Bv It. 1; 
Haydon, Esq. Inserted in the Manchester 
Guardian of Sept. 17. lsj;, by J, W. 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



Hance. Reprinted from the Manchester 
Courier, with considerable Additions - 45 

Le Keux's Memorials of Cambridge, &c, No. 
IV. - - " - - - 130 

Bennett's Millwright's and Engineer's Pocket 
Director 130 

Some Account of Mont Orgueil Castle, in the 
Island of Jersey ; its present state, its 
various Alterations and Additions : with a 
poetical Description of the Castle, written 
by William Prvnne, during his Confine- 
ment therein, from 1637 to 1646. - -130 

Angell's Historical Sketch of the Royal 
Exchange ... -131 

Bernhardt's Questions relating to Fires in 
general, the Draught of Smoke, and the 
Saving of Fuel - - - - 131 

Weale's Scientific Advertiser, Nos. 1 and 2. 133 

Neill.and Fraser's Observations on the Pro- 
posal of building at the Cross, and of shut- 
ting up the Royal Bank Close - - 133 

Parker's Suggestions for Warming and Ven- 
tilating Thirty-seven Cells, to be erected in 
the Salop Gaol, for the separate Confine- 
ment of Prisoners - - - . 133 

Description of an Inkstand, upon a simple, 
cheap, and useful Plan, in which the Supply 
of Ink adjusts itself by a Float, with Figures 
engraved on Wood. - 133 

Neill's Remarks on the Report of the Lord 
Provost's Committee, 19th July, 1837, rela- 
tive to the proposal of Building at the 
Cross ... . ]34 

Bennet's Carpenter's and Joiner's Pocket 
Directory - 270 

Bennett's, Bricklayer's, Plasterer's, Stone- 
Mason's, and Slater's Pocket Director. - 270 



Bennet's Arcanum : comprising a concise 
Theory of Practical, Elementary, and De- 
finitive Geometry ... - 271 

Godwin's Churches of London - -271 

Wright's Memorials of Cambridge - - 272 

Report of the Committee of Management of 
the Association for the Promotion of the 
Fine Arts, called the Art Union of London, 
for the Year 1836-7. - - - - 272 

Sopwith's Observations on a proposed Line 
of Road from Shotley Bridge to Middleton, 
in Teesdale. - - - - -272 

The Plumber's, Painter's, Glazier's, House 
Decorator's, &c, Pocket Director: com- 
prehending select and useful Prices of the 
various Works in their respective Depart- 
ments ; including also a variety of Informa- 
tion of practical Utility ; with a copious 
List of the Trade. By John Bennett, 
Engineer, &c. .... 321 

Letter to His Grace the Duke of Hamilton, 
and the other Noblemen and Gentlemen, 
the Committee appointed by the Subscribers 
for a Monument in Edinburgh to the 
Memory of Sir Walter Scott. By Robert 
Cadell - - - - 321 

LITERARY NOTICES. 

Architectural Illustrations of the Temple 
Church, London, drawn and engraved by 
Robert William Billings, Associate of the 
Institute of British Architects - - 45 

Brown's History of the Edifice of the Metro- 
politan Church of St. Peter, York - 272 

Britton's Illustrations of the London and 
Birmingham Railway - 272 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 



GENERAL NOTICES. 

Harper and Joyce's new Stove and improved 
Fuel 84 

New Material to be applied to Dwelling- 
houses, to render them capable of resisting 
Fire, A. - - - 85 

Hydrostatic Measurement of Timber, A. J. - 86 
British Artists and Writers on Art - - 273 

The prospective Changes in Mechanics - 273 

Railroads - - - - - 273 

Steam Carriages on common Roads - - 274 

Hague's Transferring Power - - 274 

Harper and Joyce's Stove - - - 275 

Dr. Arnott's Stove - - - 276 

New Camera Lucida ... 276 

Zinc not oxidisable - - - 276 

What is Art ? - - - - 323 

Effect of Ornament according to its Dis- 
position - 324 
Gothic Architecture according to Frederick 

Schlegel - . . - 325 

Compositions for rendering Buildings Fire- 
proof - 326 
Noxious Effluvia - - 326 
A general Slaughter-house - - 326 
Painted Architecture - - - 618 
Duty on Bricks - - - - 619 

FOREIGN NOTICES. 

France. 
Paving with Asphaltum, G. B. W. - 45 

Architectural Prize by the Institute of 

France, M. I. B. A. - - - 276 

Canal parallel to the Banks of the Rhine, 

from Basle to Strasburg - - - 277 

Cathedral of Chartres - 277 

Horloge de la Mort du Roi - - - 278 

Safety Apparatus contrived by a Galley-Slave 278 
Museum of Besancon - - - 278 

Ancient Church in Brittany - - 278 

Fonvielle's Filtering Apparatus . - 278 

German;/. 

A Temple dedicated to the eminent Men of 

Germany - - - - 279 

Railroads in Austria - - - 280 



Opening of a Railroad at Vienna .. - 280 

The Catholic Church of Darmstadt - 521 

Italy. 

The Excavations at Pompeii - - 280 

Greece. 
Ancient Tomb ... 28O 

Wallachia. 
Wallachian Village - - 

Norway. 
Dwellings of the Rural Population in Norway, 
as compared with those of Britain and 
Ireland .... 326 

Jamaica. 
New Church at Annandale, St. Ann's, F. 
Lush - - - - - 521 

North America. 
New Stove for Carriages - - 46 

Girard College for Orphans, Philadelphia, 
T. N. Walter - - . . 307 

DOMESTIC NOTICES. 

England. 
Projected School of Design at Manchester, 

J. W. H. - - - . 4fi 

Lighting the House of Commons - - 87 

Ventilation of the House of Commons - 87 

Serjeant's Inn, Chancery Lane, W. H. - 88 

The late Royal Exchange, Candidus - 88 

" New Light," in the House of Commons - 134 
Improvement of London ... 134, 
City of London Literary and Scientific In- 
stitution . . . 135 
The Reform Club House - - - 136 
Improvements in the North- Western Part of 

London, G. B. W. - - . - 136 

A New Street, G. .... 135 

Safety of Bonds, Bills, &c. - - 136 

Specimens of painted Glass, Frederick Lush 136 
Roe's Water-Closet, without the usual Ap- 
paratus - J37 
New Church at Stayley Bridge, Cheshire - 137 
Poor Houses at Norwich, William Thorold - 13$ 



Vlll 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



Stratford-upon-Avon Church, Warwick- 
shire, 15 - 

-Painting - ... 17s 

T». M ' r the Encouragement of Civil 

Architecture - - - ITS 

Formation of a School of Design in Man- 
c-he>ter - - * - Ti 

A Jet d" Eau upwards of 80 feet high - --7 

The Art Onion, '.. - - - 227 

haltic Cement - - - 228 

Howell Double-action Door-Hinges - ..^ 

Manchester Architectural Societv, John Wm. 
Hance - - - - 9B0 

Patent Roof - - . - --1 

I_i\ ing the first Stones of the New Bridge, 
Manchester - - - - 281 

The Squares of London - - 328 

Palace of the Duke of Sutherland - - 

London Street Houses 

New Mreet from Westminster Abbey to 
Pimlico, G. - - 330 



330 
3J1 



Improvements in the North-western Part of 
London, ti. R. W. 

. >f painted Glass, Frederick Lush 

Liverpool Observatory 

Watering- Troughs for Cattle 

Manchester Architectural Society's Cor.ver 
sazione - - - 

Intended Improvements at St. Helen's 

Kvan's Patent - - 

Borradaile and Co. 's patent Felt for prevent- 
ing the Transmission of Sound, 4c , Fre- 
derick Lush - - - - 47 s 

The Architecture of Gin Palaces, id. - 4~s 

Intended Improvement? at Westminster, id. 47'.' 

Ashby-de-la-Zouch new Church - - 480 

Manchester Architectural Society 

Buildings in unhealthy Situations - - 619 

Building on the Ro>al Kitchen. Gardens, 
Keusmgton Gravel Pits 

Supplying St. Pancras with Water from Ar- 

:n Wells - - - - 621 

t tie of the late Rev. Yalpy, Eeadil 

Thickness of Metal on Macadamised Koads, 
Devonshire .... o.l 

The Surveyors' Report as to the Strength of 
the Roaiis of the Trust, ascertained by 
pitting ... 

Creditnn Road; London Road; Exmouth 
, Chadleigh, or Plymouth Road; 
Okehampton 1. 

A Union Workhouse, Shaftesbury 

Chapel of Base at Charlton - 

Gillingham Old Church 

Timber Viaducts, Xurthumlierland. New- 
castle - 
\rc !n- of luminated Plates of Iron 

Enlargement of the Village, Clifton, Somer- 
setshire; Brunei's Sus]*iision Bridge 

and- 
Edinburgh : Edicts of the Lightning on the 
Melville Monument, struck on the 14th of 
July, is 7 - - - - 181 

The Duke of York's Monument in Edinburgh 288 
• tiirc ; Victoria Bridge - 
kshire: Glasgow Mechanics' Institute 
Renfrewshire: a new Water Posssjt - 334 

Kewley's Alarum. Thermometer - - 334| 



Colossal Statue at Golspie - - - 4«0 

Erratum - - - i 80 

Ireland. 
Dublin : Warming and Ventilatins, J. M. T- 335 
A M ravian Burial-Ground at Ballymena - 4.4 
Railroads - - - - *M 

EETHOSPECT1VE CRITICISM. 

9C. 140. 192. 281 



Erratum 

The <n>i>tothecaat Munich, H. N. II. - 90 

I Gothic Ornaments, EL B. L. - 91 

- Natural Convergence of Perpendi- 
culars, Arthur Parsey - - - 91 

Paraey*s Natural Convergence of Perpendi- 
culars, William Willmer Pocock, jun. - 92 

Remarks on the Convergence of Perpendi- 
culars, Kata Phusin . - - 94 

II. N. Humphreys - - - - 140 

Another Word on Parsey's Doctrine of Per- 
spective, Candidus - - - 140 

Dr. Ure's Report on M. Bernhardt's System 
of Warming and Ventilating, F. A. Bern- 
hardt - . - - - 142 

Mr. Humphrevs's Suggestions as to Models 
of St vie, Arc.'M. 1. B. A. - - -189 

Mr. Parsey and his Critics, O. ... 190 

Candidus on Mr. Parsevs Principles, &c 
Kata Phusin - - - - 191 

The Chancel of Stratford Church, Harvey 
Eginton ----- i! f - 

Glyptotheea, G. B. W. - - 19-2 

Parsey's Natural Convergence of Perpendi- 
culars, Arthur Parsey ... 228 

Mr. Lamb's brief HinU for the Preservation 
of the Architectural Remains of the Middle 
Ages, I rederick Lush ... 230 

Arnotfs Stove - - - - -30 

Parsey's Natural Convergence of Perpendi- 
culars, K^ta Phusin ... 28g 

Preservation of Architectural Remains, E.H. 283 

Victoria Rooms, Bristol, I harles Dyer 

Parsey's Natural Convergence of Perpendi- 
culars, Arthur Parsey . - - IBS 

Parsevs Perspective Rectified, Chappell 
Smith ..... 1..; 

Mr. Chappell Smith on Parsey's Convergence 
of Perpendiculars ... 4i;o 

Britton's Dictiouarv of Architecture, Can- 
didus - - - - - 522 

Parsey's Convergence, &c, B. H. - - 

Parsevs Convergence of Perpendiculars, 
Kata Phusin ... 

Planting Church-yard* \ 0^4 

ol lulls WD ANSWERS. 

Mode of securing Water-Pipes against Frost, 

T. \\ . -. - - - 142 

Fire-proof Safes, Henry B. White - -14 1 

Filtration, James Mmpson . - - 143 

Galvanisation 01 tan-work, to preserve it from 

Rum 
Matgary's I preventing the Dry Rot 284 

INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. - 4^ . 1 i . -J. 

3-Jo. &SO. 430 
OBITUARY. 

John Linnell Bond, Esq. - - - 43 

Alovsius Hirtt - - - - 144 

M. Fauvel . - . - 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



Public Buildings. 

Page 
Islington Proprietary School - 70—73 
rhe Glyptotheca at Munich 
41. Ideal Restoration of the Athenian Olym- 
pieum - - - '.li-; 

aomical ( hurch —SSL 

— Malcomb Obdiak at Langhoua, 

with the Architectural Details lor 

Building it - - . sm — ; 

177. Church at Charmouth . . .509 



Page 
178—182. Design for a Union Workhouse 

510-314 
191—194 Kirk of Alvth in Perthshire 57! 
290— .294. Covent-Garden Market - 666— 671 

Private Buildings. 
1 — 3. Suburban Residence for the King of 
Wurtemburg ... 18 — 22 

1 - — 14. Mountain Cottage of Switzerland 58,59 
15. Swiss Cottage in the Canton of Uri . 63 



LIST OF CONTRIEITOKS. 



IX 



27, Cf. Labourer's Cottage, or Gate Lodge 74 
42 — 5). Labourer's Cottages erected in (..-.. 

shiobury Park - 116—120 

168 — 170. House and Garden for an Invalid 

460—463 
188 — 190. A Villa comprising Two distinct 

Residences ... 556—564 

Windows. 

164 — 166. Enriched Windows from a Do- 
mestic Edifice in Munich - - 441 

281 — 2S6. Various forms of Windows from 

Roman and Italian Edifices . 651 — 668 

Geometrical Diagrams, %c. 

5, 6. Selecting the Position of a House - 29 

7—9. Bernhardt's Stove Furnace - . 32 

10. Improved Stove Furnace 39 

11. Hot-water Apparatus for Hatching 
Chickens - - - - 40 

31—34. Parsey's Perspective - - 93 

35 — 38. Parsey's Perspective - - 95, 96 

74. Boring for Water .... 177 
83 — 85. Parsev's Perspective - - 229 

90—92. Venti'lating a Church . 259, 260 

99. Parsey's Perspective - . - - v . 

123, 124. Concrete and other Foundations 363, 

364 
Hitch's Patent Brick Drain - 365 

Angular and Curvilinear Lines - 398 
Equifonn and Symmetrical Orna- 
ments - 403 
-144. Symmetrical and Harmonious Or- 
naments - - . . 404 
145 — 157. Elementary Forms, Angular and 

Curvilinear ... 406, 407 

158 — 160. Experimental Arches . 409, 410 

161—163. Parsey's Perspective - 426 — IS8 

200 — 269. German Drinking-Vessels, illus- 
trative of Weinbrenner's Theory of 
Architectural Beauty - -"582 — 596 



Furniture. 



125, 126. 
128—135. 
136—138. 



140- 



40. 
71. 

86. 

87. 
100. 
127. 

167. 
186. 

279. 



Landscapes. 
Buildings and Scenery close to the Citv 
of Aosta *. 105 

Coniston Hall, on the Shores" of Co- 
niston Water, Westmoreland - . 150 
Bellaggio on the Lago di Como - 246 

Villa Somma-Riva on the Lago di Como 247 
Villa Porro, on the Lago di Como - 590 
Old English Lowland Villa - - 295 

Perspective View of Girard College . 447 
View of a Village on the Lake of 
Thun - . . .547 

Ruins at the Foot of Arthur's Seat - 633 



Engineering. 
93. Improved Form for a River Dam 



- 261 



4. 

•o. 



Improved Cottage Pianoforte - -Si 
A Temporary Table, or Ironing-Board 
for Cottagers ----- 75 

52. Section of Dr. Arnoit's Stove - 123 

T-, 73. A Stove on a new Construction 

168—171 
82. An Improved Cottage Fire-place - SBE 

94— 9S. An Architect's Desk - 262—265 

107—110. Ancient Egyptian Chairs - 314, 315 
111 — 114. Ancient Egyptian Stools - 316 

113. Ancient Egyptian Kangaroo Chair - 316 
171, 172. A cheap Portable Shower-Bath 468, 

469 
270—276. An Architectural Bookcase 598—603 

277. Design for a Sofa - - . -605 

278. New Fastening for a Dressing- Room 
Swing Glass .... . 605 

288, 289. Two American Rocking-Chairs 664, 

665 
Chimney-Tops. 
53—70. Eighteen different Forms of Chim- 
ney-tops, taken from Buildings in Bri- 
tain and on the Continent - - 148 

Churchyard. 

121. Ground-plan for laying out a Church- 
yard, on laying out and planting on 
Scientific Principles .... 357 

122. Isometrical View of the Same -359 

Tombs. 
195—197. Two Monumental Tombs - 576, 577 

Mi sc ella neons . 
16—18. Corrugated Cast-Iron Roof - 66, 67 
19—22. Details of Corrugated Cast-Iron 

Roof - - - - 68, 69 

75. Outline of a Mass of Wood - - 195 

88, S9. Balustrades in the Isola Bella - 249 

101—106. Ancient Architecture - 311 314 

107 — 114. Ancient Egyptian Furniture 314 — 316 

115. Curious Alarum Thermometer and 
Automaton Gardener ... 335 

116, 117. Portico of Petrach's House at 

Arqua 339, 340 

118—120. Lines of Ground - . 343, 344 

183. Effect of Shade under different Cir- 
cumstances - - . - 542 
1S4, 185. Lines of Ground and Wood - 545 
187. Flat Line of Beauty ... 548 
198, 199. Patent Rebated Brickwork 579—581 
280. Ogee Curve in Ground - - - 633 
287. New Instrument to be used in Land- 
surveying - . - . 663 

293. Section of the Stage for Plants in the 
Bedford Conservatories ... 671 

294. Fountain in Covent Garden Market - 671 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



A. - - - S5 
A.J. - - - 86 
Amicus . 6a 215. 415 
A Provincial Architect - 1 
A Subscriber - . 572 

B. ... 139 
Bernhardt, F. A. . 142 
Blair, C. E. A. - - 105 
Bland, Win. - . 408 
B. H. - - . 526 
Brigden, Edward - 74, 223 
Candidus - 14. 88. 140. 219. 265. 

367. 442. 522. 565 
Dyer, Charles - - 425 

Eales, C. - - . 510 

E. B. L. . . 91 

Edington, Harvey - 192 

E. H. - . 283 

Fowler, C. F, I. B. A. -509 
Frewin, James. Builder - 664 
G. - - 136. 227. 330 

<>. B. W. . 45. 190. 330. 598 
Godwin, George, jun., 
F.S.A. and .Ml A. . £50. 3T4. 

361. 411 4r"4 514 377 Mallet, R 
\ UL. V. 



Hance, John Wm. . £80 

Hawkins, John Isaac, Civil 

Engineer . . 659 

Hermon, Hermon . 575 

H. N. H - 90 

Humphreys, Henrv Noel - 49. 
110. 140. 648. 1000 
J. B. W. . - . 136 

J. M. - . .335 

J. W. H - 46 

Kata Phusin . 7. 56. 94. 97. 105. 

145. 191. 193. 241. 282. 289. 300. 

337. 385. 433. 481. 526. 533. 624. 

625 

L. - 190. 604 

Lamb, E B., F.I.B.A. - 18. 27. 

159. 262 

Le«ls W. H. - - 554 , 

Lush, Frederick - 136. 198. 230. ! 

330. 47«. 479. 521. 624 

- 162 

- 66 
A. - 189. 276 

154. 392. 581 
- 167. 25S. 261 



M. 

M. D. 

M. I. B. 
M. L. 



Milne, James 

Nemo - 

P. A. - . 

Parsey, Arthur - 91. 228. 
Pococ'k, jun., William, Wil- 

mer 
Saul, M. 
Simpson, James 
Slack, T. 

Smith, Chappell . 426. 
T. . 

T. B. W. 

T. K. . . 

T. W. S. 
Thorold, Wm. 
W. 

W. F. D. - - 

W. H 

Walter, T. N. - - 

Walter, U. 
White, Henrv B. - 
Ure, Andrew.'M.D , F.R.S , 

ftc. - - 31. 

\ arden, Richard, Architect 



468 

29 

495 

165 

425 

92 

225 
14S 
502 
707 
372 
iS5 
459 
142 
138 
499 
605 
88 
327 
446 
143 

.-. 
66Z 



WORKS BY 3. C. LOl DO - I 



J. 

Recently jmbKeked, in One thick 8w> I olume, !'>■< 1 ■■!■■•' new Edition corrected, and with 

abovi " Hundred of the Hates re-engraved, 

THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF COTTAGE, FARM, AND VILLA 
.HU'illTECTURE AND FURNITURE: 

With about 1 100 Pages of Letterpress, and upwards of 'JOOO Wood Engravings; 
embracing Designs of Cottages, Farm-Houses, Farmeries, Villas, Country Inns, 
Public Houses, Parochial Schools, &c. ; including the Interior Finishings and 
Furniture; accompanied by Analytical and Critical Remarks illustrative of the 
Principles of Architectural Science and Taste on which the Designs for Dwellings 
are composed, and of Landscape- Gardening, with reference to their Accom- 
paniments. 

The main object of this work is, to improve the Dwellings of the great mass of 
Society in the temperate regions of both hemispheres ; a secondary object is, to pro- 
duce a popular work upon a subject which has been hitherto treated in a manner 
calculated rather to repel than to invite the general reader; and a third object is, to 
render Domestic Architecture a fit study for Ladies. 

II. 
Published on August 1. 1838, in One Volume 8vo, Price 20s. 

THE SUBURBAN GARDENER and VILLA COMPANION. 

Comprising the Choice of a Suburban or Villa Residence, or of a Situation on 
which to form one ; the Arrangement and Furnishing of the House ; and the Laying 
out, Planting, and general Management of the Garden and Grounds. The whole 
adapted for Grounds from One Perch to Fifty Acres and upwards in Extent ; and 
intended for the Instruction of those who know little of Gardening and Rural 
Affairs, and more particularly for the Use of Ladies. Illustrated by numerous 
Engravings. 

III. 
Published on July 1. 1838, in Eight Volumes, Svo, Price 101. 

ARBORETUM FT FRUTICETUM BRITANNTCUM; on, 

TDK TREES AND SHRUBS OF BRITAIN, 

Native and Foreign, Hard;/ and Half -hardy, pictorially and botanical/;/ delineated, 
and scientifically and popularly described; 

With their Propagation, Culture, Management, and Uses in the Arts, in useful and 
ornamental Plantations, and in Landscape- Gardening. Preceded by a historical 
and geographical Outline of the Trees and Shrubs of temperate Climates through- 
out the World. I n eight volumes. Svo, Tiz. four of Letterpress, and four of Plates : 
consisting of above 8000 pages of letterpress, above 400 8vo plates of trees, and 
upwards of 2500 woodcuts of trees and shrubs, besides numerous diagrams, &c , 
planatory of culture and management. 

IV. 

7b be published mi th< 1st <>/ April next, in One Volume 800, 

THE WHOLE WORKS ON 

LANDSCAPE-GARDENING AND LANDSCAPE- ARCHITECTURE 

OF HUMPHREY REPTON, ESQ., 

With Notes by J. C. Lot don. 

rhis Volume will comprise the following of -Mr. Repton's Works : Sketches 

and Hints, \c ; fol. 1797; 52* r,d. — Observations, 4c ; 4to, 1803; 105s. — 
Changes of Taste, &c. ; 8vo 1806; 5».~ Pavilion at Brighton, and Changes in 
Architectural Taste, ■&& ; fol. 1808; 120*. — Fragments, &c. ; 4to, 1816; 120*. 

Tl " «**» the publiibing pricei of which amount to upwards of 'jo/., t,v reducing the 

•"■ printing in the same type aa that used for the Gardener's Magemine, will be com- 

run. in olio iirlii-o vo !■■«., ...I.:. I Hi t. .«. ,- .... . TO *__ 



THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE. 



JANUARY, 1838. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

Art. I. Remarks on the present State of Architecture in Britain, and 
on the Institute of British Architects. By a Provincial Archi- 
tect. 

The times in which we live, as regards the internal construc- 
tion and advance of society, are, perhaps, the most remark- 
able in the history of the human race. By-gone ages may have 
been more fertile in those incidents on which historians love to 
dilate ; the march of conquerors, the change of dynasties, the 
vicissitudes of coronets, and the fate of crowns ; but in this period 
the very elements of society are in motion, the fountains of the 
deep are breaking up, and out of its chaos new combinations are 
continually taking place, presenting new aspects, changing, as 
in a moment, the current of our ideas, and sweeping away the 
accumulated prejudices of centuries. Every subject to which the 
human mind has been directed partakes of this onward move- 
ment : the sciences of legislation, political economy, chemistry, 
mechanics, geology ; every study, in short, which tends to en- 
large the boundaries of human knowledge, to extend man's do- 
minion over the material elements, and consequently to increase 
his comforts and enjoyments; all these have made, and are 
making, every year prodigious advances. 

The science of architecture has, at last (tardily enough, it must 
be owned), caught something of the. general impulse, which, in- 
deed, it was scarcely possible to avoid, without being swamped 
by the advancing tide of popular opinion : the attention of the 
architectural world has been aroused to the necessity for keeping 
pace with the progress of knowledge in other departments, and 
it has been admitted on all hands that something must be done. 
What that something should be, however, seemed a matter of 
some difficulty and doubt. The first thing naturally required 
was to excite an interest in the public mind, and more especially 
amongst those connected with the art : to stimulate a thirst 
for improvement, and awaken dormant capabilities wherever they 
might be found : the second step would be consequent upon the 
other, to concentrate the energies so excited, and direct them 
by the simplest means to the accomplishment of the most desir- 

Vol. V.-No.47. D> H KILL 1 ! \RY 

North Carolina State College" 



2 Architecture in Britain, 

able ends. In respect to the first of these desiderata, a great 
point was gained when it was demonstrated by yourself, in the 
publication of your Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa 
Architecture, that architectural works are not necessarily either ex- 
pensive or full of technicalities ; that these two obstacles in the way 
of the general diffusion of sound principles of taste maybe avoided 
to a very great extent by care and attention. The establishment 
of this Magazine, also, by circulating information of the proceed- 
ings in the architectural world (a region, up to that period, 
veiled in as much obscurity as the. sources of the Nile, or the 
kingdom of Timbuctoo), and by exciting discussion on the vari- 
ous subjects connected with design and construction, did much 
to remove the difficulties in the way of progressive improvement. 
Something, however, was still wanting. The desultorvand unaided 
efforts of individuals, however talented and zealous, in any cause, 
can never produce the effect of a well-organised simultaneous 
combination of exertion. A guiding and directing power was re- 
quired to unite the desultory energies, to marshal the scattered 
forces; and, by a well-directed division of labour, united with the 
most extensive combination of efforts, to produce similar effects 
to those which have so happily resulted in other arts and sciences. 
Apparently with views something similar to these, the Insti- 
tute of British Architects was called into existence. Earl De 
Grey, at the opening meeting, remarked that " This Society is 
formed for the cultivation of an art which can onlvbe understood 
and appreciated by those who make it their study." It must, 
therefore, follow, that the greater the number of individuals who 
can be induced " to make it their study," the more will the art 
" be understood and appreciated." After mentioning in detail 
some of the benefits expected to result from the establishment of 
the Society, the noble lord goes on so say, " If we can only 
succeed in establishing this institution on the broad ground and 
footing which I think we may, then we shall have an apportunitv 
of deriving a greater acquaintance with the resources of the art." 
In the address prefixed to the published part of the Transactions, 
it is stated that, " the general objects of the institution are, in 
lew words, the promotion and encouragement of the art and 
science which the founders profess, by all the means in their 
power." It is also stated that, " without aid beyond the circle 
of its professional members, it will at first, perhaps, be difficult 
to carry such a society into full effect.*' The passages here 
quoted would appear to indicate that the combination of efforts 
above alluded to in one common pursuit, the advancement of 
architectural science, was the leading principle of the Association; 
and that such was the only object of its original founders I have 
very little doubt. It is therefore much to be regretted that 
anything like an exclusive spirit should have crept in ; and that, 
in attempting to carry out an object so desirable, regulations 



and Instil ulc of British Architects. 3 

should have been adopted at all fettering its usefulness, and for- 
bidding the active cooperation of any persons able and willing 
to contribute materially to its success. I allude more particu- 
larly to the 21st clause of Section 4. of the By-Laws, which 
renders ineligible, or liable to expulsion, any fellow or associate 
" for having: engaged since his election in the measurement or 
valuation of any works undertaken by any building artificer, ex- 
cept such as are proposed to be executed under the member's 
own designs or directions, or for the receipt or acceptance of any 
pecuniary consideration or emolument from any builder whose 
works he may have been engaged to superintend," &c. If this 
be the " broad ground and footing" alluded to by Earl De 
Grey, His Lordship's notions of breadth must be rather peculiar ; 
for it is scarcely possible to imagine a narrower or more exclu- 
sive base on which to found a society. However, laying aside 
all disputes as to the breadth of the base, this Society has now 
been established two years and a half, the wealthy and noble 
of the land are enrolled amongst its honorary members ; Eastern 
potentates have not disdained to shed upon it the lustre of their 
magnificence ; royalty itself has put the seal of its sanction to the 
proceedings by the charter of incorporation ; and yet, notwith- 
standing all these advantages, in spite of the distinguished posi- 
tion the Society has attained, the last report is obliged to confess 
that " it is matter of regret that the lectures (delivered by 
first-rate professors on most interesting subjects) did not com- 
mand a larger number of auditors." Again, " The subjects 
proposed for prize essays not having been successful, it is to be 
hoped that they will, at some future opportunity, be productive 
of happier results," &c. How is this ? How comes it to pass 
that, with all these advantages and inducements to the study 
of their art, the junior members of the profession will neither 
attend the lectures, nor enter into competition for the prizes held 
out to their acceptance ? The true answer is, the system is too 
exclusive : — 

" Non tali auxilio, nee defensoribus istis 
Tempus eget." 

The stirring times in which we live demand something of a 

more diffusive and expansive character. If the tree is to bear 

fruit at all, it must be planted in soil sufficiently deep ; its roots 

must have liberty to shoot out and extract nourishment from 

every source, which, distilled and elaborated by the parent 

trunk, may expand into hardy health, vigour, and fruitfulness. 

Cribbed, cabined, and confined, without depth of earth, or 

room for expansion, it will exhibit, at best, but a stunted and 

sickly growth ; a feeble exotic, which the first rude blast will 

level with the dust. 

But, to drop metaphor, I propose to show, in the following 

B 2 



4 Architecture in Britain, 

pages, that the present exclusive system of the Institute is un- 
just in principle, impolitic in practice, and that it never can 
realise the expectations of its founders. 

In establishing an associationof persons engaged in one com- 
mon pursuit, either of two principles may be adopted : it may 
be a society purely for the advancement of art, without reference 
to the private interests of the members, or it may be an associa- 
tion for the protection of the interests of a profession, or, in other 
words, a trade union. I have no objection to a society formed 
on either of these principles ; but I think a little consideration 
will show that their union in one society is incompatible. The 
one knows no test but that of merit, and no distinction but the 
various degrees of zeal in the advancement of science; the other 
jealously fences itself round with arbitrary restrictions and enact- 
ments ; treats as intruders and poachers on its own preserve those 
whose shibboleth of technicalities differs from its own .- and would 
rather the cause of science stood still, except its own particular 
clique could beat the head. The Institute is professedly established 
on the first of these principles: it claims the support and confi- 
dence of the public as a purely scientific association, which confi- 
dence it attempts to convert, by its restrictive enactments, into a 
source of private advantage. Indeed, this is unwittingly allowed 
to escape in the first address, where it is stated, that one object 
of the Institute is that " of gaining at the hands of the public a 
reliance on those professors who are bond K fidc architects;" that 
is, in other words, that no practising architect is worthy of being 
trusted who is not a member of the Institute. This, if the Insti- 
tute were open to all who are. eligible on the score of merit, 
could hardly be complained of, though it must be a " broad 
ground" indeed which would justify the proposition; but, on 
its present foundation, to assume that all talent and merit, either 
now or at any future time, would centre in the Institute, is 
neither more nor less than a fraud upon the public. 

Again, architecture is the science of construction ; an archi- 
tect, therefore, is not merely a person capable of sketching a 
design, or of finishing a showy drawing; but the chief builder, 
as the word implies; one capable of entering into all the details 
of every branch of artificer's work, of understanding the prices 
of each, and the method of putting together. I need not inform 
the practical architect how much design and ornament depend 
upon the material and construction employed ; and, as to prices 
and value, it is notorious that the architects of the present day 
are lamentably deficient in practical knowledge on these subjects ; 
so much so, that the discrepancy between the architect's estimate 
and the real cost of a building has become proverbial. Now, 
where is the student to obtain a competent knowledge on these 
points ? The time usually spent in an architect's office is little 



and Institute of British Architects. 5 

enough to gain a general acquaintance with the principles of de- 
sign ; and, if a young man is desirous to obtain a practical 
knowledge of the various modes of construction adopted, and of 
prices and value of work, it can only be acquired by measuring 
and surveying. To affix a stigma, therefore, on a branch of 
knowledge quite as essential to the thorough architect as any 
other, has a direct tendency to cause it to be undervalued by the 
student, as unworthy of attention, and derogatory to his profes- 
sional character, and is both absurd and unjust. 

But, again, the principal object the Institute professes is the 
" facilitating the acquirement of architectural knowledge." Now, 
to whom does it offer these facilities ? To the young practitioner 
of limited means, to whom advantages of this kind would be ac- 
ceptable ? Does is tend to draw merit from obscurity, and lend 
its helping hand to foster genius wherever it may be found ? 
No such thing: it offers its " facilities" to two classes; to the 
architect in the bustle and activity of full practice, to whom they 
are unnecessary, and to the young professor, whose means enable 
him to wait with patience until the tide of public approbation 
shall set in his favour. But, supposing the case of a young en- 
thusiast, whose love for the art has enabled him to force bis way 
through difficulties and obstacles, and who, whilst maturing his 
talents for public competition, is honourably maintaining him- 
self in the only way open to him, that of measuring and survey- 
ing; to him the door of admission is bolted and barred; the 
cold supercilious glance of contempt is cast on his exertions ; 
should he fail, no helping hand of assistance is stretched out to 
him; and should he succeed, the success is all his own. To 
call such a society an institution for " facilitating the acquire- 
ment of architectural knowledge," is a burlesque and a 
mockery. 

I could go into this part of the subject at much greater length ; 
I might put it to the candour and conscience of the fellows them- 
selves, whether this regulation is uniformly put in force; I might 
ask whether the donation of twenty-five guineas (which amount 
admits an honorary member to all the real privileges of the So- 
ciety) is more likely to promote the progress of architectural 
knowledge than the admission of their ^//-brethren in the pro- 
fession ; but I forbear, at least for the present, and proceed to 
offer a few words on the impolicy of the restrictions. 

Scarcely can any publication, at all treating on architecture, 
be taken up, but it is either full of lamentations on the low 
state of the art in this country, or, if written by an architect, it 
is filled with loud and deep complaints of the want of taste in 
the public, and of opportunities for the display of architectural 
skill. Both these complaints originate in the same source, the 
want of sympathetic taste and common feeling between the 

b 3 



6 Architecture in Britain. 

public, who are the employers, and the professors, who are the 
employes. This diversity of feeling can only be removed by 
the principles of correct taste being diffused as extensively as 
possible; in the first instance, embracing all in any way con- 
nected with the art, and, through them, being extended to the 
public. If it be not thus, it will be in vain for those who con- 
sider themselves first-rate professors of the art to expect admira- 
tion for the fruits of their talents exhibited to the public. They 
will still be " caviare to the multitude;" and, even amongst the 
architects themselves, the same carping hypercriticism which at 
present prevails will still be perpetuated; but once let the same 
common principles of taste obtain currency in the public mind, 
and talent will only need to be displayed to be fully appreciated ; 
that narrow sectarian jealousy, which would rather lower others 
to its own standard, than elevate itself to theirs, would produce 
no effect, for there would not exist the ignorance and prejudice 
to which it could appeal. I maintain, therefore, that it is for the 
interest of the architects par excellence to throw open their doors 
as wide as possible. Besides, there is at the present day a great 
degree of suspicion attached to every thing exclusive. It is a 
common adage, that, where there is mystery and exclusion there 
must be something wrong; and it is natural to question if a so- 
cietv, which can only exist by means of arbitrary distinctions, is 
worthy of public support at all. Whether it is for the interests 
of the Institute that it. should be exposed to these imputations, 
I presume not to determine. 

The history of architecture offers a remarkable exception to 
that of the other arts and sciences. Their advance has been, 
with occasional vicissitudes, gradual and progressive ; but archi- 
tecture, in this respect, affords a singular anomaly. From the 
twelfth to the fifteenth century, this art was elevated as much 
above the level of the other sciences of the day, as it has since 
been depressed below them. This is a fact which cannot be 
denied, for splendid testimonies to its truth surround us on every 
side. Tell me not that the cause of this difference was merely 
the superior encouragement given at that period to the art. If 
encouragement means lavish expenditure, Buckingham Palace 
might have far outshone the Parthenon in beauty, and Trafal- 
gar Square have surpassed the Acropolis of Athens in splendour. 
No: it was the combination, the union of energy, the oneness of 
feeling, diffused through all connected, however humbly, with 
the art, which produced such splendid results. The architect 
and the artisan were then merely links at opposite extremities of 
a mighty chain, by which all interested in the science were bound 
together, and through every part of which successive improve- 
ments extended with the rapidity of an electric current. I am 
not visionary enough to suppose that institutions suited to another 



Poetry of Architecture. 7 

state of society could be transplanted, without modification, to 
the present day ; but I am convinced that, before such a result 
can be produced as will tell with effect on the architectural 
science of the country, there must be a much closer approxima- 
tion to them than is exhibited in the Institute of British Archi- 
tects. 

I write these remarks with no unfriendly feelings towards the 
Institute. I have read, with much pleasure, their published 
Transactions, and the writings of different members of the 
body * ; and I am free to admit that it may be considered, to some 
extent, as comprising the elite of the profession. Personally, I 
have nothing to hope or fear from either admission to, or exclu- 
sion from, the Society : I have never applied for admission, and, 
in all probability, never shall. I will not, however, yield in at- 
tachment to the art to any; and it is purely with this motive that 
I have now taken up my pen to animadvert on what appears to 
me a false principle. The Society has been so accustomed to 
the language of flattery, that it may, perhaps, appear that " I am 
become their enemy, because I tell them the truth ; " neverthe- 
less, I will venture to close with a plain and candid opinion, that, 
whilst the present exclusive system is continued, their soiiccs 
may be crowded with the fashionable, the wealthy, and the gay ; 
they may bask in the smiles of princes, and breathe the intoxi- 
cating atmosphere of courts ; but, as a society, mediocrity will be 
their goal, and, in respect to the profession, they will never be 
anything more than " a miserable monopolising minority." 

'November 16. 1837. 



Art. II. The Poetry of Architecture. By Rata Phusin. 
No. 2. The Cottage — continued. 
II. The Lou'land Cottage. — Italy. 
" Most musical, most melancholy." 
Let it not be thought that we are unnecessarily detaining our 
readers from the proposed subject, if we premise a few remarks 
on the character of the landscape of the country we have now 
entered. It will always be necessary to obtain some definite 
knowledge of the distinctive features of a country, before we can 
form a just estimate of the beauties or the errors of its archi- 
tecture. We wish our readers to imbue themselves as far as 
may be with the spirit of the clime which we are now entering; 

* I cannot help here mentioning the name of Mr. G. Godwin, Jun., as 
having clone much to rescue the literary character of the profession from ob- 
loquy, and expressing a hope that he will go forward in the path he has 
chosen. Had the Institute never done anything else than develope the 
talents of this young gentleman, it would not have existed in vain. 

t; 4 



8 Poetry of Architecture. 

to cast away all general ideas ; to look only for unison of feeling, 
and to pronounce every thing wrong which is contrary to the 
humours of nature. We must make them feel where they are; 
we must throw a peculiar light and colour over their imagina- 
tions ; then we will bring their judgment into play, for then it 
will be capable of just operation. 

We have passed, it must be observed (in leaving England and 
France for Italy), from comfort to desolation ; from excitement, 
to sadness : we have left one country prosperous in its prime, 
and another frivolous in its age, for one glorious in its death. 

Now, we have prefixed the hackneyed line of II Penseroso to 
our paper, because it is a definition of the essence of the beauti- 
ful. What is most musical, will always be found most melan- 
choly ; and no real beauty can be obtained without a touch 
of sadness. Whenever the beautiful loses its melancholy, it de- 
generates into prettiness. We appeal to the memories of all our 
observing readers, whether they have treasured up any scene, 
pretending to be more than pretty, which has not about, it either 
a tinge of melancholy or a sense of danger : the one constitutes 
the beautiful, the other the sublime. 

This postulate being granted, as we are sure it will by most 
(and we beg to assure those who are refractory or argumentative, 
that, were this a treatise on the sublime and beautiful, we could 
convince and quell their incredulity to their entire satisfaction 
by innumerable instances), we proceed to remark here, once for 
all, that the principal glory of the Italian landscape is its ex- 
treme melancholy. It is fitting that it should be so : the dead 
are the nations of Italy ; her name and her strength are dwell- 
ing with the pale nations underneath the earth ; the chief and 
chosen boast of her utmost pride is the hie jacet ; she is but 
one wide sepulchre, and all her present life is like a shadow or 
a memory. And, therefore, or, rather, by a most beautiful 
coincidence, her national tree is the cypress; and whoever has 
marked the peculiar character which these noble shadowy spires 
can give to her landscape, lifting their majestic troops of waving 
darkness from beside the fallen column, or out of the midst of 
the silence of the shadowed temple and worshipless shrine, seen 
far and wide over the blue of the faint plain, without loving the 
dark trees for their sympathy with the sadness of Italy's sweet 
cemetery shore, is one who profanes her soil with his footsteps. 
Every part of the landscape is in unison; the same glory of 
mourning is thrown over the whole ; the deep blue of the heavens 
is mingled with that of the everlasting hills, or melted away into 
the silence of the sapphire sea; the pale cities, temple and tower, 
lie gleaming along the champaign ; but how calmly ! no hum of 
men ; no motion of multitude in the midst of them : they are 
voiceless as the city of ashes. The transparent air is gentle 
among the blossoms of the orange and the dim leaves of the 



Lowland Cottage of Italy. 9 

olive ; and the small fountains, which, in any other land, would 
spring merrily along, sparkling and singing among tinkling 
pebbles, here flow calmly and silently into some pale font of 
marble, all beautiful with life, worked by some unknown hand, 
long ago nerveless, and fall and pass on among wan flowers, and 
scented copse, through cool leaf-lighted caves or grey Egerian 
grottos, to join the Tiber or Eridanus, "to swell the waves of 
Nemi, or the LarianLake. The most minute objects (leaf, flower, 
and stone), while they add to the beauty, seem to share in the 
sadness, of the whole. 

But, if one principal character of Italian landscape is melan- 
choly, another is elevation. We have no simple rusticity of 
scene, no cowslip and buttercup humility of seclusion. Tall 
mulberry trees, with festoons of the luxuriant vine, purple with 
ponderous clusters, trailed and trellised between and over them, 
shade the wide fields of stately Indian corn ; luxuriance of lofty 
vegetation (catalpa, and aloe, and olive), ranging itself in lines of 
massy light along the wan champaign, guides the eye away to the 
unfailing wall of mountain, Alp or Apennine ; no cold long range 
of shivery grey, but dazzling light of snow, or undulating breadth 
of blue, fainter and darker in infinite variety ; peak, precipice, 
and promontory passing away into the wooded hills, each with 
its tower or white village sloping into the plain ; castellated bat- 
tlements cresting their undulations; some wide majestic river 
gliding along the champaign, the bridge on its breast and the 
city on its shore ; the whole canopied with cloudless azure, 
basking in mistless sunshine, breathing the silence of odoriferous 
air. Now comes the question. In a country of this pomp of 
natural glory, tempered with melancholy memory of departed 
pride, what are we to wish for, what are we naturally to expect, 
in the character of her most humble edifices; those which are 
most connected with present life, least with the past? What are 
we to consider fitting or beautiful in her cottage ? 

We do not expect it to be comfortable, when every thing 
around it betokens decay and desolation in the works of man. 
We do not wish it to be neat, where nature is most beautiful, 
because neglected. But we naturally look for an elevation of 
character, a richness of design or form, which, while the build- 
ing is kept a cottage, may yet give it a peculiar air of cottage 
aristocracy ; a beauty (no matter how dilapidated) which may 
appear to have been once fitted for the surrounding splendour of 
scene and climate. Now, let us fancy an Italian cottage before 
us. The reader who has travelled in Italy will find little diffi- 
culty in recalling one to his memory, with its broad lines of light 
and shadow, and its strange, but not unpleasing mixture of 
grandeur and desolation. Let us examine its details, enume- 
rate its architectural peculiarities, and see how far it agrees with 
our preconceived idea of what the cottage ought to be ? 



10 Poetry of Architecture. 

The first remarkable point of the building is the roof. It 
generally consists of tiles of very deep curvature, which rib it 
into distinct vertical lines, giving it a far more agreeable surface 
than that of our flatter tiling. The form of the roof, however, is 
always excessively flat, so as never to let it intrude upon the eye; 
and the consequence is, that, while an English village, seen at a 
distance, appears all red roof, the Italian is all white wall; and, 
therefore, though always bright, is never gaudy. We have in 
these roots an excellent example of what should always be kept 
in mind, that every thing will be found beautiful, which climate 
or situation render useful. The strong and constant heat of the 
Italian sun would be intolerable if admitted at the windows; 
and, therefore, the edges of the roof project far over the walls, 
and' throw long shadows downwards, so as to keep the upper 
windows constantly cool. These long oblique shadows on the 
white surface are always delightful, and are alone sufficient to 
give the building character. They are peculiar to the buildings of 
Spain and Italy ; for, owing to the general darker colour of those of 
more northerly climates, the shadows of their roofs, however far 
thrown, do not tell distinctly, and render them, not varied, but 
gloomy. Another ornamental use of these shadows is, that they 
break the line of junction of the wall with the roof: a point always 
desirable, and in every kind of building, whether we have to do 
with lead, slate, tile, or thatch, one of extreme difficulty. This 
object is farther forwarded in the Italian cottage, by putting two 
or three windows up under the very eaves themselves, which is 
also done for coolness, so that their tops are formed by the roof; 
and the wall has the appearance of having been terminated by 
large battlements, and roofed over. And, finally, the eaves are 
seldom kept long on the same level : double or treble rows of 
tiling are introduced ; long sticks and irregular woodwork are 
occasionally attached to them, to assist the festoons of the vine; 
and the graceful irregularity and marked character of the whole; 
must be dwelt on with equal delight by the eye of the poet, 
the artist, or the unprejudiced architect. All, however, is 
exceedingly humble; we have not yet met with the elevation of 
character we expected. We shall find it, however, as we 
proceed. 

The next point of interest is the window. The modern Italian 
is completely owl-like in his habits. All the day-time, he lies 
idle anil inert; but during the night he is all activity: but it is 
mere activity of inoccupation. Idleness, partly induced by the 
temperature of the climate, and partly consequent on the decay- 
ing prosperity of the nation, leaves indications of its influence on 
all his undertakings. He prefers patching up a ruin to building 
a house; he raises shops and hovels, the abodes of inactive, 
vegetating, brutish poverty, under the protection of the aged and 



Lowland Cottage of Italy. 1 1 

ruined, yet stalwart, arches of the Roman amphitheatre ; and the 
habitations of the lower orders frequently present traces of orna- 
ment and stability of material evidently belonging to the remains 
of a prouder edifice. This is the case sometimes to such a 
degree as, in another country, would be disagreeable from its 
impropriety ; but, in Italy, it corresponds with the general pro- 
minence of the features of a past age, and is always beautiful. 
Thus, the eye rests with delight on the broken mouldings of the 
windows, and the sculptured capitals of the corner columns, 
contrasted, as they are, the one with the glassless blackness 
within, the other with the ragged and dirty confusion of drapery 
around. The Italian window, in general, is a mere hole in the 
thick wall, always well proportioned ; occasionally arched at the 
top, sometimes with the addition of a little rich ornament ; sel- 
dom, if ever, having any casement or glass, but filled up with 
any bit of striped or coloured cloth, which may have the slightest 
chance of deceiving the distant observer into the belief that it is 
a legitimate blind. This keeps off the sun, and allows a free 
circulation of air, which is the great object. When it is absent, 
the window becomes a mere black hole, having much the same 
relation to a olazed window that the hollow of a skull has to a 
bright eye ; not unexpressive, but frowning and ghastl}', and 
giving a disagreeable impression of utter emptiness and deso- 
lation within. Yet there is character in them : the black dots 
tell a^reeablv on the walls at a distance, and have no disaoree- 
able sparkle to disturb the repose of surrounding scenery. Be- 
sides, the temperature renders every thing agreeable to the eye, 
which gives it an idea of ventilation. A few roughly constructed 
balconies, projecting from detached windows, usually break the 
uniformity of the wall. In some Italian cottages there are wooden 
galleries, resembling those so frequently seen in Switzerland ; 
but this is not a very general character, except in the mountain 
valleys of North Italy, although sometimes a passage is effected 
from one projecting portion of a house to another by means of 
an exterior gallery. These are very delightful objects ; and, 
when shaded by luxuriant vines, which is frequently the case, 
impart a gracefulness to the building otherwise unattainable. 

The next striking point is the arcade at the base of the build- 
ing. This is general in cities ; and, though frequently wanting 
to the cottage, is present often enough to render it an important 
feature. In fact, the Italian cottage is usually found in groups. 
Isolated buildings are rare; and the arcade affords an agreeable, 
if not necessary, shade in passing from one building to another. 
It is a still more unfailing feature of the Swiss city, where it is 
useful in deep snow. But the supports of the arches in Switzer- 
land are generally square masses of wall, varying in size, sepa- 
rating the arches by irregular intervals, and sustained by broad 



12 Poetry of Architecture. 

and massy buttresses ; while, in Italy, the arches generally rest 
on legitimate columns, varying in height from one and a half to 
four diameters, with huge capitals, not unfrcquently rich in 
detail. These give great gracefulness to the buildings in groups : 
they will be spoken of more at large when we are treating of 
arrangement and situation. 

The square tower, rising over the roof of the farther cottage, 
will not escape observation. It has been allowed to remain, not 
because such elevated buildings ever belong to mere cottages, 
but, first, that the truth of the scene might not be destroyed ; 
and, secondly, because it is impossible, or nearly so, to obtain a 
group of buildings of any sort, in Italy, without one or more 
such objects rising behind them, beautifully contributing to de- 
stroy the monotony, and contrast with the horizontal lines of the 
flat roofs and square walls. We think it right, therefore, to give 
the cottage the relief and contrast which, in reality, it possessed, 
even though we are at present speaking of it in the abstract. 

Having now reviewed the distinctive parts of the Italian cot- 
tage in detail, we shall proceed to direct our attention to points 
of general character. 1. Simplicity of form. The roof, being 
flat, allows of no projecting garret windows, no fantastic gable 
ends : the walls themselves are equally flat ; no bow-windows or 
sculptured oriels, such as we meet with perpetually in Germany, 
France, or the Netherlands, vary their white fronts. Now, this 
simplicity is, perhaps, the principal attribute by which the Italian 
cottage attains the elevation of character we desired and ex- 
pected. All that is fantastic in form, or frivolous in detail, 
annihilates the aristocratic air of a building: it at once destroys 
its sublimity and size, besides awakening, as is almost always the 
case, associations of a mean and low character. The moment 
we see a gable roof, we think of cocklofts ; the instant we observe 
a projecting window, of attics and tent-bedsteads. Now, the 
Italian cottage assumes, with the simplicity, fair noble of build- 
ings of a higher order; and, though it avoids all ridiculous 
miniature mimicry of the palace, it discards the humbler attri- 
butes of the cottage. The ornament it assumes is dignified : no 
grinning faces, or unmeaning notched planks, but well-propor- 
tioned arches, or tastefully sculptured columns. While there is 
nothing about it unsuited to the humility of its inhabitant, there 
is a general dignity in its air, which harmonises beautifully with 
the nobility of the neighbouring edifices, or the glory of the 
surrounding scenery. 

2. Brightness of effect. There are no weather stains on the 
walls; there is no dampness in air or earth, by which they could 
be induced ; the heat of the sun scorches away all lichens, and 
mosses, and mouldy vegetation. No thatch or stone crop on 
the roof unites the building with surrounding vegetation ; all is 



Lowland Collage of Italy. l c j 

clear, and warm, and sharp on the eye; the more distant the 
building, the more generally bright it becomes, till the distant 
village sparkles out of the orange copse, or the cypress grove, 
with so much distinctness as might be thought in some degree 
objectionable. But it must be remembered that the prevailing 
colour of Italian landscape is blue; sky, hills, water, are equally 
azure : the olive, which forms a great proportion of the vege- 
tation, is not green, but grey ; the cypress, and its varieties, dark 
and neutral, and the laurel and myrtle far from bright. Now, 
white, which is intolerable with green, is agreeable contrasted 
with blue; and to this cause it must be ascribed that the white 
of the Italian building is not found startling or disagreeable in 
the landscape. That it is not, we believe, will be generally 
allowed. 

3. Elegance of feeling. We never can prevent ourselves 
from imagining that we perceive, in the graceful negligence of 
the Italian cottage, the evidence of a taste among the lower 
orders refined by the glory of their land, and the beauty of its 
remains. We have always had strong faith in the influence of 
climate on the mind, and feel strongly tempted to discuss the 
subject at length ; but our paper has already exceeded its pro- 
posed limits, and we must content ourselves with remarking 
what will not, we think, be disputed, that the eye, by constantly 
resting either on natural scenery of noble tone and character, or 
on the architectural remains of classical beaut} 7 , must contract a 
habit of feeling correctly and tastefully ; the influence of which, 
we think, is seen in the style of edifices the most modern and 
the most humble. 

Lastly, Dilapidation. We have just used the term "graceful 
negligence : " whether it be graceful, or not, is a matter of taste; 
but the uncomfortable and ruinous disorder and dilapidation of 
the Italian cottage is one of observation. The splendour of the 
climate requires nothing more than shade from the sun, and oc- 
casionally shelter from a violent storm : the outer arcade affords 
them both : it becomes the nightly lounge and daily dormitory of 
its inhabitant, and the interior is abandoned to filth and decay. 
Indolence watches the tooth of Time with careless eye and nerve- 
less hand. Religion, or its abuse, reduces every individual of 
the population to utter inactivity three days out of the seven ; 
and the habits formed in the three regulate the four. Abject 
poverty takes away the power, while brutish sloth weakens the 
will ; and the filthy habits of the Italian prevent him from suf- 
fering from the state to which he is reduced. The shattered 
roofs, the dark, confused, ragged windows, the obscure chambers, 
the tattered and dirty draperies, altogether present a picture 
which, seen too near, is sometimes revolting to the eye, always 
melancholy to the mind. Yet even this many would not wish to 



14 Candidas' s Note- Bool: 

be otherwise. The prosperity of nations, as of individuals, is 
cold, and hard-hearted, and forgetful. The dead die, indeed, 
trampled down by the crowd of the living; the place thereof 
shall know them no more, for that place is not in the hearts of 
the survivors for whose interest they have made way. But ad- 
versity and ruin point to the sepulchre, and it is not trodden 
on ; to the chronicle, and it doth not decay. Who would sub- 
stitute the rush of a new nation, the struggle of an awakening 
power, for the dreamy sleep of Italy's desolation, for her sweet 
silence of melancholy thought, her twilight time of everlasting 
memories ? 

Such, we think, are the principal distinctive attributes of the 
Italian cottage. Let it not be thought that we are wasting time 
in the contemplation of its beauties; even though they are of a 
kind which the architect can never imitate, because he has no 
command over time, and no choice of situation ; and which he 
ought not to imitate, if he could, because they are only locally 
desirable, or admirable. Our object, let it always be remem- 
bered, is not the attainment of architectural data, but the 
formation of taste. — Oct. 12. 1837. 



Akt. III. Candidas' s Note-Book. 
Fasciculus X. 

" Sicut metis est mos, 
Nescio quid meditans nugarum ; et totus in illis." 

I. There are two sets of persons whom an architect has to 
endeavour to please, but whose demands are so opposite, that he 
generally ends by satisfying neither; for the one expect him to 
be able to show precedent for every thing in his designs ; while 
the others cry out loudly for originality. Nay, this is not the 
worst ; since there are people who insist upon his giving them 
something perfectly original — quite out of the common way, and 
then are dissatisfied because every thing is not quite common- 
place. The cry then is, " Where did one ever see this done 
before? what authority have you for doing that? where could 
the man pick up that idea? what could induce him to introduce 
this?" Good souls! they do not want such new-fangled things, 
not they : the originality they admire is not of the "spick and 
span" new kind, but of the sober "ready cut and dry" sort, 
all ready made in Stuart's Athens. Well, among the qualifi- 
cations of an architect, Vitruvius, who insists upon so many, 
has certainly left out of the list the most important and indis- 
pensable one of all, the patience of a Job. 

II. "T do not approve of tampering with columns," said a 
friend to me not long ago. " Can we ever have anything better 



Candidus's Note-Book. 15 

than the ancient examples ? " Scusate • — In the first place, you 
prejudge, by employing a term intended to insinuate that the 
result must of necessity be an unhappy one; in the next, you 
would limit art itself to what it has accomplished, denying the 
possibility of its making any fresh achievements. As you say, 
we might go on merely repeating what has been done before, 
and done so excellently, that we ought to despair of doing 
better, or even so well. Nor do I know that I can give a more 
suitable reply wherefore we should not be so content, than by 
starting another question : Wherefore should we not proceed a 
step further in content, and be content to dismiss our solicitude 
about such matters altogether; and enter into compromise to 
forego all enjoyment, in order, at the same time, to escape all 
trouble, annoyance, chagrin, in one expressive word, all the 
botheration, they occasion us? After all, art is not the world's 
daily bread ; it can shift without it : at all events, people fre- 
quently put up with, and pass as current, the mere Brummagem 
counterfeit of it. 

III. Every body has a fling at the National Gallery, against 
which he conceives he may jerk a morsel of criticism with per- 
fect impunity, it having been made a sort of outlaw and Pariah, 
whom no one is called upon to defend. Fortunately, some 
of the missiles directed against it are not very sharp, neither 
pointed nor acute; little better, in truth, than so much mud, 
serving well enough to bespatter, but inflicting no very serious 
wound. One accusation against the building is, that it is too 
low ; that its height is not at all in proportion to its length ; 
that is, it is of long, and not of lofty, proportions. Yet, surely, 
this cannot very reasonably be constr.ued as an imperfection, or 
as contradictory to the external character suitable for such an. 
edifice, wherein we very naturally look for magnitude of length, 
not that of height. But people have got it into their heads that 
loftiness is a most excellent quality, and accordingly make it a 
sine qua non ; quite forgetting that, like most other qualities, its 
excellence is not positive, but relative, and that it ceases to be 
meritorious if misplaced and misapplied. In proof of this, what 
is heaviness, but misapplied solidity ? or what is flimsiness, save 
misapplied lightness and delicacy ? poverty, than misapplied 
simplicity? tawdriness, than misapplied and exaggerated embel- 
lishment? It is the same, in regard to such qualities, as it is to 
colours: the most beautiful, or such as are generally acknow- 
ledged to be such, become absolutely frightful, almost horrifying, 
when misplaced. Do you question this ? Go, then, and fall in 
love with a pea-green complexion, azure cheeks, snowy hair, jet- 
black lips and teeth, and rosy eyes of " love's own proper hue." 
Why do you start back as from a monster, when, according to 
your own principles of criticism, or else criticism without prin- 



16 Candidas 's Nule-Book. 

ciples, tlie snowiness, and the azureness, and the rosiness, being 
all very captivating qualities in themselves, yon ought to be 
enraptured with them ? 

IV. What chiefly, I suppose, recommends Elizabethan orna- 
ment is, that patterns for it may be made very expeditiously, 
and quite at hap-hazard, without study, or even thought. In 
fact, nothing more is requisite than to fold up a sheet of paper, 
and then, with a pair of scissors, cut as many or few twistings, 
notchings, and zig-zags as you please. Of this process, some 
whimsical pattern is sure to be the result; perhaps as good as 
the very best, certainly not at all uglier than the generality of 
Elizabethan monstrosities. Probation est. 

V. Little as I admire the front of the new Marine Assurance 
Office, Cornhill, I feel grateful to the architect for having 
clapped a specimen of Italian Ionic cheek-by-jowl close to a 
Grecian one ; and, as his columns differ very little as to size from 
those of the Norwich Union, lie has thus furnished us with a 
most striking contrast; one which shows, beyond what words can 
express, the utter dissimilarity between the two styles. It really 
required some courage in him to take up his station by the side 
of such a malicious tell-tale next door neighbour. What mise- 
rably stunted, misshapen, and grotesque things are the Italian 
capitals in comparison with the Greek ones ! They are Ionic 
after the fashion of lucus a von htcendo ; for of their origin they 
betray no more than what serves to convict them of utter 
degeneracy. 

VI. Either his printer must have lost several pages of copy, or 
Mr. T. lloscoe must be the prince of practical hoaxers ; for, after 
promising us, at the head of his fifth chapter, in the new volume 
of the Landscape Annual, something about the " Public Edifices 
of Saragossa," he fudges us ofT with the following bit of " ready 
cut and dried : " — "The artist and amateur might spend days 
and weeks no less profitably, than with delight, in exploring the 
treasures of the religious edifices, the colleges, and old convents 
of Saragossa." It is certainly not credible, yet it is a stubborn 
fact, that the above is the sum total of Mr. Koscoe's information. 
Consequently, we must suppose he has no amateurship for such 
things, or, at all events, that he did not spend his time so profit- 
ably as he assures us others may do in examining the buildings 
of that city. It were almost charitable to imagine that the 
writer is one of those travellers who require no locomotive 
power whatever. One of the plates, however, gives a view of 
the Torre Nueva, or Leaning Tower, at Saragossa ; which is 
not only a wonder of its kind, but absolutely miraculous; since it 
inclines so much, that the centre of gravity falls greatly bevond 
the base. With singular naivete, Mr. Koscoe tells us " it has 
evidently lost its perpendicular altitude." Ay, evidently enough ! 



Candidus's Note- Book. 17 

it being about midway between a perpendicular and horizontal 
position ; and I conceive the artist must have been " evidently 
out of his perpendicular altitude " when he sketched it, conse- 
quently not in a condition to be over and above exact and 
scrupulous. Ponz merely says that it is algo ladeada (somewhat 
on one side or awry) ; but here it is made so much awry, that 
one cannot look at it without making a wry face. 

VII. Here are two bitter pills for Mr. Gwilt : the first is, 
that Schinkelism has actually crossed the Atlantic ; for the facade 
of the Berlin Museum has been followed in the design for the 
new Exchange at New York. The next is, that, regardless of 
his anathema on that piece of architecture, a correspondent of 
the Athenceum, who writes from Berlin, has just spoken of it in 
the following terms : — "In the classic taste, it is, perhaps, the 
most remarkable building in the century ; and, beyond all but a 
doubt, the most beautiful. Nothing so perfectly elegant can be 
more perfectly simple. There is a sweetness of effect, if I may 
so express myself, in this beautiful colonnade, which at first sight 
passes for positive enchantment, and charms on repeated view, 
like a lovely face within which is seated an intelligent soul. To 
be simple, yet striking; unfantastic, yet original; seems the 
arcanum magnum which modern architects have so seldom dis- 
covered ; and, truly, not often lost their precious time in search 
of." What will Mr. Gwilt say ? why, that the writer is unac- 
quainted with the first principles of architecture ; for, speaking 
of this edifice and of the Foreign Quarterly reviewer's descrip- 
tion of it, he tells us, " It is easy to conceive how a person 
unacquainted with the first principles of architecture, which the 
reviewer evidently is, may have his eye dazzled and carried 
away" (odd expression that !) "by a colonnade of so great an 
extent: but the eye of the educated architect is not satisfied with 
a meagre display of this sort. The want of variety, and of light 
and shade consequent, renders the mass uninteresting : it has no 
feature ; all is sameness." Meagre display, indeed ! I wish Mr. 
Gwilt would enlighten the world by publishing some design of his 
own, exemplifying his ideas of richness. However, as he has not 
taken any notice in his Appendix of the contradiction with which 
the Foreign Quarterly reviewer twitted him, in first accusing the 
building with being meagre, and deficient in variety and light and 
shade, and then immediately adding that it is more like the com- 
position of a scene painter than an architect ; that is, essentially 
scenic. I suppose he found that he had muddled the matter com- 
pletely, and let the world see that his own judgment was gone 
away to bear the reviewer's eye company. To return to the writer 
in the AtheiKVtim, I ought to observe that, in what he afterwards 
says, he greatly qualifies, almost indeed neutralises, his previous 

Vol. V. — No* 47- c 



1 8 Design for a Suburban Residence 

commendation ; inasmuch as, according to him, the entablature 
is so extremely light, that the columns appear almost " to sup- 
port nothing." Undoubtedly, the cornice would have been all 
the better had there been additional mouldings beneath those 
immediately under the corona, more especially as the frieze is 
plain ; yet both that member and the whole entablature have the 
same proportions assigned to them, as in the usual Grecian ex- 
amples. It is further objected, that the square mass which 
screens the upper part of the dome seems a double crime against 
harmony and economy. This I cannot help considering no better 
than hypercriticism. Most certainly, such form does not accord 
with the internal dome ; but, then, it is not seen within the build- 
ing; and it certainly does harmonise better with the exterior 
where it is visible, than a flattish dome would have done. 
Neither that much can be alleged against it on the score of 
economy, since to have rendered the dome itself at all an effective 
feature externally, would have been attended with as great, if not 
even greater, expense. Besides, if we once begin to countenance 
objections of that; kind, we shall suffer ourselves to be led on 
until we give up our own St. Paul's to reprobation ; because 
there, in utter defiance of such principles of economy, Wren 
has not only built an external dome, enclosing the inner one, but 
has placed an entire upper order along the sides of his building, 
merely to give those elevations sufficient height, and to screen 
the roof and buttresses over the side ailes. Consequently, if 
Schinkel is to be censured, our own Sir Christopher must appear 
a very far greater offender. 



Art. IV. Design for a Suburban Residence to be creeled at Stutt- 
gart, by Direction of His Majesty the King of W'uricmbcrg. By 
E. B. Lamb, Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. 

About the end of the year 1836, I received instructions from 
His Excellency the Count Mandelsloh to prepare a design for 
a suburban residence, to be erected in the neighbourhood of 
Stuttgart, by direction of His Majesty the King of Wu r tern berg. 

The main characteristic of the building was to be English, or, 
rather, Anglo-Italian; of simple design, and to comprise the 
English modes of fitting up, with open fireplaces and other re- 
quisites, so as to give a certain English appearance to the whole 
design : the object being, in this building, to adapt the best 
known English comforts to the climate of Germany. These 
requisites were dictated by His Excellency, and have since been 
approved by His Majesty. 

It will be readily seen that there were many difficulties to sur- 



to be erected at Stuttgart. 



19 




mount, and many that were, to a certain degree, insurmountable. 
For instance, although the cheerful aspect of an open fireplace was 
a desideratum, if, in our country, it has been found insufficient to 
warm a tolerably sized room, in a climate so cold in winter as 
that of Stuttgart the difficulty must be still greater. This 
rendered it absolutely necessary to provide for heating-stoves, 
or the hot-water apparatus of this country ; and the latter 
method I pieferred, as being less prejudicial to health. 

The design comprises, on the basement floor, a kitchen, two 
pantries, larders, scullery, servants' hall, cellars, housekeeper's 
room, two bedrooms, servants' washing-room and room for 
cleaning knives and shoes, wine and beer cellars, fuel cellars, 
and back entrance. 

On the ground floor in Jig. 1. a is a porch; 6, a hall; c, 
dining-room; d, library; e, breakfast-room;^ principal stair- 
case ; g, back stairs ; h, butler's room ; % lobby ; k, water- 
closet ; /, balcony ; m m, steps to the garden ; ??, back entrance 
to the basement. 



20 



Design for a Suburban Residence 




On the one-pair floor,^. 2., a, anteroom; b b, drawingrooms ; 
c, bedroom; d, principal staircase; e, back stairs and stairs to 
the principal chamber floor ; f, butler's bedroom ; g, water-closet ; 
h h h h, balconies. 

On the two-pair plan, a sitting-room, bedroom, and dressing- 
room, en suite ,• the dressing-room supplied with a bath, with hot 
and cold water laid on ; five other bedrooms, closets, &c. 

In the upper story, a tank will be fixed for supplying all the 
bedrooms with water, by means of pipes; and a furnace and 
boiler will also be fixed in this situation, to which the water 
will be supplied from the tank by a pipe and ball-cock ; pipes 
from the boiler will also be laid on, to convey the hot water to 
the bedrooms and baths ; and waste pipes will be fixed to the 
drains. A small furnace will be sufficient for this purpose, 
which would consume but little fuel ; and it might be made to 
answer the double purpose of heating a room, as well as heating 
water: the only requisite would be, to have the means of shutting 
off the communication of heat to the room at pleasure. 

The whole of the kitchen floor will be sunk about 4 ft. below 
the surface of the ground; and areas will be provided, 18 in. 
below the floor of the kitchen, of sufficient width to give ample 
light into the various rooms ; and, for the better resistance of the 
pressure of the ground on the outside, they will be built in 
curved forms. In the situations where the areas will be inter- 
cepted, air-drains are to be constructed from the bottom of the 



to be erected at Stuttgart. 2 1 

foundation to the surface of the ground, so as effectually to keep 
the basement dry. These drains will be at least 12 in. wide> and 
only intercepted by such bond stones as may be necessary for the 
security of the work : they will be covered on the top with stone, 
and, at certain intervals, with iron gratings. As it will be impos- 
sible to exclude wet entirely from the air-drains, a small drain 
will be provided to carry off the water, which may here accumu- 
late, to the main drains. With respect to the other drains, they 
are to be constructed in such situations as to allow convenient 
access to them in case of stoppage or want of repair ; and only 
such drains as are absolutely necessary will run through the 
house. The kitchen, servants' hall, housekeeper's room, and the 
two bedrooms, will be boarded, and the joists raised on piers, so as 
to leave clear room for ventilation beneath ; and ventilation gratings 
will be provided, of sufficient number and dimensions to effectually 
resist that great enemy to buildings called the dry rot. The other 
parts of the basement will be paved with stone upon brick withs, 
or piers ; the same care being taken to preserve a free circulation 
of air, as the only means of preventing damp, so easily imbibed 
by stone. I need scarcely say that all the walls, except those of the 
cellars, will be plastered and coloured ; the housekeeper's room 
will be papered ; the kitchen will be fitted up with dressers, hot 
closets, oven, boiler, steam apparatus, stoves, and all other culi- 
nary utensils of the most approved invention. Hot water will be 
supplied by means of pipes from the boiler to convenient situa- 
tions in the kitchen, and where otherwise necessary. The larders 
and pantries will have some stone, and some wooden shelves, 
and rails with shifting hooks. The furnace for the heating appa- 
ratus will be fixed in the basement. 

The porch on the ground floor is to be of stone; and the 
mouldings of the capital of the antae will be continued round the 
inside, so as to form a support, if I may so call it, for the archi- 
trave and ceiling to rest upon. The ceiling will be divided into 
five compartments, and a moulding will go round each panel ; 
the plinth and base moulding will also run round the porch, for 
the purpose of giving connexion to the design. At each end of 
the porch, niches will be formed, where figures or candelabra may 
be placed. The paving within the porch will be of two colours, 
in octagon and square patterns. The entrance doors will be of oak, 
and hung folding ; the upper panels will be glazed with plate glass. 

The hall will possess some variety, though still consistent with 
its utility; and, from the porch, a sort of vestibule will be formed, by 
carrying up dwarf partitions between the wall and the pillars, to the 
height of the doors. By this arrangement, a situation is provided 
for the porter's chair ; and the inner part of the hall is kept clear 
for communication with the principal entrances to the dining-room 
and librarv ; the farther end of the hall is also screened in the 

c 3 



22 



Design for a Suburban Residence 




same manner (see the lightly tinted parts of the plan^.l.). The 
dining-room door, as well as the entrance to the kitchen, &c, are 
thus effectually screened, so that servants can supply the dining- 
room without being seen, or being in the way of company entering 
the house. These screens will also add considerably to the picto- 
rial effect of the hall. The floor will be paved with two patterns 
of stone, and the ceiling will be paneled and moulded. 

Although the principal part of the decorative painting, sculp- 
ture, and glazing in this design will be matter for after-considera- 
tions, I will here mention some things which would be suitable to 
a house of this kind. The paving of the hall being in two colours, 
the panels of the ceiling should also show some of the same tints. 
The walls should be of one colour, except such basso-relievos as 
might be required to decorate it : these should be of a marble 
tinge, somewhat lighter than the walls ; while the beams of the 
ceiling, being of considerable extent, should be in imitation of 
wood. 

The plinth and moulding of the antoe should be continued all 
round the hall, being only intercepted by the doors ; the archi- 
trave and mouldings of the cap should also be continued round. 
Over, and on each side of the doors, might be placed some 
appropriate sculpture. Some rather massive seats, characteristic 
of the style, would help to give effect to this apartment. On 
entering the dining-room, the appearance will be somewhat pic- 
turesque, although the form does not deviate from a regular 



to be erected at Stuttgart. 23 

figure. The recess opposite the centre door, with columns and 
some warm-coloured glass in the windows, and the recess at the 
end, with a single bordered window, will give a sufficient diversity 
of light to prevent the possibility of the room looking gloomy ; 
at the same time, some depth of shadow at the other end of the 
room will be reserved, so as to render effective any articles of 
furniture sufficiently elegant or costly to demand a prominent 
notice. The columns and pilasters may be of sienna marble; 
and the walls may be painted to harmonise with them. Round 
the room, between the pilasters, and within a few inches of the 
architrave, might be some basso-relievos ; which, if of a light 
cream or buff colour, would contrast admirably with the walls. 
The whole room will be finished in strict accordance with the 
design, which is intended to convey an architectural character 
throughout, avoiding all frivolous parts, which might create 
confusion, or uncertainty as to their application. Thus, the pi- 
lasters will be connected to the walls by continuous mouldings at 
the cap and the base ; the ceiling divided into compartments with 
beams, of course ornamental, and of sufficient apparent strength 
to carry its weight ; and the paneling of the ceiling painted in 
such a manner as that there can be no doubt that the material it 
is intended to represent would be sufficiently strong for the pur- 
pose. In ceilings of this kind, much might be done in imitation 
of various woods, that would produce an exceedingly rich effect ; 
particularly when interspersed with gold mouldings on dark 
grounds, or bronze on light. Flowers, judiciously placed, might 
also add greatly to the variety, as well as beauty and richness, of 
the ceiling. Even heraldic devices might, with their many- 
coloured bearings, be used with good effect ; but, if these latter 
subjects are employed, the forms should be regular, not like 
shields, or other things characteristic of the Gothic style. Pro- 
perly introduced, they would become interesting, by giving a 
diversity of colour ; and many agreeable associations would be 
created in our minds by such ornaments. 

The chimney-piece and shelf should be of the same kind of 
marble as the columns ; the base moulding of the room, as 
before, continuing round the jambs ; which jambs should re- 
semble pedestals placed against the wall, supporting a massive 
moulded shelf; and the same idea should pervade the whole. 
The chimney-piece should be equally a part of the design, and 
unite as well to the main lines as the columns or pilasters ; by 
which means a general harmony will be preserved. There will 
be no difficulty in uniting the fender to this design, as this, 
although part of the furniture, still is as much required to pre- 
serve the character of the architecture as any other part of the 
room. As all furniture, when placed in a room, becomes part of 
the room itself, it is associated with its uses ; and, therefore, it 

c 4 



24 Design Jut a Suburban Resident* 

should be united to its forms : it may, in fact, be called the still 
life of the picture. 

The doors should be three-paneled, richly moulded, and 
painted in imitation of two different woods ; and the moulding on 
the inside might resemble those of the ceiling, in colour at least. 
The windows will be glazed with plate glass ; and the shutters, 
which are to fold back against the sides of the recesses, will cor- 
respond with the doors. 

A difference in the general arrangement of the paneling in 
the ceiling, less gilding, and a more solid appearance, will be the 
general characteristics of the library. The architrave and cor- 
nices, and also the plinth and base moulding, in this room, will go 
all round and within the recesses. Two colours might be well 
used for the walls and pilasters in this room. 

A general aerial character should pervade the breakfast-room ; 
and the form should be of a less massive description than those 
of the dining-room ; and, as this is a much smaller room, less 
paneling will suffice for the ceiling : but still, some marked sup- 
porting beam or beams should be shown for the purpose of satis- 
fying the mind. A rich moulded cornice should go round this 
room, and some sculptured ornament would be an appropriate 
addition. 

Principal stairs. The steps and landings will be of stone, 
with moulded nosings ; the handrail of mahogany, boldly 
moulded ; and a rich scroll paneling, in the place of the bal- 
lusters, will be fixed between the newels ; each of which will 
support a bronze figure. The large window will be glazed with 
painted glass. A window in this situation presents an opportu- 
nity for an historical subject ; in which case, the tone of colour 
of the staircase walls should be a warm grey, rather dark ; and 
the ceiling, richly moulded panels, in imitation of wood. Very 
little variety of colour would be required here, as the principal 
feature would be the painted glass ; and every other object 
should be coloured in a subordinate manner, so as to give value 
to the main feature. The colour of the stone steps I should 
prefer being rather dark, as the eye would then rest with satis- 
faction on the principal object; and, when it had drunk deeply, 
it would insensibly wander to other objects in search of new 
beauties. The staircase will be supported upon arches; and 
under the landing will be an entrance to the stone balcony lead- 
ing to the garden, &c. : the doors of this entrance are to have 
some stained glass. 

The back stairs lead from the basement to the roof, as shown 
in the plans, and will be perfectly fire-proof. 

The butler's room will be fitted up with closets, shelves, sink, 
strong closet, &c, with hot and cold water laid on from the boiler 
and cistern. 



to be erected at Stuttgart. 25 



■ ■- 



The water-closet and dressing-room will have every con- 
venience of water, fixed basin, and drainage. 

As the drawingrooms are intended to be en suite, they will be 
finished alike. The general character of this floor will be dif- 
ferent to the one we have just described, as all the windows are 
arched; therefore, a greater diversity of form will be appro- 
priate. To explain why I say the windows give the general 
character to the internal appearance of this floor, first, I surmise 
that the style of architecture now generally adopted (except the 
Gothic) is founded on the ancient Athenian architecture in all 
its details; that the want of sufficient authority for the domestic 
architecture of ancient Greece has driven us to their public 
edifices for our prototypes : beautiful as these buildings are, their 
characteristic features, which are columns, cannot be the cha- 
racteristic features of our domestic edifices. Next to the bare 
walls which enclose us, and the roof which shelters us from the 
inclemency of the weather, the door claims our notice for ingress 
and egress, and the window for the admission of light : these 
are necessarily the leading forms of our domestic edifices, and, 
I might say, for the most part, of our public ones also ; there- 
fore, all other features in the room should harmonise with them. 
But the latitude which the knowledge of known architectural 
forms has given us will allow the introduction of a mixed cha- 
racter, provided the harmony of the design is preserved. In the 
anteroom of this design, I have used a screen of columns, sur- 
mounted by arches ; the object being to give a symmetrical form 
to this room relatively to the large doors : at the same time, this 
screen gives a recess at the windows, which can be fitted up with 
couches, and a large mirror at each end, making a still more 
distinct separation from the other part of the room. The 
entrances to the drawingrooms are through the lofty arches on 
each side ; and the doors are to slide back into the partitions 
shown in the plan. One sliding door in each room is to have a 
small door (of course, to correspond in the framing with the 
other), so that each room can be used separately when required. 
Rich damask drapery, in ample folds, hung within these arches, 
would have a beautiful effect. For the reasons before stated, the 
arch is the leading feature in this floor : the impost will be en- 
riched, and go all round the rooms ; the cornices, base, and plinth 
mouldings, will also be carried round the room. The ceiling should 
be supported by beams, resting upon cantileavers at the ends; 
and the paneling should be in more varied forms than described 
for the lower rooms. As the drawingrooms are appropriated to 
more elegant, light, and gay purposes, a cheerful disposition of 
light and shade, a diversity of colour, and a general tone of 
airiness, should mark their character : but still, a close adherence 
to propriety of construction should be indicated, that, when we 
D. H. HILL LIBRARY 
North Carolina Stita College 



26 Suburban Residence to be erected at Stuttgart. 

are elated with agreeable sensations, there shall be no misgivings 
upon directing a stricter enquiry : for, whenever the mind has 
contemplated an object with pleasure, it will invariably seek for 
further gratification in ascertaining the cause. The paneling 
of the ceiling is to be in imitation of wood, decorated with 
flowers and gilding, and a variety of colour in the flowers will 
be admissible ; but great care must be taken that the whole has 
not a spotty character. Connexion in lines and forms must in- 
variably be preserved when in the same plane : contrasts of form, 
such as ceilings and walls, the supporters and the supported, 
will frequently admit of some contrast of colour; but, as we 
are always more pleased when we see a moulding, a bracket, or 
a cove uniting the ceiling with the wall, so are we more satis- 
fied when a connexion of colour also exists. A greater contrast 
may exist between the floor and the wall, so that there is a de- 
cided substance upon which the wall rests, or from which it 
appears to spring ; but still, the ceiling must partake of some of 
the connecting links to make the chain perfect. 

In rooms strictly architectural, the ordinary method of paper- 
ing, according to fashion, should never be attended to. Fashion 
is capricious : architecture is fixed on reason, and its principles 
never change ; so that, although the colours of rooms may be 
varied in many ways, still the same leading principles should 
govern their application. Imitations of different kinds of marbles 
may aptly be applied to these rooms. Some elegant sculpture, 
in compartments of wreaths, and other sculptural ornaments, 
principally in imitation of white or statuary marble, would be 
appropriate. Large plates of looking-glass, in judicious situa- 
tions, would have a splendid effect ; but so various are our tastes, 
that, if too much be done, confusion is the result ; and if too 
little, meagreness. The doors, being of the same material as 
the ceiling, will partake of the same colours; and the handles 
to the locks will be of ivory or cut glass. The chimney-pieces 
will be of statuary marble ; the base moulding and plinth of the 
room breaking round so as to form a pedestal, upon which will 
be raised sculptured supporters, unconnected with the wall, 
bearing shelves, richly carved on the edges. All the windows 
will be glazed with plate glass, and will open to the balconies. 

I have before mentioned that the decorative painting, sculpture, 
and other parts, must not be considered at present as finally 
determined on ; as also some of the minor details, which can 
only be fully described upon making out the working drawings. 



25. Henrietta Street, Brunswick Square, 
Nov. 28. 1837. 



(hi Furniture. 27 

Art. V. On Furniture. By E. B. Lamb, F.I.B.A. 

Among the subjects which come under the direction of the 
architect, furniture is not the least important ; and, although by 
many of the profession attention to it is considered derogatory 
to the art, its usefulness, and the comforts which we should 
scarcely obtain but through its influence, afford fully sufficient 
reasons for bestowing some thought upon it. Usefulness and 
comfort are first to be obtained ; and, when these are fully 
established, beauty of proportion, and unity with surrounding 
objects, should follow, so that furniture should blend and har- 
monise with the architecture of the room in which it is placed ; 
without which, the most costly decoration in the one, and the 
most perfect character in the other, will fail to satisfy the 
mind. 

To the want of some knowledge of the styles and details of 
architecture by upholsterers, may be attributed the many ab- 
surdities which we frequently discover in ornamental furni- 
ture. Although the severe character of architecture would but 
ill suit furniture, if columns and their accompaniments only were 
applied for that purpose, the union between the one and the 
other may be preserved by the propriety and fitness of the minor 
details. 

In recently sketching various designs for furniture, among the 
number the grand piano-forte presented the greatest difficulties 
to surmount: the form prescribed by its uses, the great space 
required for it in a room, and the very unarchitectural character 
it assumed, set me to consider whether some alterations could 
not be made, so as to embrace all the utility of the present in- 
strument with more beauty; and for this end the sketch Jig. 4. 
was produced, which I send merely as a hint to manufacturers ; 
at the same time stating my objections to the instruments now in 
use : it will be for others to object to mine. 

The horizontal grand piano-forte, which is the most perfect 
instrument now in use, is of such an awkward shape, that it is 
almost impossible to give any expression of style to it. ; and, in 
a moderate-sized house, it occupies so large a portion of the room 
in which it is placed, that now the upright grand piano-forte is 
generally substituted for it. This is a more recent invention, 
and certainly is more compact in form ; and, although much 
might have been done in the way of characteristic decoration, it 
is seldom distinguished by any marks of judgment or good 
taste. The upholsterer (if he makes the design) gives it columns 
so shrunk in the shafts, that they may frequently be seen twenty 
or thirty diameters high : the capitals and bases are equally in- 
consistent; and the cornice is a crowning absurdity of massive 
ovolo and turned beads. But, if no attempts at strict architecture 



28 



On Fur in lun . 




had been made, the form would, perhaps, by its simplicity, have 
been more in character with the architecture of the room. To 
produce architectural fitness of expression, it is not necessary to 
employ columns; and, where they are introduced so small, and 
in such situations, they rather create a disgust, than the pleasur- 
able sensations they inspire when viewed as the necessary adjuncts 
of a portico. 

The objection to an upright grand piano-forte is, in my 
opinion, great; for, when the player is also "obliging us with a 
sonn," at least half the delight we should feel from those "dulcet 
sounds" is lost in the silk which faces the singer. As this is 
known and acknowledged to be a defect by all makers, I am 
surprised that no remedy for the evil has been attempted by 
keeping the whole body of the instrument below the head of the 
performer, which a very little contrivance might effect. 

Cabinet, cottage, and other small piano-fortes, are sufficiently 
below the voice generally for all the purposes of a singer; but 
they do not possess the power and variety of the grand piano. 
In the sketch Jig. 4. I have endeavoured to obviate all the 
difficulties above mentioned : that it can be constructed, I have 
no doubt, and that, too, with very little alteration in the present 



On selecting the Position of a House. 



29 



mechanism ; this alteration being principally in the keys and 
hammers. But I may just mention one obstacle, which is inde- 
pendent of the instrument ; viz. the great difficulty of getting 
makers out of the beaten track. 

This design resembles a grand, or rather a large square, piano- 
forte, turned on its edge, and the keys projecting at right angles 
from it: the whole body of the instrument is thus kept below the 
performer, which renders it equal to the horizontal grand piano ; 
while it occupies much less space than the latter instrument, and 
it is superior as an article of furniture. As all the sides could be 
finished alike, it can be placed in almost any situation, so that 
the performer can face the company, and thus the full effect of 
the voice be heard ; and, if surmounted with vases of glass or 
alabaster, bronze figures, candelabra, or other ornaments, it 
would form an agreeable acquisition to the drawingroom. It 
may be constructed in the most simple manner, or it can be 
richly decorated. 

25. Henrietta Street, Brunswick Square, Sept., 1837. 



Art. VI. On selecting the Position of a House on the Side of a 

Hill. By N. 

The selection of the exact position for a house which is to be 
built on the side of a hill, particularly if the slope is consider- 
able, requires caution. The common faults of a house so 
placed are, that it has the appearance of being built in a hole 
dug out for it, and that it is very damp from an insufficiency 
of earth having been re- _____ 5 

moved from around it. The 
method of driving a peg 
into the spot, selected for 
the exact level and site mmra 



of the drawingroom, or *^ 1 

entrance door, from which 
the foundations are to be measured, is sure to involve the owner 
in these difficulties; and is contrasted in Jig. 5. with a method, 
shown at Jig. 6., in which attention has been paid to the form- 
ation of a level space 
sufficient to hold the 
house, by the adoption 
of the well-known canal 
and railroad rule ; viz. 
that of arranging that 
the filling up shall be 
exactly equal to the 



cutting out. \njig. 5., the dotted line a b shows the surface 





30 On selecting the Position of' a House. 

of the hill ; and c, the level space made for the house ; the earth 
to be removed being in this case carted away to a distance. 
Fin. 6. also shows a dotted line for the original surface of the 
hill ; but, in this case, the earth removed from d, instead of being- 
carted away, is placed on e, so as to increase the size of the 
platform on which the house stands. It is obvious, also, that 
the whole should be done previously to the commencement of the 
building, so that the earth shall be wheeled across instead of 
round the house; the expense being very nearly the distance 
multiplied by the quantity. Few persons are capable of judging 
by the eye the space required for a house : for instance, for a 
building of 60 ft. square, as represented in Jigs. 5. and 6. ; or the 
number of feet to be sunk to obtain a level space. The decep- 
tion of cutting a level into a hill is singular : I have known a 
mason's level discredited, though twined ; and water sent for to 
ascertain whether the ground had not been too much lowered 
towards the hill. In Ireland, lately, a mine agent was requested 
to supply water to the top of a hill, in consequence of a similar 
mistake ; and it was suggested that it would be quite as easy to 
take water to the top by winding it round the hill, as across the 
opposite mountain to the mine. 

The change in appearance which takes place on the removal 
of ground will sometimes alter the owner's idea of the exact po- 
sition and level of the rooms ; and minor alterations may then 
be effected at a small expense. 

Situations of great exposure, where trees will scarcely grow, 
undoubtedly occur ; and when they do, shelter, if of paramount 
importance, may be obtained from the hill itself; but, in all 
situations where trees will thrive, the house becomes eventually 
far too deeply buried, unless brought forward from the hill in 
the method shown in Jig. 6. The adoption of a terrace for 
the purpose of connecting the house with the grounds or garden, 
though the simplest plan, may be avoided by regular banking, if 
thought advisable. 

My object, however, is not to point out the different methods 
by which this principle can be carried into effect, but to remind 
persons about to commence building of the economy of previous 
arrangements in the removal of earth to form a proper site for a 
house ; and that, though space may be eventually obtained round 
it at treble cost, yet that an error in the level as regards the hill 
surface, and the surrounding trees, can never be amended. 

Local circumstances, such as the site proposed being hollow 
or convex, exposure, the owner's preference of a bold or snug 
appearance, will afford exercise for judgment, in each particular 
case, to harmonise at a moderate expense the connexion between 
the house and the hill on which it may be placed. 

Penryn, January, 1837. 



Report upon Bernhardt? s Stove- Furnaces. 3 1 

Art. VII. Official Report made to Charles Boyd, Esq., Collector of 
Her Majesty s Customs, for the Information of the Honourable 
Board of Commissioners, upon Bernhardt* s Stove-Furnaces. By 
Andrew Ure, M.D. F.R.S., &c. Communicated by the Author. 

My dear Sir, 

Soon after receipt of your note, enclosing M. Bernhardt's 
letter to the Hon. the Commissioners of Customs, relative to 
warming and ventilating your Long Room, I paid a visit to Lord 
King's house, in St. James's Square, agreeably to M. Bernhardt's 
invitation to inspect his plan, as erected in* it. I was accom- 
panied by an intelligent scientific friend. What was my astonish- 
ment to find no less than four large elaborate furnaces built up in 
that moderate-sized mansion ; all of them in full activity, and 
consuming four times as much fuel as would, with judicious 
economy, have been sufficient to heat a house of four times the 
size. The cost to Lord King of the said furnaces, and slate-flue 
constructions, of M. Bernhardt cannot, I understand, be less than 
1000/. ; a sum at least four times as much as would have been 
adequate to the purpose in the hands of an intelligent En (dish 
engineer, acquainted with the modes of heating adopted in the 
cotton factories. 

Having caused an exact drawing to be made of one of M. 
Bernhardt's furnaces, I now forward it to you, and request you 
will give it a most deliberate consideration. You will perceive a 
fireplace (fg. 7. a) similar to one of those under the cockle in the 
cellars of the Custom House. The flame from the grate passes 
directly into the first flue, above c ; which, like the other flues, is 
a sheet-iron pipe, 8 in. or 9 in. in diameter, and 18 ft. in length 
In this single stove there are at least fourteen (I rather think & 16) 
pipes of that size, laid zig-zag, with a slight slope to the horizon, 
arranged over each other in twin rows (fgs. 8,9.), through which 
the burned air and smoke circulate backwards and forwards 
before they are discharged into the chimney at / It is obvious 
that the lower pairs of pipes must partake of the ignition in the 
fireplace. Accordingly, upon the first two occasions, when I 
visited the said mansion, I found the lower pipes excessively hot ■ 
and suggested to Mr. Cubitt's clerk of the works to try their 
temperature, by introducing into them pieces of common solder. 
He did so ; and he afterwards produced specimens to me, which 
proved that the solder was not only melted, but oxidized, by the 
pipes. The air of the space d d, in which the above twin rows 
of pipes are enclosed, must, therefore, be rendered unpleasant 
and insalubrious, by coming in contact with the lower part of the 
range, in a degree far worse than it is by sweeping over the 
pyramids of your existing stoves at the Custom House. Did 
you adopt M. Bernhardt's furnace, you might justly inscribe 
over it, Incidit in Scyllam cupiens vitarc Charybdin .- in plain 



32 



Official Jieporf upon 




Fig. 9. is a ground plan, showing the furnace and the two lowest sheet-iron pipes. 
Fig. 7. is a longitudinal section on the line hh. 
Fig. 8. is a cross section on the line i i. 

a, Furnace. b, Sheet-iron pipes. c, Cold air flue. d, Space for hot air surrounding 

the pipes. e, Flues to convey warm air to various apartments. /, Smoke tlue. 

g, Small doors to clean out the pipes. 



English, you would get out of the frying-pan into the fire. 
There is, moreover, not the slightest novelty in M. Bernhardt's 
arrangement; zig-zag pipes, laid at various slopes, having been 
commonly used in England, France, Germany, &c, for up- 
wards of a century past ; and, indeed, the very scheme of enclosing 
them in a hot-air chamber is represented in books upon stove- 
heating, in my possession. 

With regard to the practical influence upon the feelings and 
the health, of M. Bernhardt's stoves, as mounted for Lord King, 
I cannot speak in favourable terms. The gentleman who accom- 
panied me at the first visit, though in vigorous health, was not 
long in the house before he felt extremely uncomfortable ; and, 
at the end of less than an hour, he was obliged to leave it, in con- 
sequence of a violent headach, of which he did not get rid till 
he had breathed the external air for some time. My own sensa- 



Bernhardt's Stove Furnaces. 33 



tions were exactly similar to those I experienced when standing 
near the outlet-valve of hot air in your Examiner's rooms: and, 
indeed, the cause was quite analogous ; for the air issuing from 
M. Bernhardt's flue orifices indicated by my trials a temperature 
of 150° Fahr. : and it must have been at times higher; for the 
clerk of the works told me it frequently broke his thermometers, 
which had a range up to that pitch. 

M. Bernhardt has since sought to account for these torrefying 
results by saying that the fires in his stoves were then forced, in 
order to dry the plaster-work of the house. I grant that this may 
be so far true; for, undoubtedly, Lord King's family could not 
have endured that offensive burnt air for even half a day. Still, 
it is evident from these experimental facts, as well as from the 
construction of the furnace itself, that the least over-firing, from 
negligence of the servants, must communicate ignition to the 
sheet-iron pipe immediately connected with it; and that this pipe, 
so overheated, will taint all the air which passes over it. Upon 
Sylvester's cockle plan, as erected at the Custom House, the 
temperature of the hollow iron pyramid, against which the cold 
air impinges, is much more susceptible of regulation than the 
lower pipes of M. Bernhardt's scheme. Indeed, I consider Syl- 
vester's plan, as originally constructed by William Strutt, Esq., of 
Derby, to be the least objectionable of all known arid-air furnaces. 

In his magnificent factories at Belper, Mr. Strutt sought to in- 
vert the natural order of ventilation, making the influx of fresh 
warm air to be near the ceiling of the rooms, and the efflux of 
used air near the bottom. This arrangement, which is nearly 
fifty years old in this country, has been just imported as a novelty 
by M. Bernhardt. He has, in like manner, imported the ancient 
plan of a subterranean conduit for supplying cold air to the bot- 
tom of stoves, which has been familiarly known to every man 
of science for a century at least; which was the foundation of Mr. 
Strutt's plan of ventilation, and is figured in the first plate of 
Gren's Elements of Chemistry, published at London in 1800. 

With regard to the downward circulation of air, every sound 
physiologist will deprecate it as a noxious fallacy. The mephitic 
exhalations from our lungs, having a temperature of 98°, rise 
and occupy the upper part of the room ; and, if forced down- 
wards by any means, must inevitably be breathed again and 
again by its inmates before their particles can be discharged at 
the level of their legs or feet, in violation of the laws of specific 
gravity. Where parsimony of fuel is the sole object and boast 
of an empiric, this retrograde circulation may be rendered 
specious, and is certainly better than the aerial stagnation in 
German or Russian apartments ; but, where health and comfort 
are primary considerations, we should so regulate the circulation 
as that none of the air vitiated by our lungs should ever enter them 

Vol. V. — >'o. 47. * d 



34* Official Report upon 

again. This point can be secured only by leaving the rarefied 
exhalations to follow their natural upward direction ; recollecting, 
moreover, that moist air is lighter than dry air of* the same tem- 
perature. 

It may be admitted, as a general principle, that the comfort of 
sedentary individuals, occupying large apartments during the 
winter months, cannot be adequately secured by the mere influx 
of hot air from separate stove-rooms: it requires the general in- 
fluence of radiating surfaces in the apartments themselves, such 
as of open fires, of pipes or other vessels filled with hot water or 
steam. The clothing of our bodies, exposed to such radiation 
in a pure, fresh, somewhat cool and bracing air, absorbs a much 
more agreeable warmth than it could acquire by being merely 
immersed in an atmosphere heated even to 62° Fahr., like that of 
the Long Room. In the former predicament, the lungs are 
supplied with a relatively dense air, say at 52° Fahr. ; while the 
external surface of the body or the clothing is maintained at, 
perhaps, 70° or 75°. This distinctive circumstance has not, I 
believe, been hitherto duly considered by the stove doctors, each 
intent on pulling his own pecuniary interest ; but it is obviously 
one of great importance, and which the English people would do 
well to keep in view ; because it is owing to our domestic apart- 
ments being heated by open fires, and our factories by steam 
pipes, that the health of our population, and the expectation of 
life amonjj all orders in this country, is so much better than in 
France and Germany, where hot-air stoves, neither agreeable 
nor inoffensive, and in endless variety of form, are generally 
employed. 

Reverting more particularly to M. Bernhardt's furnaces at 
Lord King's, we find in one of them 16 pipes, 9 in. in diameter, 
or 28 in. in circumference, and 18 ft. long; presenting, therefore, 
the enormous surface of 472 square feet. We must bear in 
mind that these are the dimensions of only one of the four stove 
furnaces in his Lordship's house. Taking all together, there is 
enough of iron surface, were it judiciously employed, to warm 
the vast area of St. Paul's or Westminster Abbey. 

When I last visited these constructions of the architect from 
Saxony, as M. Bernhardt styles himself in his letter to the Hon. 
Commissioners, his noble employer, who was then in occupation 
with his family, very politely showed me the whole arrangement 
of the stoves, but told me he meant to employ them chiefly in 
seasoning the house during his absence in the country ; and I 
found, in fact, that none of the stoves were heated upon that 
occasion. 

The smoke, in circulating through the zig-zag pipes, deposits 
nearly the whole of its soot; so that, when coal is burnt in the 
fireplaces, the manufacture of soot in the apparatus must be 



Bernhardt' s Stove Furnaces. 3.5 

prodigious, and the necessity of removing it of frequent recur- 
rence. To have such a vast magazine of soot in the heart of a 
noble mansion can be neither comfortable nor safe. As the sheet- 
iron pipes readily crack and corrode, the stench of the soot will 
be apt to transpire ; or it may get inflamed, in which case it 
might set the house on fire. One of the smoke mains (pipes) 
crosses the ceiling of the passage in the under-ground story in a 
very awkward manner, passing into a soot-chamber closed with 
a hinged iron door of portentous aspect. 

In conclusion, I take leave to state to you my firm conviction 
that the only method of warming your Long Room and sub- 
sidiary apartments, combining salubrity, safety, and economy, 
with convenience in erection and durable comfort in use, is by a 
series of steam pipes laid along the floor, at the line of the desk 
partitions, in suitable lengths, with small arched junction-pipes 
rising over the several doorways, to keep the passage clear, and 
at the same time to allow a free expansion and contraction in 
the pipes, thereby providing for the permanent soundness of the 
joints. 

Should the Hon. Board think fit to entrust me with superin- 
tending the erection of a system of heating the Long Room, &c, I 
engage to place it in the hands of a skilful practical engineer, who 
will do it in the best manner, and upon the most reasonable 
terms : I shall, moreover, hold myself responsible for its answer- 
ing all the desirable purposes above indicated. 

I do not think that any moderate number of open fire-grates 
will be adequate to heat the Lon<r Room d urine; the winter 
months, when the air from the adjoining banks of the Thames is 
so extremely chilly, damp, and unwholesome. This mode, more- 
over, would be extremely wasteful of fuel. 

From his second letter to the Hon. Board, which you have 
just forwarded to me, it would appear that M. Bernhardt has 
been permitted to operate upon the committee-rooms of the 
House of Commons. Having had an opportunity, during a long 
interview which he lately bestowed upon me, of assuring myself 
that he is very slenderly acquainted with either the physical or 
chemical principles of heating and ventilating apartments, I have 
not deemed it worth while to inspect his recent operations. If 
stupor, headach, and disease have been occasioned by the air- 
ovens in the Custom House, they cannot fail to be produced in 
an aggravated form by the torrefying pipe-range of M. Bern- 
hardt. Should the members of our legislature suffer their health 
and comfort to be compromised by such astute empiricism, we 
may expect to see as rapid a round of elections as any partisan 
of annual parliaments could desire; for certainly, if subterraneous 
furnaces, like those at Lord King's mansion, be set in action 
under the Houses of Parliament, a blow may be inflicted upon 

d 2 



36 Official Report upon 

the heads of the nation, which shall throw the machinations of 
Guy Fawkes into the shade. 

To those unversed in the mysteries of jobbing, the employ- 
ment of M. Bernhardt upon the committee-rooms, to the exclu- 
sion of many more capable native engineers, must excite surprise. 
But, alas ! daily experience shows how easily any imposture may 
gull the English public for a season, however false the purpose or 
foolish the scheme, provided a joint-stock machine can be got up, 
which, like a monster polypus, projects its tentaada, feelers, and 
suckers upon every object with reckless avidity. Such an asso- 
ciation seldom scruples to use bribes, flattery, or threats to com- 
pass its mercenary ends. Thus, the prime functionary of this 
German stove society had the hardihood to tell me, in my own 
house, that, if I made an unfavourable report concerning it to the 
Board of Customs, he would employ Mr. Faraday to refute me, 
and write a certificate in its favour. In the same modest strain, 
he asserted, that Bernhardt's plan of ventilation was founded 
upon principles which no philosopher in this country did (or 
could) understand. As one of the humblest but not least zealous 
disciples of science, I acknowledge myself incapable of discover- 
ing either the novelty or worth of the scheme. 

I am, my dear Sir, yours most faithfully, 

Andrew Uke. 

13. Charlotte Street, Bedford Square, Nov. 23. 1837. 

The old and-well known plan of heating buildings by means 
of several ranges of nearly horizontal pipes, placed in a brick 
oven, and subjected upon one of their surfaces to the aerial pro- 
ducts of combustion, and upon the other to atmospheric air, is fully 
described, with illustrative engravings, in the Dictionnaire Tcch- 
?iologique,under the article "Chaleur," published in the year 1823. 

" The calorifcres of great establishments," says M. Payen, the 
author of the article, "consisting, usually, of cylindrical cast-iron 
pipes, built up in a brick furnace, are placed in a cellar {cave) 
under the premises. This distribution is convenient, as we do 
not embarrass the upper floor ; but we suffer a loss of the heat 
communicated to the massive walls round the furnace. In order 
to diminish this loss as much as possible, we ought to erect the 
calorifere in some underground suite of apartments, which require 
warming, leaving onlv the mouth of the furnace on the outside of 
the house, for the convenience of firing. 

" Plate xii. (J/g. 7.), Arts Chimiqucs, represents one of these 
calorifcres cut by a plane perpendicular to all the axes of the 
cylinders. We see that the products of combustion developed 
in the fireplace pass under the first range of cylinders, rise be- 
tween the first and second range, then between the second and 



BcrnharcWs Stove Furnaces. 37 

third, next between the third and fourth, and so on till they 
escape above the uppermost range, under the brick arch, to reach 
the chimney. This vertical chimney, composed of copper pipes, 
gives off heat to all the apartments which it traverses in its way 
to the roof of the building. 

" Fig. 8. is the same calorifere, cut by a plane in the axis of the 
four ranges of pipes, and shows the direction of the currents of 
hot air in the interior of these cylinders. The atmospheric air 
enters by the lowest orifice: it is conducted by recesses left in the 
brickwork from one row of pipes to another ; it thus circulates 
in the zi<r-za<i directions indicated bv the arrows, till it enters the 
copper pipes which conduct the warm air to the upper floors. 
The air rises, obviously, by virtue of its relative lightness, and 
thus occasions a current which continues as long as there is heat 
in the fire. 

" The calorifere just described affords a great supply of heat, if 
the fire be active and the current of air rapid ; but, to deprive the 
products of combustion more completely of the heat, which they 
are apt to carry off in waste, we may render the warming of the 
air more methodical, by introducing the external atmosphere 
round the warm pipes at the top, near to their entrance into the 
chimney, and lead it successively downwards over all the hori- 
zontal pipes, in the inverse direction of the current of burned air ; 
just as, in the double still-worms, we make the cooling water 
circulate upwards, while the condensing vapours circulate down- 
wards. By this method, the atmospherical air, during its whole 
progress, strips the pipes of their heat with the utmost possible 
energy ; since it becomes progressively hotter, and is always 
cooler, at every point of its course, than the surfaces of the 
pipes with which it comes in contact ; and since the transmission 
of the heat through the metal is proportional to the difference of 
the temperature of the inside and outside. If, on the contrary, 
the internal and external currents proceeded in the same direc- 
tion, the temperature would differ but slightly in many places ; 
or, it might be even hotter outside than inside; and, consequently, 
the transmission of the heat would be nearly null in those places, 
or it might be, at times, even opposite to what we wish to obtain." 

Mr. Payen then proceeds to describe the construction of a 
stove free from the vices which he has just pointed out, one which 
appears capable of employing, as usefully as possible, the heat 
disengaged by the fuel. Into the details of this stove I shall not 
enter, as its sole object is economy, without reference to the tem- 
perature of the pipes by which the atmospheric air is to be heated. 
From the experience of the gentlemen in the Long Room of the 
Custom House, and in many counting-houses in the city, where 
arid stoves have lately been erected, it appears certain that air 
exposed to metallic surfaces, heated beyond a certain pitch, ac- 

i> 3 



38 Official Report upon 

quires most insalubrious properties, and becomes capable of 
inducing an apoplectic condition of the brain in persons plunged 
into and breathing it. 

In my former paper, published in this Magazine for April last, 
(Vol. IV. p. 162.), I have endeavoured to explain the rationale of 
the injurious action of such air upon the living system. Every 
pathologist will tell us that changes in the condition of the atmo- 
sphere, altogether inappreciable by chemical and physical tests, 
are frequent causes of the most formidable and fatal maladies: 
witness the malaria of the Campagna of Rome, of many places in 
the West Indies peculiarly subject to yellow fever, of cholera, 
influenza, typhus fever, and scarlet fever, &c. Not only such 
alarming epidemics, the nova cu/iors fcbri/uii, but many obscure 
chronic derangements of health, are produced by apparently 
slight chances in the constitution of the air of our apartments. 
Three years ago, I erected, in a spacious bedroom of my own 
house, a stove, which was never heated so high as the boiling 
point of water, but which allowed no circulation of air by the 
chimney, except the small quantity which was admitted very near 
the hearth-stone, for supporting a slow combustion in the fuel. 
Every thing seemed comfortably and philosophically arranged. 
The temperature of my room was nearly the same night and day; 
being, upon an average, from 55° to 60° Fahr. In a short time, 
however, my natural vigoiir of body and mind began to give 
way ; my sleep became disturbed ; my appetite declined ; a furious 
cough, with pains in the chest, supervened, without having been 
preceded, however, by any of the usual symptoms of catarrh ; and 
my bowels were obstinately constipated. For this general dis- 
temperature, which continued for several months, my kind medical 
friends prescribed a vast variety of remedies ; such as blood-letting, 
blistering, cupping, expectorants, antispasmodics, emetics, dia- 
phoretics, mercurial alteratives, &c. ; a pharmaceutical ordeal 
which I underwent without any material benefit. At length, I 
discovered that the main cause of these disordered functions was 
a peculiar state of the blood, caused by breathing an atmo- 
sphere not sufficiently renewed, in consequence of a nearly air- 
tight stove apparatus. I now caused the stove to be removed, fire 
to be rekindled in the open grate ; took a strong dose of purgative 
medicine, to restore the hepatic secretions ; and, within three days 
of this change of plan, I felt myself a new being; the powers of 
my body and mind resumed their wonted alacrity; in which state, 
thank God, they have ever since remained, owing, chiefly, I have 
no doubt, to unembarrassed ventilation in every part of my house, 
and the suppression of stove-malaria. To render such arid stoves 
as little as possible insalubrious, we should remove to the greatest 
distance from the fire the row of pipes upon which the aerial 
products of combustion first impinge ; protecting them, also, from 



Bernhardt' $ Stone Furnaces. 



39 



the direct contact of the burned air by a bed of fire-tiles, upon 
the same principle as the gas retorts are now generally mounted. 
We should also imitate the modern mode of arranging the fire- 
flues in the gas-works, so as to make the burned air first act upon 
the top range of retorts in each furnace; thence circulate obliquely 
downwards, and be discharged into the chimney, below the level 
of the bottom of the lowest range. By this method, an economy 
of from two thirds to three fourths of the fuel has been obtained 
over the former plan of letting the products of combustion escape 
at the top of the furnace, above the uppermost retort. Fig. 10. 




: 



ocxdoc 
coaxo 

OCQCOC 



xcooo 

CXXXJL^ 




cooax) 1 
x 2?° I 



10 



is a cross section of such a stove. I shall furnish a detailed de- 
scription of it, for the next Number of your Journal. 

In the Number of this Magazine for September, 1835 (Vol. II. 
p. 407.), there is a well-written paper, by Censor, upon the 
comparative advantages and disadvantages of the various modi- 
fications of the hot-water system of warming apartments. With 
his judicious statements and reasonings my views entirely 
coincide. It is a remarkable fact, that the inventor of that 
system, M. Bonnemain, whose acquaintance I had the pleasure of 
making, upwards of twenty years ago, in Paris, had erected it 
near that capital prior to the French revolution, and in, probably, 
a more complete form than it has been ever since, either in his 
own country or in this. His water-stove is described, under the 
article " Chaleur," in the Dictionnaire Tcchnologique, published 
in 1823, quoted from above; and is not only economical in fuel 
in the highest degree, but is provided with an ingenious me- 
chanism of expanding bars, on the principle of Harrison's 
gridiron pendulum, for regulating the admission of air under 
the grate, and thereby the vivacity of the combustion. The 
best test of the excellence of his arrangements was, the success 

n 4 



40 



■Official Report upon 



of his poussinieres, or nurseries, warmed by hot-water circulation, 
for hatching eggs and rearing chickens, in such numbers as to 

O Do C^ 

supply, in a considerable measure, the Parisian market. This 
ingenious and profitable establishment, in which he had em- 
barked his little fortune, fell a sacrifice to those disastrous times. 
When I knew him, he was occupied in giving private instructions 
relative to the construction of hot-water stoves, and artifi- 
cial incubation. He was then a stout hale man, about seventy- 
two years of age, of the most amiable complacency of manners, 
and well acquainted with all the interesting inventions of the 
day. Many an instructing promenade I had with him. He 
was ever ready to conduct the curious stranger to see whatever 
was most novel in science and art, terminating his round of 
visits at the Jardin des Plantes, in the vicinity of which he had 
his humble abode. Every body esteemed him, and sympathised 
with his misfortunes. At a subsequent period, a petition was 
presented to the French government, signed by many distin- 
guished savans, soliciting a small pension for the venerable octo- 
genaire ; but with what success I have not heard. 

The article " Incubation artificielle," in the Dictionnaire Tech- 
nologique, was drawn up under his directions, and is not only 
valuable from its details, but as a document in the history of 
calorific invention. 




The water-boiler is shown at //, with the expansion rod, which 
regulates the air-door of the ash-pit : a is a stopcock for modi- 
fying the opening by which the hotter particles of water ascend ; 
d is the water-pipe of communication, having the heating-pipe 
of distribution (b) attached to it ; which thence passes backwards 
and forwards at /and /•, with a very slight slope from the hori- 
zontal direction, through the poussiniere. It traverses this apart- 
ment, and returns by g to the orifice, of the boiler, where it 
turns vertically downwards, and descends to nearly the bottom 



Bernhardt *s Stove Furnaces. 41 

of the boiler at //, discharging at that point the cooler, and 
therefore denser, particles of water ; which displace, by gravity, 
those which, at a, are continually pressed upwards: c h is a tube 
surmounted with a funnel, for keeping the range of pipes always 
full of water ; and f is a siphon orifice for the escape of the 
disengaged air, which would otherwise be apt to occupy the 
tubes partially, and thus obstruct the locomotion of the aqueous 
particles. 

The faster the water gets cooled in the serpentine tubes, the 
quicker its circulation will be; because the difference of density 
between the water in the ascending and descending legs of the 
system (viewed as two vertical columns) which is the sole cause 
of its movement, will be greater, leg represent small saucers filled 
with water, which supply the requisite moisture to the heated air, 
so as to place the eggs (arranged in a series of trays) in a humid 
atmosphere, similar to that under the body of the hen. 

When we wish to hatch eggs with this apparatus, the fire is 
to be kindled in the boiler ; and, as soon as the temperature has 
risen to about 100° Fahr., the eggs are introduced, but only one 
twentieth of the total number intended, upon the first day; next 
day, a like number is laid upon the trays, and thus in succes- 
sion for twenty days : so that upon the twenty-first day the 
greater part of the eggs first placed may be hatched, and that 
we may obtain daily afterwards an equal number of chicks. 
Regularity of care is thus established in rearing these tender 
animals. 

During the first days of incubation, natural as well as arti- 
ficial, a small portion of the water contained in the eggs eva- 
porates through the shell, and is replaced by a like quantity of 
air, which is afterwards useful for the respiration of the animal. 
If the warm atmosphere surrounding the eggs were very dry, 
such a portion of their aqueous matter would exhale through the 
pores of the shells as would endanger the future life of the chick 
in ovo. The transpiration from the body of the hen, as she broods 
over the eggs, generally conteracts this desiccation ; but, not- 
withstanding, in very dry weather, many hatching eggs fail from 
that cause, unless they be placed in moist decomposing straw. 
The water-saucers (& g) are therefore essential to success in arti- 
ficial incubation. 

Any one who considers the preceding description will be 
satisfied that M. Bonnemain, upwards of fifty years ago, had 
erected the hot-water system of warming apartments, in the 
most philosophical, judicious, and economical manner. The Mar- 
quis de Chabannes seems to have done nothing but pirate his 
plans, and disfigure them so as to make them pass for his own. 

Whatever mode of heating be adopted, with a view to eco- 
nomy, in lofty public buildings, where there is abundance of air, 



42 IV/lkins's Prolusiones Architecfonica;. 

we should never suffer our domestic apartments to be warmed by 
a stove, to the suppression of our open fires ; which, when well 
constructed upon the Rumford plan of radiation, give the most com- 
fortable quality of warmth, with complete change of atmosphere. 

REVIEWS. 

Art. I. Prolusiones Architectonicce ; or, Essays on Subjects con- 
nected with Grecian and Roman Architecture. By William Wilkins, 
A.M., R.A., F.R.S., formerly a senior Fellow of Caius College, in 
the University of Cambridge ; Regius Professor of Architecture in 
the Royal Academy. Part I. 4to, 14 plates. 

The first essay in this learned work is on the Erectheum, an 
edifice of Athens of the highest antiquity, which derived its appel- 
lation from the sixth king Erectheus, who died b. c. 1347. 

" This temple was constructed on a site hallowed by all the my- 
thological associations which connected this favoured city with its 
divine protectress. On this spot, according to tradition, the truth 
of which it would have been impiety to question, the preternatu- 
ral demonstrations of power exhibited by Minerva and Neptune, 
in their contest for the tutelary guardianship of Attica, were 
indelibly implanted, and hence became objects of the greatest 
devotion. The spring of salt water which issued from the earth 
when struck by the trident of Neptune, and the sacred olive which 
took root in the rocky soil by the rival act of the goddess, were 
enshrined in a building constructed over them for their shelter and 
protection." 

Herodotus states that, "on the occupation of the citadel by the 
Persians, this temple, together with the other sacred edifices of the 
Acropolis, was burned; meaning, probably, that the roof and all the 
combustible portions of the building were then destroyed, although 
the walls must have been left standing. On the following day, 
some Athenian refugees who accompanied the invader, were per- 
mitted to perform their religious rites in the half-consumed temple; 
and on this occasion it was discovered that the sacred olive not 
only had escaped destruction, but that it had sent forth new and 
vigorous shoots." This induced the Athenians, when left at 
liberty by the absence of the invaders, to commence rebuilding 
the temple, which was reerected by the architect Philocles ; and, 
in the 92d Olympiad, it wanted little more than the roof to be 
complete. Strabo, about 400 years after the Persian invasion, 
mentions this temple; and it has been supposed (though it is by 
no means certain) that Xenophon alludes to it in describing the 
destruction by fire of a very ancient temple of Minerva. Pau- 
sanias also mentions the destruction by fire of the temple of 
Minerva-Alea, about this time. Mr. Wilkins, however, con- 



Wilkins's Prolusiunes Arcliitectoniccc. 43 

eludes that the temple mentioned by these two authors was that 
of Minerva at Tegea, and not the Erectheum. 

The plates of this edifice are, 1. Plan of the Erectheum; 

2. Elevation of the Portico of the Temple of Minerva-Pallas ; 

3. Elevation of the Portico of the Pandroseum ; 4. The Orders 
of the Columns; 5. Details of the Roof of the Erectheum; 6. 
Details of the Roof and Pediments; 7. Plan and Appropriation 
of the Erectheum, with a plan of one of the Angles of the Roof, 
and a Section through the Entablature of the Parthenon; 8. The 
Western Front of the Pandroseum ; 9. The South Front of the 
Erectheum : 1 0. Elevation of the North Side of the Temple. 1 1 . 
Transverse Section through the Pronaos of the Pandroseum. 

1 2. Elevation of the North Wall of the Stoa of the Pandroseum ; 

13. Details of the Thyroma ; 14. The Mouldings of the Hyper- 
thyrum enlarged. 

The author next treats of the Athenian inscription, of which 
he observes, that "this remarkable document, relating to one of 
the most celebrated temples on the Acropolis at Athens, possesses 
no ordinary degree of interest, from the circumstance of its being 
not only singular in its kind, but from its connexion with a build- 
ing of which there are several portions still in existence. It 
abounds in architectural terms, some of which are obsolete; and 
others whose application to the different parts of the building can 
only be understood by those who possess an accurate and prac- 
tical knowledge of the construction of Grecian temples, and par- 
ticularly of the roofs and superstructures ; a knowledge which 
has only reached us through the means of recent architectural 
publications." 

The Construction of the Roofs of Temples forms the next 
essay. It was first printed in the Unedited Antiquities of Attica, 
edited for the Society of Dilettanti, and is now republished in a 
cheaper form. " Among the omissions of Vitruvius, he has neg- 
lected to inform us of the mode followed by Greek architects in 
roofing their temples. He mentions two kinds of framed timbers 
in common use, as the span of the roof was of greater or less ex- 
tent ; but of the construction of the simas, or gutters, and the 
covering of the roof itself, he is altogether silent." 

The last essay is one endeavouring to prove that the Temple 
at Jerusalem is the type of Grecian architecture. "The ar- 
rangement and the dimensions of the Jewish Temple," Mr. 
Wilkins observes, "are given so much at length in the Sacred 
Writings, that we are enabled to ascertain its size and ichno- 
graphy with a great degree of precision ; and I shall now proceed 
to show that a very extraordinary coincidence, both in propor- 
tion and in actual dimensions, existed between this and the temple 
at Paestum, that could only have originated in the intention of 
the projectors of the latter to adopt the other as their model, and 



44- Jamiesorts Mechanics for Practical Men. 

to adhere to it with as much precision as was consistent with the 
observance of different forms of worship in the two nations. V\ c 
shall find, therefore, that the variation chiefly consists in those 
parts essential to the one, and unnecessary in the other ; or, to 
speak with greater precision, between the sanctuary of the Jewish 
temple and the posticum of the Grecian." 



Art. II. Mechanics for Practical Men. By Alexander Jamieson, 
LL.D., Author of a " Dictionary of Mechanical Science," and a 
" Treatise on the Elements of Algebra." 

We are most anxious to recommend this work to the study of 
the young architect, as by far the most important subject with 
which he can be occupied. There are minds capable of attain- 
ing a considerable degree of eminence in architecture as a fine 
art, without being at all competent to demonstrate either the 
strength or weakness of any building which they design. Ought 
such persons to be allowed to practise as architects ? We say, 
decidedly, No. There ought to be an institution for the exa- 
mination of young students practising architecture, analogous to 
that which exists for examining young candidates for practising 
medicine ; and, should such an institution be formed, it will be 
wondered by posterity that large sums should ever have been 
entrusted to be laid out in building, to persons who have no other 
merit than that of being able to make fine drawings. That this 
is the case with many young architects, we can assert to be the 
case from our own knowledge and observation. 

" If we desired a text-book for public instruction, upon the composition 
and resolution of forces," says Dr. Jamieson, " where shall we find a popular 
treatise combining the means with the end for such a laudable undertaking ? 
We speak with deference, when we affirm that there is no treatise, except the 
one we produce, that embraces, to the same extent, and in such varied applica- 
tion, the twofold properties of precept and example in this important problem 
of the parallelogram of forces." (p. ix.) 



Akt. III. A practical Treatise on Warming Buildings by Hot Water; 
and an Inquiry into the Laivs of radiant and conducted Heat : to 
•which are added, Remarks on Ventilation, and on the various Methods 
of distributing artificial Heat, and their Effects on Animal and Vege- 
table Physiology. By Charles Hood, F.lt.A.S. 8vo, pp. 216, and 
numerous Woodcuts. 

There are very few subjects that architects and builders know 
less about than that of heating by hot water. As to the employers 
of this mode of heating, their ignorance on the subject is obvious 
from the dangerous methods which they adopt. Even the 
dangers attendant upon a common close boiler are not generally 
understood. As, however, we intend to review this book at 



Foreign Notices : — France. 45 

length in a future Number, we shall here only give the Table of 
Contents, and strongly recommend the work to every architect, 
or person in any way connected with the heating of houses by 
hot water. 

Contents. Introduction. Chapter I. On the cause of circulation of water, 
and its consequences. Chap. II. On the application of the principles. 
Chap. III. On the proportionate sizes of various parts of the apparatus. 
Chap. IV. On permanence of temperature, depending on the form and size of 
the boiler and pipes. Chap. V. On the size and construction of furnaces. 
Chap. VI. On the laws of heat. Chap. VII. Experiments on cooling. 
Chap. VIII. On the application of the laws of heat, to determine the proper 
•size of an apparatus for heating any description of building. Chap. IX. On 
peculiar modifications of the hot-water apparatus. Chap. X. General appli- 
cation and summary. Chap. XI. On ventilation. Chap. XII. On the various 
methods used for distributing artificial heat. Tables, &c. Index. 



Art. IV. Catalogue of Works on Architecture, Building, and Fur- 
nishing, and on the Arts more immediately connected therewith, 
recently published. 

Hopper versus Oust, on the subject of rebuilding the nciv Houses of 

Parliament. 8vo, pp. 36. 

We recommend this pamphlet to all those who take an interest 
in the controversy to which it alludes. 

An Address to the "Leading Men of Manchester ■," suggested by a 
Letter on establishing a School of Design. By R. B. Haydon, 
Esq. Inserted in the Manchester Guardian of Sept. 17. 1837, 
by J. W. Hance. Reprinted from the Manchester Courier, isoith 
considerable Additions. Pamph. Svo, pp. 22. 
This is a spirited pamphlet, highly creditable to all concerned. 



Art. V. Literary Notice. 

Architectural Illustrations of the Temple Church, London, 
drawn and engraved by Robert William Billings, Associate 
of the Institute of British Architects, will shortly appear. 
This work will contain thirty-one engravings, principally in 
outline, embracing plans, elevations, sections, details, and per- 
spective views of this interesting church ; also a short historical 
and descriptive account. Most of the eminent London archi- 
tects have already sent their names to the subscription list. 

MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

Art. I. Foreign Notices. 

FRANCE. 

Paving ivilh Asphaltum. — They are laying down anew style of trottoh; 
or foot-pavement, in Paris, which seems to answer very well; and would make 
-capital flooring for large buildings, because it is easily susceptible of cmbel- 



16 Domestic Notices : — England 



©• 



lishment in the mosaic manner. The ground, having been leveled, is covered 
with about 3 in. of concrete, again leveled, and covered with a sort of black 
pebble jam, being a mixture of pebbles (gravel), about the size of currants, 
boiled in pitch, and laid on hot ; and then smoothed, and powdered with fine 
sand. It makes a beautiful, hard, firm, and level pavement ; and it only re- 
mains to see how it will last. It is not dear; because, when they break up 
the old Stuff, they have only to remelt it, and it does again. {Extract of a 
letter dated Tarts, Xuv. 10. 1837. Communicated by G. B. W., l)ec. 1. 1837.) 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Nciv Stove for Carriages. — An individual in Washington has invented a 
new kind of stoye for heating the interior of carriages, which is said to he 
of great utility. The stove occupies very little room, consumes a small 
quantity of fuel, and produces no smoke. It has been used in many of the 
railway carriages in the United States. (L ' F/cho, &c, Nov. 8. 1837.) See the 
account of Joyce's self-consuming stove, in Gard. Mag., Jan. 1838, p. 47. 



Art. II. Domestic Notices. 



ENGLAND. 

Lancashire. — Manchester, Nov. 13. 1837. — You will be glad to hear 
that there is some prospect of our having a school of design here before long, 
and that a better feeling for art generally is gradually developing itself in this 
quarter of the world. An individual (Mr. George Jackson) has lately de- 
livered two lectures on the subject at the Mechanics' Institution here; and, 
still later, Mr. Hance delivered two lectures at the Athenaeum : one on the 
advantages of cultivating a taste for the fine arts ; and the other, on establishing 
a school of design in Manchester. I am happy to say they were well re- 
ceived, and, I trust, will serve to draw attention to so important a subject. 

The Royal and Mechanics' Institutions are both bestirring themselves in the 
matter; but I am afraid that their respective plans will contemplate an union 
of the proposed establishment with their own Institutions, and I am decidedly 
of the spinion of Mr. Ilaydon, that it should stand by itself, free from, and 
unshackled by, the government of any other institution, and "be exclusively 
devoted to art and manufactures." 

I am also happy to say that the Manchester Architectural Society is 
in a most flourishing condition. James Ileywood, Esq., president of the 
Athenaeum, has just sent us his ten-guinea lee for admission as honorary 
member; and several of the most influential and talented individuals have 
joined us (both in and out of the profession). Charles Barry, Esq., is an 
honorary member. We have above forty members already, and several are 
proposed at every meeting. I do not know whether you know anything of 
the rise and progress of this Society. In February last, Mr. Hance sent a 
letter to the principal offices in the town, inviting the young men in them to 
join in the formation of a society for mutual improvement ami advancement 
in public taste in architecture. We called a general meeting for a certain 
evening, at eight o'clock : at half past, there were just five persons present. 
We began to despair ; however, in another quarter of a hour, or so, we 
mustered nearly twenty, who were unanimous in the resolution of forming a 
Society ; and so it was formed, and has hitherto outdone our most anxious 
expectations. The Society has just taken a large house in Mosley Street, 
and fitted up some handsome rooms. You will, no doubt, have perceived, 
from the copy of rules I sent you some time back, that we have a general 
meeting once a month, at which a paper is read. These are very interesting 
meetings, and afford the members much gratification, and, I trust, improve- 
ment. In addition to these, we have a tonversazione every three months, in 
order to excite a love of the art among the inhabitants, who are admitted 
freely. These meetings are always wall attended, and have attracted much 



Domestic Notices i — England. 47 



5' 



6 



notice. We intend opening our new rooms on the first Wednesday in De- 
cember, with a splendid conversazione ; and, after we are settled, we purpose 
having courses of lectures on subjects connected with architecture, in all its 
various departments. We shall also have a drawing school, for the study of 
casts and antique models, of which we shall soon have a very good collection. 
We have already established a library of the best works on art, which 
circulate among the members ; and, as they are freely read, I hope, ere long, 
we shall see a decided improvement in professional taste ; for, en/re nous, the 
generality of the so-called professions are sunk in the lowest depths of 
barbarism. You may assure any of the members of the Institute of British 
Architects, who may be visiting this part, of every attention in our power to 
bestow, to render a visit agreeable, and, I trust, profitable ; as I think Mr. 
Godwin will allow that we have something worthy of notice here. 

Mr. Heigham has been delivering four lectures at the Atheneum, upon the 
History of Architecture ; and is now repeating them at the Mechanics' Insti- 
tution. Altogether, I think there is a decided improvement in the public feeling 
for the art. Arthur Parsey will shortly deliver some lectures on perspective 
here (at the Mechanics' Institution). I look forward with much curiosity to 
hear him, as he seems to have very unique notions on the subject. It appears 
to me, from what little I know of his theory, that, if not absurd, it is at least im- 
practicable or useless in practice. However, I shall be able to form a more 
correct opinion when he has explained it himself. Mr. Haydon will likewise 
be down here shortly, to give us some more lectures, and rub up our ideas 
with respect to the school of design. The general state of business in our 
profession is somewhat flat at present, and has been so all the year. Mr. Lane 
is erecting some good houses in the Victoria Park, which will really be a great 
ornament; and we expect shortly to commence a church there, of which 
Mr. Hance is at present making the drawings : it will, I believe, be a hand- 
some Gothic structure, in the perpendicular style, with a spire. Mr. Atkinson 
is erecting a beautiful bit (quite a gem) at Cheetham Hill : a Gothic church, 
likewise perpendicular, and having also a spire, highly enriched : detail excel- 
lent. It is much admired, and will increase his fame much, and, likewise, the 
general taste. A few such examples, and we should have nothing to fear. Mr. 
Tattersall is likewise giving us a specimen of his taste in the Union Bank, 
Mosley Street : a handsome Corinthian front, with engaged columns, on a 
rustic basement; with projecting balconies to the windows, the effect of which 
I do not like : they crowd it too much ; and the basement, also, is too light, and 
the rustics not near deep enough cut. It is, however, a very creditable affair. 
The Commissioners of Highways have, 1 understand, been finding fault, in their 
wisdom, with the bold projection of the cornice : they had better keep their 
eyes on the ground, and clear away all obstructions there. Our exhibition 
will close on Saturday next : it has not been a very good one. A few first-rate 
pictures there certainly are, by Etty, Cooper, Landseer, &c. ; but the generality 
very indifferent. I do not know how it is, but Liverpool generally outshines 
us. I suppose there is more chance of selling pictures there, or, perhaps, 
the hanging is more judicious : here it is horrible. I am credibly informed 
that the hanging this year was left to one of the porters of a celebrated print- 
seller, who has fourteen shillings a week for carrying out pictures, &c. : a 
very efficient hand, no doubt. If my authority were not good, I could not 
believe it. I see that Wei by Pugin has been undergoing some severe lashing. 
His Contrasts are certainly rather too bad; and yet 1 think they will have good 
effect; at least, in directing observation to modern barbarisms, and inducing 
people to compare different works. His square style just suits mure than one 
building of much pretension here. He is, perhaps, too enthusiastic, and 
somewhat illiberal in his opinions : but that is better than being lukewarm, 
and having no feelings at all. I like that article in your last Magazine, " On the 
Poetry of Architecture," much. For my part, I think those essays the best 
portion of the work. Mr. Barry is making a beautiful thing of our Athenaeum. 
I suppose you know that it is in his best Italian style : it will be a fine con- 



4S Institute of British Architects. Obituary. 

trast to his Royal Institution, with which it is in almost juxtaposition. He 
is also erecting a beautiful Gothic chapel for the Unitarians, in Upper Brook 
Street, Charlton, which is expected to rival his church of Saint Matthew, 
the spire of which is the most elegant I ever saw. — ./. W. II. 



Art. III. Institute of British Architects. 

July 24. 1837. — P. F. Robinson, V.P., in the chair. 

Elected. The Most Noble the Marquess of Lansdowne, and His Grace the 
Duke of Sutherland, as Honorary Fellows. 

Presented. Two pamphlets, describing a new Method of covering Roofs, 
lately invented in Prussia. The Vienna Journal of Architecture and En- 
gineering. White's Western Improvements. Library Catalogue of the Insti- 
tution of Civil Engineers. An Engraving of Manby's Apparatus for Warming 
and Ventilating Buildings. Three Fragments from Worcester Cathedral. An 
Impression of a Medal . representing the Place de Bordeaux, and Statue 
erected to the memory of Louis XV. 

Read. A communication from S. J. Har, on the recent Discoveries in the 
ancient Theatre of Catania. A paper by M. Cheverton, on Mechanical 
Sculpture. The Report of the Committee appointed to examine the Elgin 
Marbles, and to report whether any Traces of polychromatic Embellishments 
are to be found on them. A paper on the Employment of Painting on the 
funeral Monuments of the Greeks. 

This meeting was the last for the session of 1836-7. 

Dec. 4. 1837. The first ordinary meeting for the session, 1837-8. J. B. 
Papworth, V.P., in the chair. 

The president announced that her Majesty had consented to become the 
patroness of the Institution. 

Elected. J. Medland, Architect, Gloucester, as Associate. 

Presented. A View of Wells Cathedral. Civil Engineer, Nos. 1. to 3. 
Edwards on the Napoleon Medals. Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers. View of the Chancel of the Church of Stratford upon 
Avon. View of the proposed Pier and Improvements at Northfleet. A 
Volume of 93 original drawings by Panini, Bibiena, Oppenord, Benvenuto 
Cellini, and other celebrated artists. 

Head. Part I. of the History of the English School of Gothic Architec- 
ture, by J. Blore, Associate. A paper by the Chevalier Von Klenze, on a 
peripteral Ionic Temple erected by him in the Park at Munich, and decorated 
with polychromatic Embellishment. 

Exhibited. A model of Bunnctt and Corpe's Patent Revolving Safety 
Shutters. 



Art. IV. Obituary. 



John IAnnett Bond, Esq. — It is with extreme regret that we announce, the 
death of this highly gifted artist and truly admirable man, who expired at his 
house in Newman Street, on Sunday last, after many months of great bodily 
weakness. As an architect, he was, in knowledge, judgment, and taste, in- 
ferior to none of his contemporaries. For examples, we may refer to his 
design for Waterloo Bridge, justly considered one of the finest ornaments of 
the metropolis, which, with all the necessary estimates, was made by him for 
the projector, the late Mr. George Dodd, engineer; the principal inn at 
Stamford, executed for Sir Gerard Noel, and many other designs prepared 
for the same honourable baronet, which were never carried into effect; and 
others of a high character, now in possession of his brother, Mr. William 
Bond. Mr. Bond was well versed in classical literature. (Literary Gazette, 
Nov. 11. 1837.) 



THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE. 



FEBRUARY, 1838. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

Art. I. Suggestions relative to the best Models of Style to be adopted 
in designing the new Houses of Parliament in the Gothic Taste. 
By Henry Noel Humphreys. 

The persevering and careful research which has been devoted, 
of late years, to the study of that style of architecture conven- 
tionally termed Gothic, has produced a degree of excellence 
hitherto little expected in the imitation of its beautiful details, 
and even in some of its higher attributes ; and has inoculated 
the British architectural world with a mania, not only for 
restoring the old, but also for erecting new, buildings in that 
style, but little anticipated by its admirers of twenty years ago. 
When the first brightness of the novelty and fashion consequent 
upon the introduction of the modern Roman, or rather Italian, 
style began to wear off, a few original minds, capable of looking 
in a different direction to the crowd, turned back, and perceived 
the forgotten beauties of the Gothic, which it had so completely 
superseded. 

In the height of the Italian mania, even Inigo Jones, with all 
his genius, was so much enslaved by its influence, as to build a 
Roman portico to the Gethic St. Paul's. But a century later, 
when the tyranny of the fashion was in some degree abated, a 
man of inferior genius, Sir C. Wren, designed the towers of 
Westminster Abbey in a style more in accordance with that of 
the building to which they were to be appended ; thus making 
an actual attempt at Gothic. This was le premier pas : other 
restorations were attempted, with a praiseworthy attention to the 
style with which they were to amalgamate; with, however, it 
must be confessed, most lamentable success. 

Then came Horace Walpole's open and declared admiration 
of the discarded style of our noble cathedral and collegiate 
architecture, which gave a new impulse to the revived apprecia- 
tion of the Gothic ; and many efforts were made in that style 
more successful than his own fanciful and ridiculous attempts at 
Strawberry Hill : for he was no architect. He admired the 
Gothic rather with the eye of a poet. He saw and felt the 
picturesque, and occasionally even magnificent and sublime 

Vol. V. — No. 48. e 



50 Suggestio?is on the best Gothic Models of Style 

results ; but had no idea of the practical means by which they 
were arrived at. Yet the impetus had been given ; and the style, 
though confined almost entirely to a few additions to, or alterations 
of, old buildings, went on improving. The next era in the rise 
of the modern Gothic is, perhaps, the time of Wyatt and his 
school, who received immense sums for restorations and addi- 
tions to our cathedral and collegiate buildings, carried on upon 
a scale as yet unprecedented. 

Still, however, there was no proper feeling of the true spirit 
of Gothic architecture ; but, since that period, many men of 
elegant genius and unwearying industry, in answer to the calls 
of an already prevailing taste, have devoted their whole energies 
to the cultivation of this style; and some of our finest cathedrals 
have been restored to their original state with a perfection and 
accuracy that need not shun the scrutiny of their great Gothic 
masons themselves, if their shades ever walk in the dim light of 
those lofty ailes. Here, perhaps, having restored, and thus pre- 
served, to the admiration of yet distant generations, those beau- 
tiful historic monuments of our nation, the practice of Gothic 
architecture ought to have stopped. The resuscitated Gothic 
can only be successful when the most accurate and almost servile 
imitation is adhered to ; and the practice of art, in such a spirit, 
seems ill in accordance with the progressive genius of our most 
enlightened age. An age which the system of general education, 
though yet in its infancy, has filled with a thirst for knowledge 
and advance, and the means of acquiring them, unequalled at 
any period of which we have record, seems to call for that 
originality which must be the result of a proper adaption of 
our new and varied knowledge to the new and varied wants of 
our more elevated position. Are we, then, to be copyists in one 
of the most noble arts of civilisation, architecture? But a dis- 
cussion upon the means of originating a style in accordance and on 
a level with the taste, science, and feeling of the age, would lead 
me far from my subject. Fashion has been beforehand with me; 
and, as I have said in the first few lines of this paper, the careful 
study and successful practice of the Gothic in restoration has 
led to its adoption in new buildings. Churches and theatres, 
gin-shops and dissenting chapels, gentlemen's seats and peasants' 
cottages, are springing up in every direction in this style, studied, 
in many instances (in all successful ones), with the antiquarian 
and curious accuracy of an archaeologist. Such being the case, 
I suppose I must go with the stream as far as it goes, so long as 
it is too strong for me ; for the government takes the lead in the 
state barge, pulling away with bold and lusty strokes, having 
determined to build the greatest building in the country, the seat 
of legislature of this great empire, in the Gothic style. Admit- 
ting the improbability of stemming the torrent, we may yet take 



for designing the new Houses of Parliament. 51 

measures for securing the best part of the stream ; and, in such 
an attempt, I venture the ensuing remarks. It being decided 
that the building was to be Gothic (or Elizabethan), there was 
an open competition for the glory, as well as profit, of becom- 
ing its architect. The prize, with reference to the competion 
merely of the competing designs, has been most justly awarded : 
so far, all is well. Now comes the consideration whether, even 
by the best, the capabilities and different applications of the 
Gothic have been, as yet, sufficiently studied and mastered, to 
enable them to undertake, with the greatest possible effect of 
which the style is capable, the erection of so great and novel a 
work as the new Houses of Parliament. 

Most of our architects who have attained to any celebrity in 
the Gothic have, no doubt, thoroughly studied all the fine 
monuments of the style which this country possesses ; and, 
among our cathedrals, abbeys, colleges, and castles, there is 
doubtless a fine field for study, and a rich harvest to reap : yet 
none of these examples display the capabilities of the Gothic, in 
its application to the purely civic purpose of a senate house. 

We have, it is true, in the last phase of pure Gothic art, the 
Tudor style, as it has been termed, private residences ; but these 
do not possess the dignity requisite in a public building, and yet 
display beauties so peculiar and distinct, as to exemplify most 
completely the facility with which the Gothic artists adapted 
their architecture to any new and specific purpose. 

With the accession of the first of the Tudor family, ceased 
the disastrous contention of York and Lancaster ; and other 
simultaneous causes tended to settle that public security, which, 
for the first time, became sufficiently felt to induce wealthy indi- 
viduals to descend from their castles and strongholds, and erect 
open and elegant mansions in the plains ; and here, again, as in 
all former instances, the adaptability of the style was as beautifully 
exemplified, as the endless invention and ingenuitv of its pro- 
fessors were incontestably proved. Thus we see that the Gothic, 
in what may be termed its natural existence, suited itself with 
wonderful pliability to every new purpose to which it was ap- 
plied; producing, at the same time, in each fresh application, a 
peculiarity of feature and feeling which strongly and characteris- 
tically marked the individual, without, as it were, destroyinc the 
harmony of the family likeness. 

This we may easily picture to ourselves by imagining a oroup. 
Let there be a castle, with its machicolated gateway, upon an 
eminence; the abbey, with all its distinctive features, upon a rich 
slope of green, at a bend of the river ; the mansion, for which 
the ca>tle above seems to have been deserted, just glancing from a 
grove of noble elms, with its bay windows and quaint porch ; 
and, above the half-leveled walls of the adjacent town, the noble 

e 2 



52 Suggestions on the best Gothic Models of Style 

towers of the pinnacled cathedral, and the square mass of the 
collegiate or school buildings. Here we have the various mem- 
bers of the Gothic family of this country. How harmoniously 
they group ! and yet how distinctly the well-defined features of 
each individual at once proclaim its different constitution and 
peculiar purpose ! It will be seen, moreover, that this family 
group does not present a model for a senate house, or structure 
of similar character; and yet, had one of those architects who 
so wonderfully adapted their system to any new purpose upon 
which they were called to exercise it, been required to execute 
such a building, it is quite clear, from the examples before us, 
that he would not only have succeeded admirably, but have im- 
parted to the novel work a stamp and character peculiar to itself. 
He would, in short, have furnished us with the model required. 
Such would have been the result during the natural existence 
of the art ; but, in the reign of what may be termed its resusci- 
tation, how different ! The present existence of the Gothic is 
but a galvanic species of being, a sort of muscular motion, inde- 
pendent of, and deprived of, the vital principle. The vivifying 
spirit has departed ; the power of shooting forth new members 
in endless variety and combination, and yet, as it were, with the 
same parent sap thrilling in every fibre, exists no more. With- 
out a model of precisely similar character, the Gothic cannot 
now be successfully practised. For example, let us imagine a 
modern professor of the art attempting to build a Gothic cathe- 
dral, with only a Gothic castle before him as a model ; or let him 
attempt the construction of a Tudor mansion, even with the 
combined advantages of the cathedral and castle before him as 
types of his intended structure : and let any person acquainted 
with the subject paint the result upon the canvass of imagina- 
tion, and he will laugh at the bare idea. Hence it appears, that, 
if we persist in being Gothic architects, we must, to stand any 
chance of success, become, to a certain extent, copyists ; and 
copyists not only of the broad principles, but even more particu- 
larly of the individual features, in which the true and ductile 
graces of the style are developed. In fact, I believe it will 
readily be admitted, that the Gothic, except as a style of careful 
imitation, could not now exist. This, indeed, is sufficiently 
proved by a reference to the works of such architects as have 
adopted some of its principles as a groundwork, or stock upon 
which to engraft their own fanciful and frequently unmeaning 
inventions ; the mean, the unpleasant, the barbarous, I had 
almost said disgusting, effect of which combination must be 
apparent to even an ignorant observer, capable of the least 
natural perception of the beautiful and symmetrical. 

Having endeavoured to establish the necessity of a model of 
precisely similar character, in order to erect a building in this 



for designing the new Houses of Parliament. 53 

taste with the greatest possible effect of which the art is capable, 
I come to this point : Whence did Mr. Barry derive the model 
for his design for the Houses of Parliament ? That it was the 
best, by far the best, nay, in my humble opinion, the only 
tolerable one, in the competition, is no answer ; that he has 
designed and erected other buildings in the style, of almost 
faultless perfection, is no answer. For the most successful of 
these he had models, and knew how to use them, of precisely 
similar character. The Gothic family of England, it has been 
seen, did not present a model of the application of the style to a 
purpose similar to the one in question ; and Mr. Barry, without 
looking farther, has endeavoured to supply the deficiency by the 
substitution of a mixture of the cathedral and collegiate man- 
ners (if I may be allowed the use of such distinctive terms), and 
has produced an imposing design ; and, considering the insur- 
mountable difficulties which must ever encounter a modern Goth 
in the pursuit of such a course, a clever adaption. But is it the 
true spirit in which one of the great Gothic masons themselves 
would have conceived and modeled such a structure? With all 
diffidence, but strong conviction, I reply, certainly not. Before 
I directly indicate the true model for such a building, I would 
endeavour to point out a number of faults almost inevitably 
consequent upon the system pursued ; but space prevents my 
entering much into detail upon this part of the subject, and I 
shall only advert to two. In the first place, I cannot but think 
that no Gothic architect, in what I have termed the natural 
growth of the art, would have designed a building of such im- 
portance with the daring disregard of symmetry which charac- 
terises Mi\ Barry's work. In the present instance, I confine the 
term "symmetry" to the meaning of a general uniformity in 
corresponding parts. A facade conceived upon this principle 
should never have the appearance of terminating at one ex- 
tremity with a colossal tower, and at the other with a slender 
steeple.* The great Gothic artist always preserved the balance 
and general uniformity of the masses of corresponding portions 
of a building, however he allowed his exuberant fancv to run 
wild in detail. In fact, uniformity of corresponding parts was 
as essential in Gothic, as in Grecian, Egyptian, or any other 
perfect style of architecture. Our modern students of the 
Gothic have been too apt to look at the picturesque masses of 
our cathedral and collegiate buildings, with all their additions by 

* This effect is produced in the river fagade, though complete in itself, by 
not placing the great tower in the centre of the building, whilst the clock- 
tower, and a corresponding object, should have occupied each extremity. 
These objects, it is true, belong to the other front, which the peculiarity of 
the scite renders of necessity irregular ; but they might, at all events, have 
been made to minister to the effect of the river front, where the most perfect 
symmetry was within the reach of the architect. 

e 3 



54 Suggestions on the best Gothic Models of Style 

various hands at various periods, as though they were perfect 
works. They are anything rather than complete or perfect 
works ; and any Gothic artist of repute, of any period, would 
have deemed himself disgraced by designing such an irregular 
mass as the very finest of them, picturesque as they are ; and, if 
we refer to such original designs as are still in existence of some 
of the finest Gothic buildings of Europe, we shall find this 
axiom fully illustrated, with but few and trifling exceptions. 
And yet it will be found, upon referring to a great number of 
the plans proposed for the Houses of Parliament, that the de- 
signers have carefully copied the irregular grouping of our 
ecclesiastical buildings, which have served them as models* ; so 
difficult is it, when we become copyists, to avoid the deformities 
of our model. We sink, to borrow a simile from a sister art, 
into the materialism of the Flemish school, where we should 
catch the idealism of the Italian. A great sculptor, when he 
makes a statue, seeks to produce what nature intended ; what 
the model should have been, rather than what it is. So should 
our Gothic student endeavour to imagine what the original 
planner and creator of one of these noble piles would have made 
could he have lived (which has been but rarely the case) to 
complete his projected work; instead of copying the deformities, 
if I may use so strong a term for the irregularities which time, 
change of taste, and a thousand such accidents, have accumu- 
lated. + 

The other point I would urge against Mr. Barry's design is, 
the introduction of buttresses between the windows, along the 
whole line of the river front. I would either have made my 
walls of sufficient strength to do without them, or have so con- 
cealed them by suitable decoration as to have rendered them, 
if possible, ornamental. A great authority, M. Merrimee, di- 
rector of the historic monuments of France, has denounced the 
buttress as the most unsightly expedient of the Gothic architect. 
They give to the finest building the appearance of a tottering 
and propped ruin ; particularly where the flying buttress is 
resorted to, which always produces, to use his own words, 
Veffet d'une mine chancelante. But they had great objects to 
attain by means of this device : the immense height of their 
interiors ^the great secret of their wonderful effect) produced, in 
conjunction with the high roof, so great a thrust upon the outer 
walls, as to render some such contrivance absolutely necessary, 
unless they had made walls of an extraordinary, and almost 
impossible, thickness ; whilst, by their scientific application of this 

* It is but justice to observe that Mr. Barry's design was by far the most 
regular among the principal designs. 

f A careful study of such original designs as are still preserved cannot be 
too strongly recommended. 



or designing the new Houses of Parliament . 5"> 

principle, it is wonderful what they effected, with walls of a light- 
ness almost incredible. Nevertheless, when they had not the 
inconveniences of great height, without any cross ties to counter- 
act the thrust of the roof, to contend with, they rarely resorted 
to the unsightly buttress : it was the great object alluded to 
that led to its adoption; and it was essentially an adjunct of 
church architecture, where they sacrificed every thing to the 
aerial sublimity of their interiors. It is, however, well known 
that custom caused it sometimes to be adopted, as well in that class 
of buildings, as in others, where it was not always absolutely 
necessary. But, in their great civic buildings, where the exterior 
walls were no longer a shell constrained to support the weight 
and thrust of an enormous roof at a great altitude, they at once 
dispensed with the prop; and the facades of their beautiful 
hotels de ville were undisfigured by the unsightly buttress. 

So much for the two blemishes which I have ventured to point 
out in Mr. Barry's design; namely, want of symmetry, or uniform- 
ity in the corresponding parts ; and the unnecessary and profuse 
introduction of the buttress. It will at once be seen that my 
only object in all this is, to prove that, without a model in build- 
ings of precisely similar character, the modern Gothic architect 
must fail to produce the true effects of the style; and that, to a 
certain extent, even Mr. Barry himself has done so. 

Among his studies, he found no model, either in mass or detail, 
precisely suited to his purpose; and he proceeded at once with- 
out looking for one, to supply the deficiency by such combina- 
tions as his own genius of adaption suggested. Such treatment 
of the Gothic is like writing original poetry in a dead language ; 
the effect of which is but too well known : for who would compare 
for a moment even the all-perfect Latinity of Trissino with the 
lay of the meanest Norman bard who sang in his mother tongue? 

No ! in adapting to modern use a dead language, or a dead 
architecture, we must content ourselves with translations; and, in 
the present instance, the only difficulty appears to be, to find 
an original. I point at once to the noble hotels de ville of 
Germany and the Low Countries. Here, from the purest source, 
we are at once furnished with models for such a building as the 
British Houses of Parliament. How these noble senate houses 
of the free towns of the Empire and the Low Countries escaped 
the attention of Mr. Barry and the other competitors, appears to 
me both inexplicable and extraordinary, particularly when we 
consider that the plans and elevations of many of the most beau- 
tiful of them were within the reach of every architect, in various 
works at that time before the public. 

These splendid senate houses, I cannot but reiterate, offer the 
true models of the application of the Gothic to such a purpose 
as the rebuilding of the Houses of Parliament. They present 

e 4- 



56 Poetry of Architecture. 

original and distinguishing features, of such peculiar fitness to 
their purpose, as to render any modern attempts at creating a 
better adaption of the style to buildings of a similar class futile 
in the extreme. So, at least, it appears to me, and, I must think, 
to all who have studied, or even seen, any of the finest of these 
beautiful structures. To call attention to any in particular might 
only lead to cavil upon minor points, or I would make out a long 
list of such as, in beauty and unity of design, magnificence (I do 
not mean magnitude) of plan, characteristic beauty of detail, 
and, above all, in felicitous adaption of the style to the purpose, 
would leave far behind any of the plans in the late competition ; 
and which would have required but little modification to suit them 
to the actual purpose in question. Not that I would have had an 
architect make a servile copy of any entire mass, but dexterously 
to seize the characteristic features both of general conception and 
detail. 

Now, it is, perhaps, necessary for me to explain that I do not 
impute want of genius to any of the eminent men who illustrate 
the present school of architecture in this country ; very far from 
it : I simply impute to them a want of tact in seizing the proper 
character to be given to the building which they were designing ; 
and this was only to be obtained among the models alluded to, 
the natural models for such a structure as parliament houses in 
the Gothic style. This true character they sought to supply by 
studies among our cathedrals, abbeys, Tudor mansions, and 
Elizabethan seats ; and were thus driven to an incompatible 
combination of styles, to meet a purpose the true model of which 
was before them, in all the completeness of a perfect growth and 
developement, if they would but have seized it. Even the genius 
of Barry, by neglecting the pure source, has failed to produce a 
pure work. 

I have penned these observations in all modesty, however 
strongly I may occasionally, from complete conviction, have 
expressed myself. My only aim has been, if it is yet time, to 
call the attention of those who are competent to take advantage 
of them, to the characteristic beauties of the Gothic senate houses 
of Germany and Flanders, as the proper types of British houses 
of Parliament, if they must be erected in the Gothic style. 

London, December, 1837. 



Art. II. The Poetry of Architecture. By Kata Phusin. 

No. 2. The Cottage — continued. 

III. The Mountain Collage. — Switzerland. 

In the three instances of the lowland cottage which have 
been already considered, are included the chief peculiarities of 



Mountain Cottage of Switzerland. 57 

style which are interesting or important. I have not, it is true, 
spoken of the carved oaken gable and shadowy roof of the 
Norman village ; of the black crossed rafters and fantastic 
projections which delight the eyes of the German ; nor of the 
Moorish arches and confused galleries which mingle so mag- 
nificently with the inimitable fretwork of the grey temples of 
the Spaniard. But these are not peculiarities solely belong- 
ing to the cottage: they are found in buildings of a higher 
order, and seldom, unless where they are combined with other 
features. They are therefore rather to be considered, in future, 
as elements of street effect, than, now, as the peculiarities of inde- 
pendent buildings. My remarks on the Italian cottage might, 
indeed, be applied, were it not for the constant presence of 
Moorish feeling, to that of Spain. The architecture of the two 
nations is intimately connected : modified, in Italy, by the taste 
of the Roman ; and, in Spain, by the fanciful creations of the 
Moor. When I am considering the fortress and the palace, 
I shall be compelled to devote a very large share of my attention 
to Spain ; but, for characteristic examples of the cottage, I turn 
rather to Switzerland and England. Preparatory, therefore, 
to a few general remarks on modern ornamental cottages, it will 
be instructive to observe the peculiarities of two varieties of the 
mountain cottage, diametrically opposite to each other in most 
of their features ; one always beautiful, and the other fre- 
quently so. 

First, for Helvetia. Well do I remember the thrilling and 
exquisite moment when first, first in my life (which had not 
been over long), I encountered, in a calm and shadowy dingle, 
darkened with the thick spreading of tall pines, and voiceful 
with the singing of a rock-encumbered stream, and passing up 
towards the flank of a smooth green mountain, whose swarded 
summit shone in the summer snow like an emerald set in silver ; 
when, I say, I first encountered in this calm defile of the Jura, 
the unobtrusive, yet beautiful, front of the Swiss cottage. I 
thought it the loveliest piece of architecture I had ever had the 
felicity of contemplating ; yet it was nothing in itself, nothing 
but a few mossy fir trunks, loosely nailed together, with one or 
two grey stones on the roof: but its power was the power of 
association; its beauty, that of fitness and humility. 

How different is this from what modern architects erect, 
when they attempt to produce what is, by courtesy, called 
a Swiss cottage. The modern building known in Britain by 
that name has very long chimneys (see Jig. 12.), covered with 
various exceedingly ingenious devices for the convenient recep- 
tion and hospitable entertainment of soot, supposed by the 
innocent and deluded proprietor to be " meant for ornament." 
Its gable roof slopes at an acute angle, and terminates in an 



58 



Poetry of Architecture. 




interesting and romantic manner, at each 
extremity, in a tooth-pick. Its walls are 
very precisely and prettily plastered ; and 
it is rendered quite complete by the addi- 
tion of two neat little bow windows, sup- 
ported on neat little mahogany brackets, full - 
of neat little squares of red and yellow glass. 
Its door is approached under a neat little ve- 
randa, " uncommon green," and is flanked 
on each side by a neat little round table, with 
all its legs of different lengths, and by a variety of neat little 
wooden chairs, all very peculiarly uncomfortable, and amazingly 
full of earwigs : the whole being surrounded by a garden full of 
flints, burnt bricks, and cinders, with some water in the middle, 
and a fountain in the middle of it, which wo'n't play; accom- 
panied by some goldfish, which wo'n't swim ; and by two or 
three ducks, which will splash. Now, 1 am excessively sorry 
to inform the members of any respectable English family, who 
are making themselves uncomfortable in one of these ingenious 
conceptions, under the idea that they are living in a Swiss 
cottage, that they labour under a melancholy deception ; and 
shall now proceed to investigate the peculiarities of the real 
building. 

The life of a Swiss peasant is divided into two periods; that 
in which he is watching his cattle at their summer pasture on 
the high Alps *, and that in which he seeks shelter from the 
violence of the winter storms in the most retired parts of the 
low valleys. During the first period, he requires only occasional 
shelter from storms of excessive violence; during the latter, a 
sufficient protection from continued inclement weather. The 
Alpine or summer cottage, therefore, is a rude log hut, formed 
of unsquared pine trunks, notched into each 13 

other at the corners (see Jig. 13.). The roof, 
being excessively flat, so as to offer no sur- 
face to the wind, is covered with frag- 
ments of any stone that will split easily, held 
on by crossing logs; which are, in their 
turn, kept down by masses of stone; the whole being generally 
sheltered behind some protecting rock, or resting against the 
slope of the mountain, so that, from one side, you may step 
upon the roof. This is the chalet. When well grouped, 
running along a slope of mountain side, these huts produce a 
very pleasing effect, being never obtrusive (owing to the pre- 
vailing greyness of their tone), uniting well with surrounding 
objects, and bestowing at once animation and character. 

* I use the word Alp here, and in future, in its proper sense, of a high 
moui.cuin pasture ; not in its secondary sense, of a snowy peak. 




Mountain Cottage of Switzerland. 



59 




But the winter residence, the Swiss cottage, properlv so 
called, is a much more elaborate piece of workmanship. The 
principal requisite is, of course, strength ; and this is always 
observable in the large size of the timbers, and the ingenious 
manner in which they are joined, so as to support and relieve 
each other, when any of them are severely tried. The roof is 
always very flat, generally meeting at an angle of 155°, and 
projecting from 5 ft. to 7 ft. over the cottage side, in order to 
prevent the windows from being thoroughly clogged up with 
snow. That this projection may not be crushed down bv the 
enormous weight of snow which it must sometimes sustain, it is 
assisted by strong wooden supports (seen in Jigs. 14. and 15.), 
which sometimes extend half down the walls for the sake of 
strength, divide the side into regular compartments, and are 
rendered ornamental by grotesque carving. Every canton has 
its own window. That of Uri, with its diamond wood-work at the 
bottom, is, perhaps, one of the richest. (See^yfor. 15. in p. 63.) The 
galleries are generally rendered ornamental by a great deal of 
labour bestowed upon their wood-work. This is best executed 



60 Poetry of Architecture. 

in the canton of Berne. The door is always 6 or 7 feet from the 
ground, and occasionally much more, that it may be accessible 
in snow ; and it is reached by an oblique gallery, leading up 
to a horizontal one, as shown in Jig. 14. The base of the 
cottage is formed of stone, generally whitewashed. The chim- 
neys must have a chapter to themselves : they are splendid 
examples of utility combined with ornament. 

Such are the chief characteristics of the S\vis£ cottage, 
separately considered. I must now take notice of its effect in 
scenery. 

When one has been wandering for a whole morning through 
a valley of perfect silence, where every thing around, which is 
motionless, is colossal, and every thing which has motion 
resistless ; where the strength and the glory of nature are 
principally developed in the very forces which feed upon her 
majesty; and where, in the midst of mightiness which seems 
imperishable, all that is indeed eternal is the influence of 
desolation ; one is apt to be surprised, and by no means agree- 
ably, to find, crouched behind some projecting rock, a piece of 
architecture which is neat in the extreme, though in the midst 
of wildness, weak in the midst of strength, contemptible in the 
midst of immensity. There is something offensive in its neat- 
ness : for the wood is almost always perfectly clean, and looks 
as if it had been just cut; it is consequently raw in its colour, 
and destitute of all variety of tone. This is especially disagree- 
able, when the eye has been previously accustomed to, and 
finds, every where around, the exquisite mingling of colour, 
and confused, though perpetually graceful, forms, by which the 
details of mountain scenery are peculiarly distinguished. Every 
fragment of rock is finished in its effect, tinted with thousands 
of pale lichens and fresh mosses; every pine trunk is warm 
with the life of various vegetation ; every grassy bank glowing 
with mellowed colour, and waving with delicate leafage. How, 
then, can the contrast be otherwise than painful, between this 
perfect loveliness, and the dead, raw, lifeless surface of the deal 
boards of the cottage. Its weakness is pitiable ; for, though 
there is always evidence of considerable strength on close 
examination, there is no effect of strength : the real thickness of 
the logs is concealed by the cutting and carving of their exposed 
surfaces ; and even what is seen is felt to be so utterly con- 
temptible, when opposed to the destructive forces which are in 
operation around, that the feelings are irritated at the imagined 
audacity of the inanimate object, with the self-conceit of its 
impotence ; and, finally, the eye is offended at its want of size. 
It does not, as might be at first supposed, enhance the subli- 
mity of surrounding scenery by its littleness, for it provokes no 
comparison ; and there must be proportion between objects, or 



Mountain Cottage of Switzerland. 61 

they cannot be compared. If the Parthenon, or the Pyramid of 
Cheops, or St. Peter's, were placed in the same situation, the 
mind would first form a just estimate of the magnificence of the 
building, and then be trebly impressed with the size of the 
masses which overwhelmed it. The architecture would not 
lose, and the crags would gain, by the juxta-position; but the 
cottage, which must be felt to be a thing which the weakest 
stream of the Alps could toss down before it like a foam-globe, 
is offensively contemptible : it is like a child's toy let fall 
accidentally on the hill side ; it does not unite with the scene ; 
it is not content to sink into a quiet corner, and personify 
humility and peace; but it draws attention upon itself by its 
pretension to decoration, while its decorations themselves can- 
not bear examination, because they are useless, unmeaning, and 



incongruous. 



So much for its faults ; and I have had no mercy upon them, 
the rather, because I am always afraid of being biassed in its 
favour by my excessive love for its sweet nationality. Now for 
its beauties. Wherever it is found, it always suggests ideas 
of a gentle, pure, and pastoral life. One feels that the peasants 
''whose hands carved the planks so neatly, and adorned their 
cottage so industriously, and still preserve it so perfectly, and 
so neatly, can be no dull, drunken, lazy boors ; one feels, also, 
that it requires both firm resolution, and determined industry, 
to maintain so successful a struggle against " the crush of 
thunder, and the warring winds." Sweet ideas float over the 
imagination of such passages of peasant life as the gentle 
Walton so loved ; of the full milkpail, and the mantling cream- 
bowl ; of the evening dance, and the matin song ; of the herdsmen 
on the Alps, of the maidens by the fountain; of all that is 
peculiarly and indisputably Swiss. For the cottage is beauti- 
fully national; there is nothing to be found the least like it in 
any other country. The moment a glimpse is caught of its 
projecting galleries, one knows that it is the land of Tell and 
Winkelried ; and the traveller, feels that, were he indeed Swiss- 
born, and Alp-bred, a bit of that carved plank, meeting his eye 
in a foreign land, would be as effectual as a note of the Ra?iz 
des Vaches upon the ear. Again, when a number of these 
cottages are grouped together, they break upon each other's 
formality, and form a mass of fantastic projection, of carved 
window and overhanging roof, full of character, and picturesque 
in the extreme : an excellent example of this is the Bernese 
village of Unterseen. Again, when the ornament is not very 
elaborate, yet enough to preserve the character, and the cottage 
is old, and not very well kept (suppose in a Catholic canton), 
and a little rotten, the effect is beautiful : the timber becomes 
weather-stained, and of a fine warm brown, harmonising delight- 



62 Poetry of Architecture. 

fully with the grey stones on the roof, and the dark green of 
surrounding pines. If it be fortunate enough to be situated in 
some quiet glen, out of sight of the gigantic features of the 
scene, and surrounded with cliffs to which it bears some pro- 
portion ; and if it be partially concealed, not intruding on the 
eye, but well united with every thing around, it becomes alto- 
gether perfect ; humble, beautiful, and interesting. Perhaps 
no cottage can then be found to equal it ; and none can be 
more finished in effect, graceful in detail, and characteristic as 
a whole. 

The ornaments employed in the decoration of the Swiss 
cottage do not demand much attention : they are usually 
formed in a most simple manner, by thin laths, which are 
carved into any fanciful form, or in which rows of holes are cut, 
generally diamond-shaped; and they are then nailed one above 
another, to give the carving depth. Pinnacles are never raised 
on the roof, though carved spikes are occasionally suspended 
from it at the angles. No ornamental work is ever employed 
to disguise the beams of the projecting part of the roof, nor does 
any run along its edges. The galleries, in the canton of Uri, are 
occasionally supported on arched beams, as shown in Jig. 1 5., 
which have a very pleasing effect. 

Of the adaptation of the building to climate and character, little 
can be said. When I called it " national," I meant only that 
it was quite sui generis, and, therefore, being only found in 
Switzerland, might be considered as a national building; though 
it has none of the mysterious connexion with the mind of its 
inhabitants which is evident in all really fine edifices. But 
there is a reason for this: Switzerland has no climate, properly 
speaking, but an assemblage of every climate, from Italy to 
the pole ; the vine wild in its valleys, the ice eternal on its 
crags. The Swiss themselves are what we might have ex- 
pected in persons dwelling in such a climate: they have no 
character. The sluggish nature of the air of the valleys has a 
malignant operation on the mind ; and even the mountaineers, 
though generally shrewd and intellectual, have no perceptible 
nationality: they have no language, except a mixture of 
Italian and bad German ; they have no peculiar turn of mind ; 
they might be taken as easily for Germans as for Swiss. No 
correspondence, consequently, can exist between national archi- 
tecture and national character, where the latter is not distin- 
guishable. Generally speaking, then, the Swiss cottage cannot 
be said to be built in good taste ; but it is occasionally 
picturesque, frequently pleasing, and, under a favourable con- 
currence of circumstances, beautiful. It is not, however, a 
thing to be imitated : it is always, when out of its own country, 
incongruous; it never harmonises with anything around it, and 



Xotes on modern Architecture. 
15 



63 

















can therefore be employed only in mimicry of what does not 
exist, not in improvement of what does. I mean, that any one 
who has on his estate a dingle shaded with larches or pines, 
with a rapid stream, may manufacture a bit of Switzerland as 
a toy ; but such imitations are always contemptible, and he 
cannot use the Swiss cottage in any other way. A modified 
form of it, however, as will be hereafter shown, may be employed 
with advantage. I hope, in my next paper, to derive more 
satisfaction from the contemplation of the mountain cottage of 
Westmoreland, than I have been able to obtain from that of the 
Swiss. 



Art. III. Notes on modern Architecture. By Amicus. 

No. 3. 

I took a glance at the new building jutting out at the corner 

of Paternoster Row; but all idea of criticism was absorbed in the 

regret I felt, that so excellent an opportunity should have been 

lost for making a grand opening to St. Paul's and the new Post- 



64« Notes on modem Architecture. 

Office. Here, a line of buildings in continuation of St. Martin's 
le Grand, through Paternoster Row, to St. Paul's Churchyard, 
would have thrown open an area not to be equalled in any other 
part of the city ; it would have also brought into one view two of 
the most extensive buildings : but, I fear, a niggardly economy 
has wholly frustrated this idea. In this spot might have been 
placed the equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington ; thus 
forming, altogether, one of the most interesting groups in Lon- 
don. In no situation can we obtain a good view of St. Paul's : 
although the best side of the building would not then have been 
presented to us, yet it was the only view that we have any chance 
of obtaining in the present time. 

Who the parties interested in the improvements of London 
are I know not; but few of them, perhaps, possess opinions above 
the ordinary and commonplace interests of pounds, shillings, and 
pence ; and all our improvements are intrusted to managers 
who have very little idea of sacrificing at the shrine of Taste. 
Can we talk of the noble spirit of the most enlightened city in the 
world, when all improvements of a liberal nature are tinctured 
with commercial feeling? But the time has passed, I fear, to 
remedy this great oversight ; and such another opportunity 
may not occur for a length of time. 

I have called the New Post-Office one of the largest buildings 
in the city: but it does not follow that it is the best architectural 
design ; for, although it is generally praised, it is but a common- 
place production. Ask why it is praised, and you get such 
indiscriminate replies as, " It is grand," " noble," " large," 
"fine;" all which terms just amount to nothing: it is large, and 
the great secret in these commendations consists in this parti- 
cular. The portico is the best feature in the building; but it 
possesses no novelty, except that of being larger than those of 
the same family dotted all over this great metropolis. But, 
if I say much of this, I shall have all the profession upon me at 
once; for how many public buildings are there erected in London, 
nay, all over the country, that have not this same feature ? It 
would be a good speculation for a builder to mould the Grecian 
porticoes, and sell them ready made : it would save much time and 
expense. But, setting aside all banter, I have no doubt we could 
count scores of porticoes copied from the same Grecian authority. 
We will now just look at the wings. Here is novelty without 
thought ; and a portico without any means of getting under it, 
except through the windows. How much better the building 
would have been without these additions ! They are of no use 
whatever, and only darken the rooms opposite to which they 
stand ; and they certainly do not enhance the dignity of the centre, 
but rather divert the eye from it. But the greatest fault of these 
porticoes is their utter uselessness. Turning round the corner to 



Notes on modern Architecture. 65 

the south end of the building, you are struck with a totally dif- 
ferent composition. Here, the regular forms of the Athenian 
architecture merge into circular arches and the general charac- 
teristics of the Italian school. Had the principal front or the 
building been of a mixed design, the harmony of the composition 
would have been preserved; but, if the main features of a build- 
ing partake of a certain style of architecture, the same idea should 

be carried through the design. An angular view of this build- 
er o o 

ing will convince every one of the necessity of attending to this 
particular; for, when the side and end are viewed at the same 
time, the perspective range in the horizontal lines of the windows 
is abruptly terminated by curves ; and thus the idea of unity is 
destroyed. 

The small Doric columns, in place of balusters, in the south 
end, are, in my opinion, far from being in good taste, from their 
association in our minds with entirely different uses. Much 
might have been done by an original design, with very little 
thought: but, to place petit columns in this situation, is reducing 
them to meaner and less meaning offices than have hitherto been 
assigned them. 

A word or two on the over-decoration of halls and staircases, 
compared with the other rooms of the house. All invention, all 
originality of thought, is generally squeezed into these places : 
ceilings are paneled, cornices enriched; sculpture is sought for 
in addition to columns ; and, indeed, all architectural display 
is centred in this place. Frequently, we are pleased with the 
first appearance of the hall : the decorations are consistent and 
well arranged. This, we fancy, argues well for the living-rooms. 
We are ushered into the dining-room, the drawingroom, and 
others in succession; but no architecture here shows itself to 
warrrant the display in the hall. A double-plinth skirting, com- 
mon architraves to the doors, a cornice round the ceiling, and, 
perhaps, a white marble chimney-piece, elaborately carved, and 
purchased ready designed, are all the decoration we find; the wide 
flat ceiling without any appearance of support, the naked walls, 
and the general commonplace, not to say mean, appearance of these 
apartments displease us, after so much ostentation on entering 
the house. Perfect unity of design is to be obtained by preserv- 
ing the same degree of decoration internally as externally : the 
character of the latter, in a building, should be an index to the 
former. The mind does not like abrupt contrasts ; and deficiency 
in finish only shows affected display on the outside for bad 
economy within. A house totally unfurnished should have a 
character of fulness, if I may so call it, that should not depend 
entirely upon the upholsterer for decoration. 



Vol. V. — No. 48. 



66 



Corrugated Cast-iron Roof 



Art. IV. The Corrugated Cast-Iron Roof of the Coal Depot of 
the London Gas-lVorks, Vauxhall. By M. D. 

On visiting the estates of the London Gas Company at 
Vauxhall, my attention was directed to one of the coal depots 
there, a building of considerable dimensions, the roof of which 
is constructed of corrugated cast-iron plates. 

This appears to me to be one of the lightest, most elegant, and, 
from the particulars furnished on the spot, the most economical, 
description of roof which has yet been used for a public build- 
ing; and, therefore, I doubt not but a short account of it, with a 
few sketches illustrative of the principles on which it is constructed, 
will be found interesting to some of your professional readers. 

I believe that this is the only roof of the kind that has been 
erected, and, indeed, the first experiment which has been made 




of throwing a corrugated cast-iron roof over an extensive space. 
It was erected at the suirirestion of, and from drawings furnished 
by, Mr. Hutchison, the eminent engineer of the establishment, 
whose extensive improvements in gas machinery have rendered 
him so deservedly known to the public. 



at the London Gas- Works, Vauxhall. 



67 



Fig. 16. exhibits a section and interior view of the depot, show- 
ing the roof (a), the wall-plates (b b), and the tie-rods (c c). The 
roof, which is the segment of a circle, is formed by a series of 
cast-iron plates, with parallel angular corrugations ; five of the 
plates completing the arc. 

Fig. 17. is an isometrical representation (viewed as an under 
mii lace) of one of the lower, or side, plates. Each of these is 




cast with two small projections (««), formed like the foot of a 
common rafter, which rests upon, and is secured to, an uprio-ht 
rib, raised on the centre of the wall-plate. The cast-iron plates 
measure 3 ft. 9 in. by 2 ft. 1 in. ; and the sides of the corrugations 



are 3% in. 

Fig. 18. is a transverse section of the plates, showing 



tl 



le 



18 



21 9 6 3 

i ■ i i ■ ■ i ■ ■ i i i i 



manner in which they are joined at the sides, one overlapping 
the other, as at e e. 

Figs. 19, 20. are isometrical representations of the upper plates, 
on the lower end of each of which there is a raised band (J J), 
3 in. deep, that overlaps the end of the next plate, which is inserted 
underneath this projection; that is, the end g of Jig. 19. fits on 
the end h of Jig. 20. It will be observed that, on one side of each 
plate, the ledge is only 2 in, instead of 3^ in. because it is over- 
lapped by the broader ledge of 3^ in. on the next plate. The 
side i of Jg. 19. overlaps the side k of Jig. 20., as shown at e e, 
Jig. 18. The plates are secured together by small iron bolts, 
and are made perfectly air and water tight by fillino- the 
joints with cement or putty. A coating of tar or paint is oc- 
casionally applied, in order to protect the plates with more 
effect from the weather. 

f 2 



68 



Corrugated Cast-iron Runt 




Fig. 21. is a vertical section of the plates, which shows the wall 
(«), the wall-plate (/-), the projecting piece that rests on the wall- 
plate (/), the joining of the ends of the plates (?«), and the tie- 
rod (n). 

Fig. 22. is an isometrical representation of part of the wall-plate, 
which is worked into the stone or brick work on the top of the 
side walls. The wall-plates are in different lengths, joined by 
bolts at o o. They are kept in their proper position by tie-rods 
(])), each of which is inserted in a groove, or box (q), and there 
secured by the wedge, or key (r). 

Each of the corrugations affords a channel for conveying the 
rain-water from the roof to the gutter, so that no accumulation 
of water can take place. 

This description of roof seems to me to be well adapted to 
retort-houses and founder ies, as it is not in any way injuriously 
affected by the great heat generated in those places. 

It will be observed that there are neither rafters, king-bars, or 
lath required in this roof. It consists simply of cast-iron plates, 



at the London Gas- Works, Vauxhall. 



f>\9 




united by small bolts and tie-rods, as represented by the illustra- 
tive sketches. ' 

I was informed, while examining this interesting roof, that the 
London Gas- Works had been visited, of late, by several eminent 
engineers and architects, for the purpose of seeing this improve- 
ment in the construction of roofs, and of ascertaining from Mr. 
Hutchison, the gentleman who built it, the practical advantages 
of adopting it in preference to wrought iron, slates, or tiles. I 
have ascertained that the average cost is 8/. per square yard ; 
and, by way of illustrating the comparative expense of this and 
another kind of roof, I have had it from good authority, that the 
wrought-iron roofs of the retort-houses at Vauxhall cost each 
2000/. ; and similar buildings may now be roofed with corrugated 
cast iron at an expense of 800/. So marked a difference in the 
expense of constructing roofs must necessarily excite the atten- 
tion of practical men, especially those who are engaged in 
buildings of any magnitude. 

I am told that this roof has answered so well, and has given so 
much satisfaction, that it is Mr. Hutchison's intention to erect 

f 3 



70 Design for a Proprietary School. 

one on a much larger scale next summer. It will measure, it is 
said, 190 ft. by 42 ft. 

The professional gentlemen who have examined this beautiful 
application of cast iron have admitted it to be the most durable 
and most economical roof that can be constructed ; and I think 
that it may be justly considered as one of the principal improve- 
ments of the day in the science of building ; and no small degree 
of credit is due to the enterprising engineer who has first intro- 
duced it. 

London, Oct. 12. 1837- 



Art. V. Design Jar a Proprietary School at Islington. By James 
Edmeston, Architect. Communicated by Frederick Lush. 

A short time back, an advertisement appeared in the Times, 
announcing to architects that a premium of 20/. would be given 
for the most approved Grecian design for a proprietary school, 
to be erected at the southern part of Islington. The drawings 
(Jigs. 23. to 26.) are accurately sketched from those which were 
sent in among the others ; but they were finally rejected, another 
design being adopted. I was kindly favoured with them from the 
portfolio of the architect, Mr. Edmeston, from whose designs and 
directions Hackney Grammar School was built. 




The present design for Islington School is made to accommo- 
date 150 boys. The architect proposed to have the school-room 
warmed by two gas-stoves, which would produce an equable 
heat, be economical in their expense, and which would avoid the 
necessity of Hues. The windows, being constructed for the upper 
sash to swing upon a pivot, would afford sufficient ventilation. 



Design for a Proprietary School. 



71 




F i 






72 



Design fur a Proprietary School. 
25 



--■' ■■ .; ■ ! 



.■ . 



;: i 





Ft. 10 



40 Ft. 



The best mode of drainage was to be shown in the submitted 
designs ; but, as it was not ascertained if there were a common 
sewer in the neighbourhood, and the most advantageous method 
would depend much upon that point, the drainage, to a certain 
degree, remained undetermined: a length, however, of 100 ft. of 
9-inch barrel drain is considered in the estimate. 



Design far a Proprietary School. 



73 



is the ground 



Fig. 25 
plan of the Diuiciing, in 
which a is the entrance 
hall; b, the school-room, 
50 ft. by 30 ft. ; c, the 
head master's and com- 
mittee-room, 19 ft. by 
17ft. 6 in.; d, the assis- 
tant master's room, and 
apartment for drawing, 
French, &c, 19 ft. by 
1 7 ft. 6 in. ; e, a cloak and 
hat room, lighted by a 
sash door (?'), 14 ft. by 
13 ft. 6 in. ; f, a water- 
closet for the masters ; 
g, the porter's room, 1 3ft. 
6 in. by 13 ft.; h, a large 
closet for stationery, and 
other articles required in 
the school ; k k, gas- 
stoves ; I /, rostrums for 
the masters; m, sink 



n n, closets 






front 



garden ; p, play-ground ; 
q, coal-shed ; ;• r, privies, 



&c. 



railing 



in 



front 




m - f> 



■~ 



of the principal elevation 
next the river, on a line 
with Duncan Terrace ; 
t, railing next the road 
from High Street, Is- 
lington. 

Fig. 24. is the front, 
or principal, elevation, at 
a scale of 1 1 ft. to 1 in. 

Fig. 23. is the return elevation, at a scale of 16 ft. to one inch. 

Fig. 26. is a longitudinal section on the line a b on the ground 
plan. 

The amount of the estimate is 1420/. 

Throughout the whole of the design, there is hardly one em- 
bellishment which could be done away with, without injuring the 
simple but striking effect of the whole. It would have been 
almost impossible, in such a building, to have studied economy 
and effect (which are here so happily blended together) in a 
greater degree, without destroying its dignity of appearance, or 
depriving it of all pretensions to architectural character. 

Charles Square, London, March, 1836. 



7* 



Labourer s Cottage in the Grecian Style. 



Art. VI. A Design for a Labourers Cottage or Gate Lodge, in the 
Grecian Style. By Edward Brigden, Architect, Bristol. 

The cottage, ofwhich/g. 27. is the elevation, is designed in a 
manner somewhat approaching to the Grecian, or in what may be 




called the pseudo or Anglo Grecian, and would be very suitable 
for an entrance lodge to a mansion in the Grecian style. It 



■2H 




would look best faced with stone; and the gate pier should be of 
the same material. In Jig. 28., which shows the ground plan, a 



Nicholson's Treatise on Projection. 



15 



is the living-room ; l>, the bed-room ; c, the washhouse, with a 
boiler in one corner; and d, the garden. Although no fireplace 
is shown in the bed-room, one might easily be introduced, should 
it be thought requisite. In countries where stone is plentiful, I 
have seen the floors of cottages formed of flagstone, which looks 
well ; but, for comfort and warmth, wood is preferable. 
Bristol, June, 1836. 



Art. VII. A temporary Table, or Ironi ng- Board, for small country 

Cottages. By VV. S. 

It is a matter of some little difficulty, in small cottages for the 
labouring classes in the country, to place the shutters to the 
windows on the ground floor in such a manner as to answer the 
purpose, and yet be out of the way. The following plan I have 
adopted in some buildings of that description which have been 
lately erected under my superintendence. 

The shutters in Jig. 29. are hung on hinges in such a manner as 
to fall down into a recess below the 
window during the daytime; and, 
consequently, are quite out of the 
way when not wanted for shutting 
up the house, or for the purposes 
hereafter described. The idea sug- 
gested itself to me, that shutters 
might be occasionally used as a 
temporary table or ironing-board ; 
and, to effect this end, two move- 
able bars, as supports, were let into 
mortises in the floor, and made 
to abut against similar mortises 
made in the ledges on the under 
side of the shutters. The two cor- 
nices were slightly rounded, and 
the upper surface was left plain, 
without paint. Two swing iron 
or wood brackets might be used instead of the two wooden 
bars, as they could be folded back into the recess also. 

London, Oct. 1837. 




REVIEWS. 

A.rt. I. A Treatise on Projection, Sfc. By Peter Nicholson. 4to. 

Newcastle, 1836. 

The various works of Mr. Nicholson have acquired a celebrity which renders 
Jiis name a guarantee of the value and importance of the present work. To 
every one who is acquainted with mechanical drawing, or who is interested in 



76 Bennett's Original Geometrical Illustrations. 

mathematical pursuits, a mere glance at the volume will suffice to convince 
them how laborious but how excellent a work has been achieved, in the present 
instance, by the venerable and highly respected author. A descriptive title- 
page affords a general idea of the various objects comprehended in the volume, 
which are, to explain the first principles of plans and elevations, the modes of 
delineating solids and every form of mechanical construction, so as to present 
a striking image of the object to be carried into execution. The accomplish- 
ment of these is developed on entirely new principles, the nature and applica- 
tion of which will be best understood by a reference to the volume ; but the 
principal feature is, that, by means of a directing diagram, every line of any 
required projection may be at once referred to its proper place by means of a 
parallel ruler. The application of this figure is not only novel and ingenious, 
but it exceedingly simplifies the whole process of projection, and renders easy 
of execution what cannot be accomplished by any other means. The volume 
also contains a complete system of Isometrical Drawing ; and the whole is 
applied to Architecture, Building, Carpentry, Machinery, Ship-building, Astro- 
nomy, and Dialling. The nature of the subject requires, and has in this instance 
obtained, the aid of numerous illustrations, which are neatly engraved on sixty- 
seven copperplates, which furnish most admirable examples to the mechanical 
artist. 

The utility of a work of this description is so evident as not to require com- 
ment. We wish, however, to direct the attention of the scientific reader to 
its eminent merits, and to notice the high claims which the talented author has 
upon the liberal patronage of the public. Scientific works, it is well known, 
have seldom proved beneficial to the writers ; and few have laboured more 
zealously, or with greater usefulness, in this department of literature, than 
Mr. Nicholson ; while few have been less benefited in a pecuniary point of 
view. At an advanced age, he yet retains that remarkable clearness of concep- 
tion and aptitude of demonstration, which enable him to grasp every subject 
connected with his professional writings, and to develope his views in plain, 
simple, and conclusive language. Hence, his works have been popular to an 
amazing extent, and are to be found on the bookshelf of every intelligent mason 
and carpenter in the kingdom. Indeed, to Mr. Nicholson's writings, a large 
portion of the widely spread knowledge of architecture which prevails may be 
traced, as to a fountain head. They have had the effect of rendering this 
description of practical knowledge familiar, and, at the same, of placing it on 
the sure basis of mathematical demonstration ; or, as Mr. Nicholson's labours 
were happily described by Mr. Buddie at a public meeting, " he threw open 
the doors and windows of the workshop to the light of science, and bade it flow 
freely in." 

Projection includes every kind of representation which is used in the 
practical departments of art and science. It is distinguished from Perspec- 
tive, inasmuch as it is the geometrical delineation of objects by means of 
parallel rays, and not by converging rays. Hence, it is adapted for all those 
purposes where dimensions are required, or where a true delineation of the 
exact form of the object is requisite. As a mode of drawing, it has hitherto been 
much neglected ; and, even at the present time, is very imperfectly understood ; 
of which nothing can afford a stronger proof than the various contradictory 
opinions which have from time to time appeared in several London publica- 
tions. The present volume, however, establishes the theory on a firm basis, 
and exhibits it in so clear and attractive a form, that it will, doubtless, become 
one of the most esteemed standard works, and find a place in the library 
of every scientific and mechanical student. (Newcastle Journal. Communicated 
to the Architectural Magazine by the Author of the Article.) 



Art. II. Original Geometrical Illustrations ; or the Book of Lines, 
Squares, Circles, Triangles, Polygons, S^c: showing an easy and 
scientific Analysis for increasing, decreasing, and altering any 



D< Dial d son's Let ley to the Duke of Sussex. 77 

given Circle, Square, Triangle, Ellipsis, Parallelogram, Polygon, 
&{C., to any other Figure containing the same Area, by plain and 
simple Methods, laid down agreeably to mathematical Demonstration, 
indispensable to Architects, Artists, Artificers, Builders, Cabinet- 
makers, Carpenters, Engineers (Military and Civil), Engravers, 
Glass-cutters, Jewellers, Machinists, Painters, Sculptors, Statuaries, 
fyc; containing, also, a Variety of useful Information, intended as a 
complete Instructor to the most useful Science of Geometry and 
Mensuration. By John Bennett, Engineer, Author of the " Ar- 
tificer's complete Lexicon," " Labour Prices for Builders," &c. 4to, 
with numerous engravings on wood, and 55 copperplates. Lon- 
don, 1837. 

The title of this work so fully explains its contents, that we 
need say little more than that the body of the work fulfils the 
expectations raised by the title ; and that it well deserves a place 
in the library of every working mechanic. 

As the author informs us in his Preface, " the various geome- 
trical figures are laid down with simplicity and perspicuity, 
suitable alike for the artisan, manufacturer, and gentleman ; and, 
being principally drawn to the scale or size of the common two- 
feet rule, are thereby rendered plain to the understanding and 
easy of imitation." 

The work consists of two parts: 1. " Geometrical Illustrations, 
mathematically demonstrated," which consist of a series of terms 
arranged alphabetically, explained verbally and by numerous 
woodcuts ; and, 2., a series of copperplate engravings on 55 plates, 
with letterpress explanations. 



Art. 111. A Letter to His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex ; ivilh 
a Plan for the Promotion of Art, Science, and Literature, by the 
moderate but effectual Assistance of Government. By Thomas L. 
Donaldson, Architect, Feiiow and Honorary Secretary of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, Corresponding Member of 
the Institute of France, &c. Pamph. 8vo. London, 1838. 

The ardour and enthusiasm with which Mr. Donaldson is 
en<rao-ed in the cause of architecture are well known; and, indeed, 
it is chiefly to his exertions that we are indebted for the establish- 
ment of the Institute of British Architects. We entirely agree 
with our correspondent, a Provincial Architect (see p. 1. of the 
present Volume), that the Institute of British Architects is con- 
structed on a false foundation ; and we expressed this opinion in 
detail, Vol. II. p. 470 — 472. ; nevertheless, by directing public 
attention to the subject, and by other means, it has done much 
good ; and, therefore, we think that it deserves that assistance 
from government which Mr. Donaldson suggests as desirable. 
After showing the very limited incomes of the Astronomical, 
Geographical, Asiatic, Statistical, and other Societies, as com- 



7S Blunt' s Civil Engineer 



o 



pared with the good that they have done, and the large propor- 
tion of the expense which these and other Societies incur in the 
form of rent for apartments, Mr. Donaldson says, — 

" I would therefore venture to suggest that government could afford 
assistance to such Associations, at once effectual and little liable to abuse, by 
locating them suitably ; in fact, by extending to other Societies that privilege 
which is now peculiar to the Royal Society, Antiquarian, Geological, and 
Astronomical Societies, and the Royal Academy of Arts. By this means, 
their funds would be relieved from a material item of expense; and the fact 
of being in an edifice provided by government, and, as it were, carrying on their 
proceedings with its immediate sanction, would give them a weight and import- 
ance, which no othermethod could produce so effectually or so unobjectionably. 

The details for carrying such an idea into execution will be 
found in the pamphlet itself; which, being dedicated to the Duke 
of Sussex, will, we trust, receive the attention of government. 



Art. IV. Blunt's Civil Engineer and Practical Machinist : Treatises 
on Civil Engineering, Engineer Building., Machinery, Mill- Work, 
Engine-Work, Iron-Founding, fyc; executed for the Use of En- 
gineers, Iron-Masters, Manufacturers, and operative Mechanics. 
By Charles John Blunt, Civil Engineer and Practical Machinist. 
Division B. 

The fifth number of this excellent work, designated as Division 
B., has at length made its appearance, nearly two years after 
the fourth, in which number the fifth was promised in six 
months. 

Sincerely wishing well to this most useful and splendid under- 
taking, we cannot but lament that it should profess to be pub- 
lished periodically, and yet fail to keep time in any one number. 
This irregularity must have an injurious effect on the sale. Many 
valuable and interesting periodicals have failed from this cause 
alone. It is, therefore, well not to fix a time, except the power 
of keeping it be clearly ascertained. 

It does not appear why the numerical designation has been 
superseded by the literal. We think there should have been a 
reason assigned for subjecting those readers who delight in chro- 
nological order, to the trouble of examining the dates on the 
engravings, as the only means afforded for settling the succession 
of the divisions. 

But we have done with complaint ; and we hope our intima- 
tions will be received in the same spirit of kindness which has 
dictated them. We feel much pleasure in adding to the favour- 
able opinion already given of the work in Vol. I. p. 237., that 
the latter divisions are rendered much more interesting to the 
general reader, and more useful to the professional one, by the 
observations and specifications given in addition to the dry refe- 
rential descriptions which alone constituted the letterpress of the 
earlv numbers. 



Blunts Civil Engineer. 79 

Of the accuracy of the engravings, and clearness and abun- 
dance of the details, we cannot speak too highly. Mr. Blunt has 
done himself great honour by this exhibition of his skill and 
industry; and we hope he will be amply rewarded by an exten- 
sive sale. No engineer, iron-master, or manufacturer, ought to 
be without this inestimable work ; and it would be an interest- 
ing addition to the library of every gentleman, more particularly 
such as delight in encouraging the advancement of practical 
science. 

Although we cannot hope that any great proportion of the 
operative mechanics will avail themselves of the valuable infor- 
mation to be obtained from this publication, yet there are, no 
doubt, many whose prudential management of their moderate in- 
comes affords a surplus sufficient for the purchase, who would 
thus outlay part of that surplus, were they informed of the ex- 
istence of such a work. 

The following outline of the contents of the five divisions 
already published will corroborate our encomiums. 

No. I. Division I. — Boulton and Watt's Portable Steam- Engine, in tivelve super- 
royal and folio plates. 

Plate 1. A general view of the entire engine. 2. The beam in detail, beam- 
carriage, gudgeons, &c. 3. The parallel motion. 4. The entire detail of the 
steam cylinder and piston. 5. The hot and cold-water pumps, in detail. 
6. General plan of the engine. 7. The slide valves, and their casing. 8. The 
casing of the slide valve. 8. The eccentric rod and camb. 10. The governor 
in detail. 11. and 12. The engine framing. 

No. II. Division 2. — Marine Steam-Engines, Steam Corn-Mills, Sec, complete 
in ten super-royal and folio plates. 

Plate 1. General plan of a pair of 40-horse marine engines. 2. A general 
transverse section of the two engines, the vessel, &c. 3. A general side eleva- 
tion of the larboard engine. 4. A steam corn-mill. 5. Section of the steam 
corn-mill. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Details of the steam corn-mill. 

No. III. Division 3. — Horizontal and vertical Sugar-Mills, Forges, Mill and 
Forge Hammers, Sec, complete in ten super-royal and folio plates. 

Plate 1. Horizontal and vertical sugar-mills. 2. A steam corn-mill, by 
Maudslay. 3, 4, 5. Details of the same. 6, 7, 8. The Kent and Surrey 
sewers, Duffield sluice. 9. The great tilt, or mill and forge, hammers. 10. 
Charles Manby's smith's forge, in use in the iron-works of Beaufort, Aber- 
gavenny. 

No. IV. Division A. — Sea Entrance-Gates, Swing Bridges, Canal Bridge of 
the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal, Water Wheels, and Iron Roofs. By the 
late Thomas Telford, Esq., C.E. F.R.S., Sec Plans, Sections, and Machinery 
of the Weymiss Colliery, complete in ten super-royal and folio plates. 

Plate 1. The Gloucester and Berkeley Canal. 2, 3. 10. An underdip 
colliery, now working under the Firth of Forth at Weymiss. 4. Extract of a 
report of the late John Hughes, Esq., on dredging, and the carrier and delivery 
barge. 5. Original specification of the swing bridges on the Gloucester and 
Berkeley Canal. 6. Details of the bridges. 7, 8. Description and references 
of a breast water-wheel and machinery. 9. Plan of the water-wheel. 10. A 
cast-iron roof, with details. 



80 Glossary of Architectural Terms. 

No. V. Division B. 

Plates I, 2. London and Birmingham railway, Lawley Street viaduct. 3. The 
Bogie locomotive engine. 4. The Hercules locomotive engine, on the New- 
castle and Carlisle railway, o, 6. London and Birmingham railway goods 
waggon. 7,8- Details of the goods waggon, wheels, carriages, &c. 9. Eleva- 
tion and end view of a tender, as employed on the London and Birmingham 
railway. 10. The Great Western Railway Bridge, or Viaduct, over the River 
Thames, at Maidenhead. 

The sizes of the plates vary from 24 in. by 9 in. to 44 in. by 
19 in. — J. I. H. 



Art. V. A Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, 
and Gothic Architecture. The second edition, enlarged. Exem- 
plified by 400 woodcuts. 8vo, pp. 144. London, 1838. 

This is a new and very much improved edition of a work 
bearing the same title, reviewed by a correspondent in our Fourth 
Volume, p. 249. The present edition is so greatly enlarged, and so 
amply illustrated by beautiful engravings on wood, that it might 
well pass for a new work. Of all the architectural glossaries which 
we have seen, this is decidedly the one which we should recom- 
mend to the general reader, or to ladies desirous of obtaining a 
knowledge of architecture. With such a volume as a com- 
panion, the interest excited by all buildings whatever, and more 
especially by churches, public buildings, ruins, and antiquities, 
will be greatly increased ; and, as we should wish to diffuse 
a knowledge of, and a taste for, architecture among all classes, 
we cannot too strongly recommend this volume. If it were to 
be generally studied by ladies, it would effect for them, with 
regard to architecture, what Dr. Lintlley's Ladies' Botany has 
done with regard to plants. 

In order that those who possess the first edition may have 
some idea of the improvements made in the second, we think it 
but justice to copy a portion of the Preface. 

" The rapid sale of this work clearly shows that something of the kind was 
required, and has encouraged the publishers to incur a huge additional expense, 
in order to render it more worthy of the approbation of the public. While grate- 
fully acknowledging the favourable reception it has met with, they are far from 
being blind to its deficiencies, ami have endeavoured, in the present edition, to 
remedy them. The objections made to the work were, that it was too concise, 
and much too confined to Gothic architecture, especially in the illustrations. 
The first arose from an anxiety to avoid the opposite extreme, as it is obviously 
easier to extend such a work than to confine it within prescribed limits ; the se- 
cond, from the nature of the work, the chief object of which is the illustration 
of the Gothic stj les : but in the present edition the Grecian capitals, mouldings, 
&c, are given. The series of examples of the dirlerent portions of Gothic 
architecture, is also rendered much more complete tl an before; and the addi- 
tion of the ascertained or presumed date to each will, it is hoped, prove con- 
venient and useful. As this is the first attempt of the kind, much indulgencs 
may fairly be asked, ami a few errors may be expected to have crept in, some 



Sinims's Observations on Asphaltic Mastic. 8 1 

of which are corrected in the errata: the suggestions of Matthew Bloxam, 
Esq., of Rugby, as to the presumed dates of many of the examples, have been 
followed, and his remarks and corrections are appended to this Preface. 

" At the suggestion of Professor Wheweli of Cambridge, some attempt has 
been made to quote authorities, and thereby to distinguish between terms of 
long-established usage and those recently introduced : with the kind assist- 
ance of Mr. Willis, the latter object has in all cases been effected; but in 
other instances it did uot appear necessary to quote any authority. The Com- 
piler feels bound to acknowledge the great obligations he is under to Professor 
Wheweli and to Mr. Willis, for their advice and assistance, and for the liberal 
manner in which they allowed him to make extracts from their useful and 
interesting works : he has also to express his obligations to J. Come, Esq., 
for the use of a manuscript glossary, by John Carter, in the handwriting of 
the late Alexander Chalmers, and apparently compiled by him from Carter's 
papers in the Gentleman s Magazine." (p. vi.) 



Art. VI. Practical Observations on the Asphaltic Mastic, or Cement 
of Seyssel, noiv extensively employed on the Continent, for Pave' 
ments, Roofing, and Flooring, for Hydraulic Works, fyc; explain- 
ing its Nature and Manipulation, §c. By F. W. Simms, Civil 
Engineer, late of the Royal Observatory ; Author of a " Treatise 
on the principal Mathematical Instruments employed in Surveying, 
Levelling, aud Astronomy, &c. 8vo, 27 pages. London. Price Is. 

This is a work which will be perused with intense interest by 
architects, builders, and paviers, as it bids fair to introduce some 
important improvements in buildings of every description, water- 
works, and pavements. It is a gratifying proof of the alacrity 
with which new inventions are enquired into in the present day, 
that the asphaltic mastic, of which nothing was known in Eng- 
land two months ago, but what was contained in a newspaper 
paragraph, or, perhaps, in the letters of Englishmen at Paris to 
their friends at home (an extract from one of which letters we 
published, p. 45.), is already described in detail, accompanied by 
its history, chemical properties, and various applications, in a 
work published in London. 

Mr. Simms's account of the asphaltic mastic is drawn up 
with the greatest perspicuity, and supported by documents of 
undoubted authority ; and the following extracts, while they 
prove this, will put the general reader in possession of all that 
he can desire to know on the subject. To the professional man, 
the work itself is essential. 

" The ancients were indebted for the preservation of their buildings to the 
choice of their materials, and particularly to the use of cements, which, perfectly 
uniting with- metal, stone, or wood, rendered their structures firm and solid. 
Amongst others, the use of a bituminous cement appears to have been exten- 
sive from the earliest times. Historians inform us, and modern observation 
confirms their statements, that the bricks with which the walls of Babylon were 
constructed were cemented together with hot bitumen. And in the destruction 
of some ancient remains of fortifications, supposed to have been Roman, near 
Pyrimont, about forty years ago, the stones appear to have been similarly ce- 

V'ol. V. — No. 48. g 



82 Simms's Practical Observations 

merited ; and so great was its tenacity, that the works were with great difficulty 
pulled down, and not without the use of gunpowder. This circumstance led 
to a singular and important discovery, for the fact of which, as follows, we are 
indebted to a gentleman named Perrigny, a native of that neighbourhood. 
During the removal of the above ancient remains, it was observed that the 
cement bore a great resemblance to the asphaltic mass or mountain in the park 
of Pyrimont, about five miles north of Seyssel. This led several persons 
present to think of making a similar application of it; amongst others was a 
relative of M. Perrigny, whose dwelling on the banks of the Rhone was so 
very damp, that the lower part could not be appropriated to any use whatever. 
This person considered that its application might succeed in keeping out the 
wet, every other remedy that he had tried having failed. The experiment was, 
accordingly, made, and succeeded beyond his most sanguine expectations. 
This circumstance, among other early trials of its properties, speedily led to 
its very general adoption in that vicinity, where the working of this material 
has become of great importance, and where the presence of the bituminous 
asphalte it so great as to appear almost inexhaustible ; and, although but re- 
cently worked to any great extent, yet its properties as a cement appear to 
have been long known. It already constitutes the chief wealth of the country, 
which was previously half wild. 

" In various parts of the eastern chain of the Jura mountains, there are bitu- 
minous veins of greater or less extent ; but the only place at present known 
where the asphaltic rock is to be found is at Pyrimont, above named, in the 
department de l'Ain. In this immediate vicinity is also obtained a peculiar 
kind of mineral pitch, there called bitumen, which, upon being mixed in certain 
proportions with the asphalte, forms the mastic, or cement, of which it is our 
business to treat, and which, in France, after years of struggling with preju- 
dices, and the opposition of parties interested in its failure, is obtaining so 
large a share of patronage as to be extensively employed both in the public and 
private works of that kingdom. 

" For many years after the discovery of the valuable properties of the asphalte, 
the mine at Pyrimont was the property of a company of Swiss merchants ; but, 
from their defects of management, and from the limited extent of their finances, 
their operations were confined within very narrow bounds; and, at length lan- 
guishing, the properties of the mastic were likely to have become lost to society. 
It, however, passed into other hands, among whom we find the English name of 
Taylor, and also of Mr. Equem, a gentleman who has persevered against all 
opposition in calling the attention of the French engineers and architects to 
the subject ; and, havinsr executed a variety of works with unvaried success, has 
secured for it a rapidly advancing popularity in France, where we have lately 
had an opportunity of professionally examining and acquainting ourselves, not 
only with its nature, but also with its manipulation. 

" The business has now fallen into the hands of a private company at Paris, 
who, with a capital of 30,000/., purchased the mine at Pyrimont, and are carry- 
ing on an extensive trade in its manufacture, with Mr. Equem at the head of 
the executive department. 

" The asphaltic mastic of Seyssel, when prepared for use, is, as before ob- 
served, a compound of two mineral substances ; one is the native asphalte, the 
other is bitumen ; the proportion of the former in the amalgam is 93 centimes, 
and of the latter 7 centimes. The asphalte is extracted from the mine in 
blocks, and reduced to an almost impalpable powder before it is mixed with 
the bitumen. The latter, as extracted from the mine, is first broken into 
pieces of about the size of an egg ; these are put into boiling water, and the 
particles which rise to the surface are purified by boiling for ^4 hours : the 
result is, the bitumen to be mixed with the pulverised asphalte. The combina- 
tion of these two substances forms the mastic or cement, which, being reduced 
to a fluid state by the application of caloric, is poured into moulds of any shape 
required ; or, in this state, used as cement in hydraulic works, &c. The use 
of the bitumen appears to be the giving of ductility to the mastic ; and, if a 



on Asphalt ic Mastic for Pavements, $c. 83 

very minute quantity of 6ulphur be added, the mastic will become hard, and 
partially brittle. 

" In France, where, with the exception, we believe, of Belgium, this mastic 
has, at present, only been employed, attempts have been made to imitate it ; 
but in these fictitious compounds substances have been introduced instead of 
asphalte, which absorb from 40 to 50 per cent of bitumen, forming a composi- 
tion which the heat of the sun will melt, and which cracks when exposed to 
the cold of winter. In other instances, matter has been substituted which, 
having no affinity whatever for bitumen, disintegrates with time. When in 
Paris, we had an opportunity of making a fair comparison between the 
genuine and the fictitious materials. In the abattoir of Montmartre, one of the 
great public slaughter-houses of Paris, a part has been laid down with the 
mastic of asphalte, and another part with the fictitious mastic, both as substi- 
tutes for flag-stone pavement ; for this purpose, perhaps a more severe test of 
their respective merits could not have been found, being exposed to the tramp- 
ing of men and cattle, the dying struggles of the latter, with the blood and 
water with which it is constantly deluged. The flag-stone pavement hitherto 
used required frequent repairs and renewal ; yet so great are the tenacity and 
hardness of the genuine mastic, that, although it had been thus in use for many 
months, it appeared as if it was new ; whilst, on the other hand, the fictitious 
mastic had worn so much in holes as very much to resemble a honeycomb; and 
these holes being filled with blood and filth, presented to an unaccustomed eye 
a very disagreeable sight. 

" The genuine mastic possesses the hardness of stone, and yet preserves a 
certain elasticity. When used as pavement for terraces or footpaths, it appears 
to resist the wear equally well with granite ; and, when prepared in the manner 
now adopted in Paris, it is difficult to distinguish it in such situations from 
that stone. One of the finest specimens of paving that ever came under our 
notice, and which, at first sight, we mistook for granite, is that on the north 
side of the palace and gardens of the Tuilleries: it is about 1100 yards in length, 
and 10ft. wide; it is composed of the asphaltic mastic; and the joints, which 
transversely cross it the whole breadth, and which at present appear to divide 
the pavement into a number of large equally sized slabs, are disappearing, by 
the mastic becoming more dense from the tramping of feet; so that this exten- 
sive piece of pavement will soon appear, from end to end, like one immense 
sheet of stone. 

" A few minutes after the mastic has been spread in a fluid state, it again takes 
its natural density, which is such, that, at the heat of 30° Reaumur (equal to 
100° of Fahrenheit), it resists all impressions from an ordinary force. Its ex- 
tensive application to the covering of buildings, instead of tiles, slate, or lead, 
has induced the trial of experiments in France, by which it was ascertained 
that it is anti-electric, a property which it is desirable that all bodies should 
possess that are employed in roofing. Its application, also, for the flooring of 
halls, passages, and apartments is in no way dangerous on account of fire, as 
it is not inflammable, the quantity of pitch which it contains being so very 
small. For the floors of underground kitchens, &c, it is particularly appli- 
cable, it being warm, and keeps out all damp, as well as vermin and insects, 
which are frequently so abundant in such places. When employed in the con- 
struction of water-tanks or reservoirs, it imparts neither taste, smell, nor colour 
to the water it contains." 

Having thus stated, generally, that, with possessing the dura- 
bility of the hardest stone, it is wholly impervious to moisture, 
while it possesses the advantage of almost indefinite extension; 
or, where joints cannot be avoided, of being so closed as to 
present a continuous surface ; Mr. Simms next produces his 
documentary evidence. This consists of letters from French 

G 2 



84 General Notices. 

architects, engineers, &c, stating the uses which they have 
made of the cement: the details of four experiments made to 
prove its strength and durability : a quotation from Buffon, 
in which he says, " Thirty-six years ago, I caused to be plas- 
tered over with asphalt a large basin in the garden of Na- 
tural History, which ever since has been perfectly retentive of 
water:" instances in which asphalt has been substituted for 
flag-stone pavement : on the application of asphalt to roofing : 
reference to certificates of military engineers, and twenty-two of 
the principal architects of France, dated as far back as 1827, as 
to its use in hydraulic constructions for roofs and terraces: 
instances of the application of asphalt to flooring, &c. The 
retail prices of the asphalt, both in its native and manufac- 
tured states, as charged by the company at Paris, are next 
given; by which it appears that foot pavement costs about 6^d., 
and roofs 8^d., per square foot. A comparative view of prices 
of slate, lead, &c, is added ; after which follows a geological 
account of the mine of asphalt at Pyrimont, from the Bulletin 
de la Societe Gcologique de France. An appendix contains the 
opinions of Lords Elgin and Lincoln, and Sir John Hay, Bart., 
dated Paris, Nov. 23. 1837. 

No material promises to be so well adapted for realising our 
idea of a narrow strip of flag-stone, or an equivalent to that, 
along the centre of all the footways in the neighbourhood of 
towns, to a distance from towns varying according to their extent 
and population. Substitutes for gravel walks, in gardens having 
steep surfaces, may also be made of it; and, indeed, for the walks 
of kitchen-gardens, and for all street-gardens, it will probably be 
found superior to every thing else. 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

Art. I. General Notices; 

Harper and Joyce's neiv Stove and improved Fuel. — In our preceding 
Number, p. 46., while noticing an American stove that produced no smoke, 
we referred to an account which we had given of Joyce's self-consuming stove 
in a contemporary Number of the Gardener's Magazine. In that account, we 
stated that we had seen the stove in action for several hours, on December 5., 
in the Horticultural Society's meeting-room, in Regent Street. We stated 
that the stove was remarkable in several respects: 1. In producing no smoke 
or offensive vapour or odour of any kind ; 2. In the extreme cheapness and 
immense heating power of the fuel employed, a pound or two of the material 
(which does not cost above one halfpenny per pound) serving to keep up a 
sufficient temperature, in a moderate-sized room, for 20 hours; 3. In its re- 
quiring very little labour, the charge being put in at periods of from 15 to 30 
hours apart, and no attention whatever being required in the intermediate 
space ; 4. In its perfect freedom from dust, and in no noise being required to 
keep the fuel burning, as in stoves which require the use of the tongs, poker, 
&c. ; 5. In its comparatively perfect security from accidents by fire, no part of 
the flame or ignited fuel being visible. This may be enough to give some idea 
of the invention, the great excellence of which consists in saving every par- 



General Notices. 85 

tide of heat produced by the fuel, as in the case of burning charcoal in the 
middle of a room ; but without producing any of the offensive or deleterious 
vapours which arise from charcoal, and the other fuels in common use, when 
so consumed. 

Since our article appeared in the Gardener's Magazine, the inventor, Mr. 
Jovce, a gardener at Camberwell, has taken out a patent " for an improved ap- 
paratus for heating churches, warehouses, shops, factories, hot-houses, car- 
riages, and other places requiring artificial heat, and improved fuel to be used 
therewith. Sealed December 16." The specification to be given in within 
6 months. (Report, of Patent Inventions, Jan., 163S, p. 62.) A partnership 
has been formed between Mr. Joyce and Mr. Harper, and the stove has lately 
been exhibited privately to some friends and scientific men at the Jerusalem 
Coffee-House, Cornhill. We may remark here, as a singular fact, that this 
patent was opposed by an individual who appears to have thought that he 
had made the same or a similar invention. He obtained an injunction, but 
that was shortly afterwards dissolved. Scarcely any thing was said respecting 
this mode of heating in the daily, weekly, or monthly journals (except the 
Gardener's Magazine), that we are aware of, till January 13.; when the Me- 
chanic's Magazine and the Literaru Gazette contained each a short article on 
the subject, of which the following is the essence : — 

Joyce's new stove " is in the form of a tall urn, having a pipe running en- 
tirely through the centre, with a cap, or valve, at the top, to regulate the 
draught. The urn is of thin bronze, about 2ft. high, and Sin. in diameter. 
Bv the combustion of the fuel inside, the metal continues at a dull red heat, 
and so gives off the caloric to the surrounding air. The fuel is stated to be 
a vegetable substance, and one charge in a stove of the above-described 
dimensions will burn for 30 hours, and will cost sixpence. No smoke or 
efHuvia are produced." (Meek. Mag., Jan. 13. 1838.) 

" The new Mode of Heating Rooms, <Src. — The puzzle which has been 
shown at the Jerusalem Coffee-House has set the wits of conjecturers at work 
upon the nature of the particular fuel which, at so cheap a cost as one 
farthing an hour, is to warm a room. Of these conjectures we have heard 
two : the first is, that the gardener who discovered the fuel, which enabled him 
to keep up the fire whilst he slept, must have used old tanner's bark, as it 
was the only fuel accessible in a hot-house ; the other is, that charcoal is 
the base, and lime employed to absorb the carbonic acid gas. Gipsies are in 
the habit of using the ashes of their fires, raked together in a heap, and 
sprinkled with lime. This will burn throughout the night, and give out much 
heat, and no deteriorating gas is evolved to distress the sleepers in the gipsy 
tent." (Lit. Gaz., Jan. 13. 1838.) 

Whatever may be the fuel employed, the invention, unless some objection 
be discovered to it, which has not yet been foreseen, will prove an immense 
source of economy, in money and in labour, to all those nations throughout 
the world who are obliged to heat artificially the apartments in which they 
live. As we have said in the Gardener's Magazine, this invention promises 
to hold the same rank in domestic economy (that is, the art of house-keeping), 
as the invention of gunpowder does in the art of war. 

New Materia/ to be applied to Dwelling-houses, to render them capable of 
resisting Fire. — About the middle of November, 1837, the scientific world was 
somewhat startled by observing, in the newspapers, an announcement that a 
discovery had been made and perfected, of a material to be applied to dwelling- 
houses, capable of entirely resisting the action of fire ; that an experiment was 
to be made to prove its efficacy, at White Conduit House, Nov. 25. 1837 ; and 
that the presence of all parties concerned was requested to view the exhibition. 
It might have been supposed that the answer to this appeal would have been 
universal ; and, as parties generally attend where there is nothing to pav, 
and they really are interested, that half London would have been present on 
the occasion. But, unfortunately, John Bull has had " Wolf! " shouted to him 
so often of late, mightv discoveries have turned out " such fantastic tricks," 

g 3 



86 General Notices. 

that he has grown very sceptical indeed. There was, however, a tolerably 
numerous party collected at White Conduit House on the day of experiment ; 
some, of course, interested in its success ; others, perhaps, equally so in its 
downfall. The material is, in appearance, a cement, and, like it, may be ap- 
plied with the trowel, or with a brush in the manner of paint. Mr. Dewitte, 
the inventor of this composition, considers that it should be applied to the 
timber of a house while budding, about a quarter of an inch thick ; or it may be 
employed instead of the common plaster now in use, as it can be worked with 
equal facility, and polished and painted the same. Sufficient quantity has not 
yet been prepared to form any certain estimate of the expense ; but he con- 
siders that the cost of preparing the whole of the timbers of an 8-or [O-roomed 
house would not exceed 30/. or 40/. For the experiment, two little wooden 
houses had been constructed; the one prepared interiorly, with the exterior 
just washed over, to show the nature of the composition, and the other 
left in its natural state. These were filled with shavings and fired : the one 
not prepared was, of course, immediately one mass of flame ; while the other , 
resisted every effort to ignite it. It was delightful, at this moment, to watch 
the disappointment of the oppositionists, who afterwards took an unfair ad- 
vantage of a neglect on the part of the proprietors. When the burning mass 
of the unprepared house was at its greatest heat, they busied themselves to turn 
it round close upon the other building, though Mr. Dewitte assured them that 
the exterior of the building was not prepared. After some time, it began to 
burn, and they gloried in their triumph, until the one building, having burnt 
itself out, dropped to the ground, and discovered the side of the other partially 
burnt away, but with the inside coating and the rest of the building as perfect 
and unharmed as if it had never been touched, notwithstanding the furnace 
heat that had been applied to both sides of it. The persons assembled, among 
whom were Mr. Barry, and other eminent architects and scientific people, 
declared themselves perfectly satisfied of the complete success of the material : 
the only hope expressed was to see the experiment tried on a larger scale, 
when the proprietors shall be better prepared for it. Convinced of its perfect 
efficacy and value, I only trust that they will immediately set about preparing 
a more extensive trial, to prove to those who were so anxious to throw cold 
water on the invention, that it is of no more use in stopping their progress, than 
it would be in stopping the progress of the flames when we shall enjoy the 
security of having our houses prepared with their composition. — A. De- 
cember, 1837. 

Hydrostatic Measurement of Timber. — In the West India Docks, mahogany 
logs are weighed in a crane ; and their weight marked on one end. Now, it 
would be practicable also to measure these logs at the same moment that they 
are weighed : I mean, taking their solid contents. Thus, suppose a log weighs 
25 cwt. 1 qr. 141b. : it would be, when reduced, 25*375 cwt. Then, as the 
cubic foot of fresh water is 62^ lb. weight, we have only to multiply the spe- 
cific gravity of mahogany by 62g* and we find the weight of a foot of maho- 
gany to be 66i lb. nearly. With this as a divisor, and the 25375 cwt. reduced 
to lbs. 

making 2842'000 as a dividend, 
2842 

we have = 41 feet odd. 

66-5 
Thus we see how, by means of water, of which the mahogany is a palpable 
form, we can measure the products of water. 

The only difficulty in obtaining by this means a compound weighing and 
measuring crane is, that we cannot find two pieces of the same wood, or 
wood of the same name, of the same specific gravity. If all oak, all fir, all 
ash, all teak, all mahogany, were of the same specific gravity, we should 
have a constant multiplier for each sort of wood ; and then, by the simple 
operations of multiplication and division, we could accomplish our purpose. 
The rule, in words, is : Multiply the specific gravity of the wood, whatever it 
be, by 62 J ; and the produce will be the weight of a cubic foot. Then divide 



Domestic Notices: — England. 87 



5" 



the weight of the log or stick in pounds avoirdupoise, by the weight of its 
cubic foot; and the quotient will be the solid contents in feet of the stick. — 
A. J. Jan. 1. 1838. 



Art. II. Domestic Notices. 
ENGLAND. 



LIGHTING the House of Commons. — On Friday evening, January 5., Lord 
Duncannon, Mr. Baring, and several other members of parliament, attended 
in the House of Commons for the purpose of observing the result of a new 
plan, proposed to the committee by Dr. Reid, for lighting the house with gas. 
In the lobby were stationed two engines and a strong body of firemen, in readi- 
ness to operate upon any part of the house, in case of accident from any out- 
break of flame. Between the benches of the galleries were also stationed men, 
with buckets of water, for the protection of the roof, to which the experiment 
was almost exclusively confined. Three lines of tubes were laid down upon 
an inclined plane, immediately under the slopes of the roof, and over those 
windows in each side of the ceiling from which, in the daytime, the light de- 
scends. Behind the row of panes of glass, in the wall over the door opening 
into the reporters' gallery, was placed a single tube. There were no tubes at 
the other end of the house. A few minutes after four o'clock, the main cocks, 
which are all on the Abbey side, were turned, and three lines of strong illumi- 
nation shot down light on the floor from the roof, and one line from the 
reporters' gallery. In the former, the flames issued in oval jets, about an inch 
in length, and a quarter of an inch asunder, not less than 1500 in a row, and 
incessantly flickering. From the single tube at the reporters' gallery, each 
flame issued in a triple jet. The view had a dazzling effect from the floor ; 
and the light, without being in the least distressing to those who stood be- 
neath, enabhd one to read the smallest print with ease. No smell whatever 
was perceptible, the carbon not being permitted to come below the glass. 

The object of the proposed use of gas (the effluvium being prevented from 
descending, as already stated) is to discontinue the burning of wax candles in 
the chandeliers ; and thus, by saving a quantity of air hitherto carbonified, 
for the respiration of persons within the area, to give greater efficacy to Dr. 
Reid's plan of ventilation, which has not been as yet carried out. To promote 
this plan, the number of holes in the floor are now being doubled. Through 
these the air ascends very densely when the carpeting is off the floor : it rushes 
in at the doors with the force of a gale; but it is said that, if a man were to 
stand near the valve of the shaft over the ceiling, the current of air would blow 
him over. The expense of gas is calculated at nearly 30/. a night; that of 
candles, at not more than 51. Mr. Wakley, who was in the House, said the »as 
burned, in the chambers above the ceiling, at a temperature of 130°, drying 
up the lath and plaster, and all adjacent combustible matter on the roof; so 
that the fabric would, from the slightest accidental creation of flame, take fire 
and burn like touchwood. In his opinion, the glass in the windows would 
crack before ten hours. (Times, January 6. 1838.) 

Ventilation of the House of Commons. — Several noblemen and gentlemen 
were present, on the evening of December 30., in the House of Commons to 
witness certain experiments made by Dr. Reid with reference to the venti- 
lation and lighting of that house. In consequence of the complaints made 
upon this subject during the present session, the attention of Dr. Reid was 
called to it ; and, accordingly, that gentleman came to town from Edinburgh 
to enquire into the causes of the inconveniences of which the members had 
complained. It would be difficult to furnish our readers with an idea of the 
precise method adopted for diffusing and equalising the progress of the air from 
the lower chambers of the House of Commons; and to explain the precautions 
by which Dr. Reid considered it necessary to give complete effect to his plan. 
It is sufficient to observe, that the complaints had reference to the dryness of 

o I 



88 Domestic Notices : — Eimland. 



a 



the atmosphere, and the quantity of dust which was stated to have risen from 
the floor of the house, and to be inhaled by the members. In order to pre- 
vent the first of these inconveniences (namely, the dryness of the atmosphere), 
extensive arrangements had, we understand, been made before the opening of 
last session of Parliament, but were suspended, owing to the concurrent ap- 
probation expressed by members of all parties of the improved ventilation of 
the house by the steps already taken. 

For preventing any inconvenience from the diffusion of dust in a room 
frequented in all weathers, and all times of the day, by a large body of persons, 
Dr. Reid had, besides other things, introduced a hair-cloth, of particular 
texture, for the floor. This cloth, during the whole of last season, appears to 
have been lifted with comparative regularity and attention to the object for 
which it was designed. The result of Dr. Reid's examination, since he has 
come to town, is, that an article of a totally different texture, and wholly 
unfit for the purpose, has been substituted for it during the present session ; 
and that even this had not received the attention bestowed on the hair-cloth 
of last session. It will be obvious that it would be impossible to avoid all 
inconvenience from the diffusion of small particles of dust, but by the 
adoption of another plan suggested by Dr. Reid when his plans were first put 
into execution, and by which a current of fresh air would descend from the 
ceiling, instead of ascending, as at present, through the floor. For the 
adoption of this plan, however, a new mode of lighting the house would be 
indispensable. The first step to which must be the removal of the lights at 
present used within the body of the house. It was part of the original plan 
that these lights should occupy a space separated from the lower portion of 
the body of the house by a ceiling of glass, and through which, in fact, the 
house is at present lighted in the daytime. 

A trial of this plan took place on the evening of the 30th of December 
last; and although the preparations are as yet necessarily very imperfect, 
having been got up within the short interval of twenty-four hours, so far as we 
could judge, we anticipate a successful result. (Morn. Chron., Jan. 1. 1838.) 

Serjeanfe Inn, Chancery Lane — Within the last month, great progress 
has been made in the street front of the new building, the walls of which are 
now carried up nearly to the top of the first floor above the basement. At 
present, the work is quite in the rough, preparatory to being stuccoed ; there- 
fore it is impossible to speak of the style or details, beyond conjecturing that 
they will, if not be precisely similar, resemble those of the portion behind, 
already finished ; and, as there will be thirteen windows on each of the upper 
floors, the whole cannot very well fail to be a rather conspicuous piece of 
street architecture. In the basement there will be only eleven windows, viz. 
three in the centre, between two large square-headed entrances (one of which 
is intended to form an open passage into the court), and four on the side 
of each of these doorways. These latter, and each of the extreme windows, 
are placed in slightly projecting breaks ; thus there are four narrow compart- 
ments with three windows of a floor, between them. — W. II. Dec., 1837. 

The late Royal Exchange. — If our architects do not erect a temple to 
Vulcan, they will show themselves to possess little gratitude; for that classical 
fire-king has just been doing what, it may safely be presumed, will lead, as a 
matter of course, to an open competition of designs for a new Royal Ex- 
change. And it is further to be hoped, matters will be managed somewhat 
differently on this occasion from what they were on a late one, by there 
licing a public exhibition of all the drawings beforehand, instead of after the 
decision shall have been made. Perfectly am I aware that the mode here 
recommended to be pursued is not entirely free from objections, or that it 
must of necessity insure the adoption of the very best design of all : in 
numerous cases, for instance, the authors of the respective designs would 
probably be recognised almost immediately by their style, both in regard to 
taste and composition, as distinctly as if their names were attached to their 
drawings (at least, by their brother architects), ami, consequently, not long 
remain concealed from the public. On the other hand, those who had interest 



Domestic Notices : — England. 89 



5" 



with influential persons, might contrive that they should be at no loss to know 
in favour of what particular design they ought strenuously to exert themselves. 
Still, taking the very worst view of the matter, there would be a very strong 
check upon favouritism on the part of the building committee, and of pre- 
judice as to names on the part of the public ; and, although we may not be 
able to steer entirely clear of every thwarting contingency, it is but prudent 
to adopt every possible precaution while it is in our power to do so. 

Besides securing a show, at least, of deference to public opinion and criti- 
cism, those with whom the ultimate selection rested, would find their task 
greatly lightened by having the opportunity of leisurely reviewing all the 
designs from time to time, after they had been hung up, and comparing them 
together, before they proceeded to sit formally in judgment upon them. 
Their labour, too, would be greatly abridged, were they gradually to weed 
out at intervals all such designs as were obviously inferior, and, consequently, 
had no likelihood of success, until they had reduced the whole collection to a 
dozen or so, that should demand a strict scrutiny into their respective claims. 
Were this done, in proportion to the difficulty of passing the final award 
would the danger be lessened of making an injudicious choice ; because, sup- 
posing the merits of the remaining designs to be so nicely balanced as to 
render it no easy matter to decide to which of them the preference, upon the 
whole, ought to be given, it is not likely any very serious error of judgment 
should be committed. 

One objection as yet overlooked is, that, were such a mode of proceeding 
as is here recommended resorted to, many who stand high in the profession 
would not care to expose themselves to such a touchstone of their ability, 
and to risk the chance of being put aside among the discarded. No matter : 
let them, then, stand aloof; though, as the names of the unsuccessful would 
not be divulged, they might keep their own counsel, and confine their dis- 
appointment to themselves. 

That there will be an entirely new structure, may be taken for granted; 
because, although the external walls are still standing, it will be found indis- 
pensable to take them down ; or, even should it prove possible to retain any 
part of them, it would be little less than an absurdity to adhere in any respect 
to the plan of the old fabric, and voluntarily forego the advantages of one 
that may be rendered greatly more commodious for transacting business, and 
certainly very much superior in point of taste. I forbear from here animad- 
verting upon the solecisms, in this last-mentioned respect, which the building 
just destroyed exhibited; it is enough to remark that even in the other, it 
was very far behindhand compared with such edifices as the new Exchange 
at Glasgow or the Bourse at Paris. All that it could boast, in the way of 
accommodation for those who frequented it, was, that, as far as mere space 
went, it was tolerably roomy, if its visitors were content with standing-room 
in the open quadrangle, let the weather be ever so wet or inclement ; but it 
certainly was not a place for its merchants, befitting the first mercantile city in 
the world. I will not go so far as to say that, even had it not been destroyed 
by fire, it ought to have been pulled down, and a more suitable edifice erected 
in its stead; but I do say, since all that has been spared of it must come 
down, let the citizens of London console themselves for its loss, by availing 
themselves to the fullest extent of the opportunity thus forced upon them. 
One thing which it will now be in their power to do is, to widen and other- 
wise improve Threadneedle Street, by making that front of the Exchange 
parallel to the Bank, which it is to be presumed the ingenuity of our archi- 
tects will be able to effect, without injury either to external or internal design. 
For the space that must thus necessarily be given up at one angle of the 
general plan, much more than an equivalent may be gained, by getting entirely 
rid of the shops which have hitherto encumbered the lower part of the build- 
ing, and which certainly did not confer on it any dignity. 

Without an accurate plan (and at the moment 1 am unable to refer to one 
of any kind), it is impossible for me to judge how far it would be possible to 
give greater capaciousness to a new edifice, without extending the site occu- 



90 Retrospective Criticism. 

pied by the old one. For the present, however, I have said quite enough, 
even in my own opinion, — in that of others perhaps somewhat more. Doubt- 
less, my pen is not the only one from which you will receive communications 
bearing upon the same subject : and, indeed, now that people begin to be 
tired of talking and writing, and sending forth pamphlets, ancnt the new Houses 
of Parliament, the late "awful conflagration," as the newspapers joyfully 
announce it on their placards, is a perfect God-send to the architectural 
world ; that little sphere in our modern system of the plurality of worlds, 
wherein I am fain to include amateurs, in spite of even Mr. Gvvilt himself, 
and among them, if not exactly the unworthiest of the unworthy, the most 
arrant scribbler of them all — Candidas. London, Jan. 15. 1838. 

[The Royal Exchange was burned down on the night of Jan. 10.; and a 
copious account of it will be found in all the daily newspapers of the 11th 
and 12th, and an excellent one in the Dispatch of Sunday, Jan. 14-. In vol. i. 
of Britton's Public Bui/dings of London, there is the most copious and 
correct historical account of the Royal Exchange which has been published, 
illustrated by an elevation of the south front, and a view of the piazza ; 
and in the second volume of Campbell's Vifruvius Britannicus, there are both a 
ground plan, and an elevation of the front with the original tower, and two 
lanterns at the end, which were afterwards removed. — Cond.] 



Art. III. Restrospective Criticism. 

Erratum. — In Vol. IV. p. 593., line 3. from the bottom, for "ancient 
Greece," read " ancient Greek." 

The Glyptotheca at Munich. (Vol. IV. p. 593.) — Your correspondent, 
G. B. W., refers your readers to Dr. Granville's work On the Spas of Germany 
for an account of the Sculpture Gallery at Munich ; and seems impressed, from 
the doctor's rather too florid description, with an exaggerated idea of its mag- 
nificence and importance. 

When I was at Munich, three years ago, I was much disappointed with 
this Glyptotheca, as the learned, antiquarian, and poetical king, Louis, lias 
named it. Previously to arriving in Munich, 1 had heard the Glyptotheca 
spoken of with enthusiasm as a national monument ; and, when I heard that 
the facade was ganz vom Marmor. I too, I own, was induced to form a high 
opinion of its splendour. To northern nations, the thought of a building entirely 
of marble has something imposing in it : it conveys the idea of a sort of palace 
of Aladdin ; but the magic lamp, with all its powers, drops from our hand when 
we at last look upon the buildings themselves ; as who will not own, that has 
seen the cathedrals of Milan or Florence "t Their boasted marble adds but 
little to their magnificence; and few strangers, not apprised of the fact, would 
ever dream that marble was the valuable material of tiieir structure, until they 
referred for information to their guide-book. But we have now an example 
of this fallacy nearer home, in the obstruction (commonly called triumphal 
arch) in front of Buckingham Palace. 

To return to the Glyptotheca: the facade is of marble, certainly, entirely of 
marble ; but this is not observable at first sight, as it has already assumed a 
light stone colour. The dimensions are insignificant, and, consequently, the 
effect, upon a first approach, is rather that of a graceful model, than the mag- 
nificent building that Dr. Granville's work would lead us to expect. It is 
extremely pure in design, quite Greek; but, from this very cause, it is low; a 
great defect to a modern eye, accustomed to lofty buildings, even in our 
common streets. The pure Greek wants much adapting to modern views: a 
simple copy will not do; in proof of which, I almost dare assert that, could 
one of the noble temples, whose ruins 1 visited at Passtum, be transplanted to 
one of our open squares, its effect would not be striking, unless greatly ele- 
vated upon a noble basement of some description, or approached on all sides 
by deep flights of steps ; and in this view, I believe, I am borne out by the good 
effect produced by such an arrangement in the Exchange at Paris. Of such 



Retrospective Criticism. 



91 



30 




artificial elevation the Glyptotheca possesses nothing: there it is, a building of 
one story, nearly flat upon the ground ; which, combined with its want of height, 
is a defect from which all its purity of design can never extricate it. Fig. 30. 
may give some idea of the style of building, though, doubtless, much less made 
out than the plate given by Dr. Granville, which I have not seen. The in- 
terior contains nine rooms, tolerably lighted, and containing a good collection 
of ancient sculpture ; but they struck me as low and small, and, with all their 
pretension to mosaic and fresco, produced in their ornaments and decorations 
an effect chillingly cold. — H. N. H. 

Davis's Gothic Ornaments. — I hope it is never too late to give praise where 
it is merited. Mr. Davis's Gothic Ornaments illustrative of Prior Birde's 
Oratory in the Abbey Church of Bath is one of the few works of the kind 
which careful drawing, on a large scale, entitles to a place in every archi- 
tect's library ; for, although the subjects are not numerous, they are excellent 
as studies for young artists, and carvers both in stone and wood. — E. B. L. 

Parsey's Natural Convergence of Perpendieidarg. (Vol. IV. p. 518.) Can- 

didus says, " What is to be done?" — "Really, this notable discovery of 
Parsey's brings us into a most perplexing dilemma ; since, even were we ever 
so much inclined to do so, we cannot very well allow him to be rio-ht, witfrout 



th 



e wrona;. 



pronouncing all artists before now to have been entirely in 
" Seeing that it is utterly at variance with the vested interests and reputations 
of the greatest names in art." — These feelings have always manifested them- 
selves on all great and useful discoveries. To Candidus's question it may be 
answered, that nothing will be more satisfactory to all parties than to adopt 
the new system, as it is incontrovertibly based on the true and immutable 
principles of nature; to which some unprejudiced scholars and artists of treat 
reputation have testified. With respect to the dilemma he speaks of, would it 
not be more criminal to keep all present and future artists in the wron», by 
arresting the new sources of reputation now opened to them, for the sake of 
those who have enjoyed the untarnishable praises due to distinguished merit ? 
Candidus is pretty candid in setting aside my interest and reputation, when he 
speaks of vested interests and reputations. Probably, there is nothing more 
difficult than "rectifying" wilful prejudices: however, common sense will 
ever force truth to the foremost rank, whether the present race enjoy the 
enlightenment at command, or leave it to break forth in the next ; when that 
generation may justly depreciate the blind obstinacy of the present, who shut 
themselves out from the merit of the past, and the credit of advancing the 
knowledge of the future. Candidus's questions about " lofty buildings ap- 
pearing narrower at the top than at the bottom, &c, are fatal to his reasoning 
against the natural convergence of perpendiculars, as that is popularly known 
to be a natural effect, for which no laws are to be found in science, except in 



92 Retrospective Criticism. 

Perspective Rectified. In justice to my reputation and my vested interest, I 
disclaim, that, " according to the new system, all lines parallel to the picture, 
horizontal as well as vertical ones (that is, those which are perpendicular to the 
sides, as well as such as are perpendicular to the base, of the picture), ought to 
converge, the one laterally, the others upwards and downwards, from the focus 
of vision, or point of sight." The attribution of this absurdity to me shows 
that Candidus has not formed an accurate knowledge or judgment of my 
principles, from his acknowledged hearsay information. As distinguished scho- 
lars and artists of all refined nations have endeavoured to solve this important 
problem from the earliest ages, the accomplishment of it by an Englishman, 
one should think, would naturally claim immediate recognition, if it were 
merely on the score of national pride. 

The appearances of objects, or ivhat is really seen, are seldom to be found 
on a plane vertical to the horizon, wihch is the plane of the picture which 
Candidus means, and every body else always meant, Hogarth and all ! As 
this law has escaped observation, they are exonerated from any imputation ; 
the satire will lie against those who violate the laws of nature for the future. 
— Arthur Parsey. 23. Piccadilly, December 13. 1837. 

Parsei/s Natural Convergence of Perpendiculars. — Allow me to make a few 
observations on a paper by Candidus (Vol. IV. p. 518.), not for the purpose 
of supporting the doctrine which he controverts (for, though he is wrong, Mr. 
Parsey is not right ; and, indeed, I once took the liberty to tell him so in a 
public lecture-room, though, I hope, with courtesy), but to point out the 
mixture of truth and error which it contains. 

Candidus, then, in his first paragraph, says, " I will make bold to deny that 
vertical lines converge, and ought to be so represented." Now, if I under- 
stand what he means by the former part of this sentence, I must submit to 
him that he makes too bold, for he "makes bold to deny" the truth; since no 
one who considers the subject can entertain any doubt but what perpendicu- 
lars do converge, though, as I intend to show, they ought not " to be so 
represented." Nay, more, not only vertical, but horizontal, lines also con- 
verge. So, then, Candidus is right when he says, " Not that there is one law 
for vertical, another for horizontal, lines ;" but wrong when he explains 
himself by adding, " Horizontal lines, when they are parallel to it" (the pic- 
ture), " merely decrease according to their distance, without in any degree 
converging;" and, that he may not accuse me of having " but half done my 
work," I will try and prove " this last-mentioned fancy also." 

Now, if a person place himself opposite the side of a tower (or any build- 
ing), the top must be further from him than that part which is directly level 
with his eye; and, therefore, the width there must appear smaller, as all 
things diminish as they recede; a principle which Candidus, I think, will not 
deny. The two angles of the tower, then, will appear closer at the summit 
than on the horizon (though the eye may not detect the difference) ; and, if 
this is not convergence of perpendiculars, I do not know what it is. Next, 
let this spectator situate himself directly opposite the centre of a long facade 
instead of a tower ; then the two ends or extreme angles of the building, 
being farther from him, will appear lower than the centre, on the same prin- 
ciple as before; and, unless this is convergence of horizontals parallel to the 
plane of the picture, I know not what to call it. I am aware I here go 
further in some respects than Mr. Parsey himself; and, as I told him, I 
conceive I am correct in so doing. 

For any, however, who may wish to look at the question in a more 
mathematical dress, I will subjoin the following plain demonstration, in which 
1 have, I think, introduced all the important steps. 

As all the angles of a triangle only equal two right angles, in every right- 
angled triangle the right angle must be greater than either of the other two ; 
and, as the greater angle is subtended by the greater side, the side opposite 
the right angle will be greater than either of the other two sides. 

Let, then, abed in fig. 32. represent the side of a tower perpendicular 
to the horizon, and of the same width all the w ay up ; then a b,f g, and c d, 



Retrospective Criticism. 



93 



being the measures across at 

the summit, the horizon and 

base will be equal. Let, also, 

e represent the place of the 

spectator's eye. Completing 

the figure, efa is a right-angled 

triangle ; of which ef a, being 

the right angle, c a is the 

greatest side, and therefore 

greater than ef. In like man- 
ner, e b is greater than e g ; 

that is, a b is further from e 

than/g is. 

Now, as with equal arcs or 

chords, angles vary inversely as 

the radii ; and, as the chords 

a b and fg are equal, and the 

radii e a and e b are greater than 

the radii e/and eg; therefore 

the angle a e b is less than the 

angle/ eg. In the same way, 

it may be shown that d e is 

less than fg; that is, that the 
angles of the tower appear to 
be nearer at the top and 
bottom of it, than directly 
opposite the eye. 

In like manner, let abed 
(Jig. 33.) be a facade of equal 
height throughout, and e as be- 
fore ; then a d,a b,c d, and if, 
being the height of the angles, 

and directly opposite the spectator, are all equal. Then, as before, e g h being 
a right-angled triangle, of which e g h is the right angle, e h is greater than 
e g, and, in like manner, e a is greater than e i, and as before. Angle a c his 
less than angle i e g ; that is, a b looks less than g i, and, similarly, h b 
looks less than fg; therefore, a fortiori, a b looks less than/i, or the height 
at the angle looks less than towards the centre. In the same way, c d will 
appear less than/i; and, if i d is equal to i a, the figure in the eye, on the 
theory that an image is depicted on the retina, and supposing that were a 
plane, will be something like fig. 34. and the tower Hke7?g. 31. It will not be 
necessary to prove that the lines will be curves, though they will be. It 
must be observed, that the drawing of figs. 32. and 33. is necessarily some- 
what distorted to show the line ef, e h, &c. For a similar reason, the curves 
of figs. 31. and 3-t. are exaggerated. 

So, then, it appears that it is the vision of Candidus, and not that of Mr. 
Parsey, that is "altogether different from that of the rest of the world;" and 
so, too, " the summit of a lofty building " " does show itself sensibly narrower 
than the lower part ; " a fact of which Candidus might satisfy himself by the 
use of a sextant, or even a common rule, minding to keep it always at the 
same distance from his eye. The reason why the eye does not discover it is, 
that the difference is but very small ; because the distance at which we view 
a building is generally several times as great as its height or width, and the 
difference of distances from the eye is therefore only fractional, and, conse- 
quently, the difference of apparent dimensions only trifling. Another reason 
is, that when we see a number of lines are parallel, we suppose they look so, 
though, in fact, this is an optical illusion. 

One would imagine, if one felt unkind, that the reason why Candidus objects 
to Mr. Parsey's theory is similar to the Pope's objection to the solar theory 
of Galileo ; that, if he were right, all his predecessors, His Holiness not ex- 




9 1- ltd respective Criticism. 

cepted, must be wrong. So Candidas : — " Really, this notable discovery of 
Parsey's brings us into a most perplexing dilemma, since, even were we ever 
so much inclined to do so, we cannot very well allow him to be in the right, 
without pronouncing all artists before now to have been entirely in the 
wrong." " What," he a.sks, " is to be done ? Are we, out of complaisance to 
Mr. Parsey and his discovery, to revolutionise that part of drawing to which 
it relates?" No, not unless true; but, if true, then I answer, Most certainly. 
Are illustrious names to make error venerable ? Shall we allow truth to be 
sacrificed to the " vested rights and reputations of the greatest names in art," 
or to any thing else ? Certainly not. Let truth have its way ; and, in order 
to this, let fair discussion be maintained. Ridicule is not the way to answer a 
man, before having heard what he has to say. If the matter is worth 
noticing, let it be done in the way of fair argument, without appeals to 
" modesty," insinuations of " very great delusion," and wilful blindness to 
truth, or accusations of "inordinately ambitious" views and "preposterous 
ideas." 

So much for Candidus. Let us now see whether Mr. Parsey is right. I 
have shown, I hope, that both horizontals and perpendiculars converge. 
Now, ought they to be so represented ? I answer, No. Because the eye 
puts not only the natural objects into perspective, but also the picture or 
representation of them ; so that the lines of the diagrams may be taken as 
the actual lines of the drawing, instead of representatives, and the demon- 
stration remains as complete as ever. So, then, Jigs. 31. and 34. are not 
what are to be drawn, but only the figures which are formed in the eye. 

One particular inconvenience, greater than the destruction of " vested 
rights" Candidas talks of, would result from our being obliged to make these 
lines converge ; namely, that, when we viewed any picture, we must always 
have our eye directly opposite the junction of the horizontal and vertical 
lines to which the others converge, and at one particular distance from it, 
and must look steadily and steadfastly at that point alone, or else all the parts 
would be out of drawing ; for every time we move our eye we alter the per- 
pendicular or horizontal lines to which the others converge. Fortunately for 
us, then, Mr. Parsey's theory is not correct. 

The fact is, we have only length and breadth on which to represent length, 
breadth, and thickness. This last must, therefore, be represented by the 
convergence of its lines. When we have thickness also, we do not converge 
or decrease, but only diminish the scale, as in a model. 

In one point, Mr. Parsey is right, practically as well as speculatively; viz. 
that perpendiculars decrease in apparent Length as they arc raised from the 
horizon of the spectator : e. g. a story 30 ft. above the eye will not look so 
high as one of the same height directly before the spectator. This is observed 
by some draughtsmen, though generally the correction necessary is small ; 
but by most I believe it is neglected. 

I should not have troubled you with this, but, as the subject had been 
touched upon, I thought your readers might imagine no stronger reasons 
could be brought against Mr. Parsey's theory than had been adduced. I also 
thought that Candidus did not treat him quite so courteously as I have no 
doubt he would have done had he had an opportunity of seeing and hearing 
him. — Win. WUhner Pococ/c, juti., A.H.C., Ass. <>f Inst. Brit. Arch. Knights- 
bridge, Dec. 5. 1637. 

Remarks on the Convergence of Perpendiculars. (Vol. IV. p. 518.) — If Can- 
didus had reflected a little more attentively on the cause of the apparent 
convergence of retiring lines, he would not have been so witty at Mr. Parsey's 
expense, and would not have committed the absurdity of supposing that per- 
pendiculars were not subject to the same laws as horizontal or inclined lines. 

First, Let Jig. 35. be a space of flat pavement, the chequering lines of which 
are at right angles to each other; one seres going to the point of sight a; 
consequently, the others are all at right angles to the line of vision a b. These, 
therefore, do not retire from the spectator, and will not appear to converge. 
But the eye is incapable of receiving at once rays of light which enter it con- 



Retrospect ive C 'ri tic ism . 



95 





35 

a 




' ' 


^\ 


y / 


\ "^ 


y / 


\ \ 


y / 


\ \ 


o 


S / 


1/ \ \^o 


\s 


/ 


\ \, 



verging at a greater angle than 60°. The parallel lines, therefore, d c, d' c, &c, 
each subtend an angle of 60° ; and the eye cannot see farther along them, on 
either side, without turning. Now, the moment the eye is turned, the lines 
retire from it, and, consequently, appear to converge. 

Now, let a b be considered a 
base line ; then the lines b c, b' d , 
4c, are perpendiculars; but they 
are subject to the same laws as 
they were before; and, conse- 
quently, as long as they subtend 
an angle less than 60°, they will </ 
not converge; but the moment ,/ i^ 
the eye has to turn and look 

up, convergence will commence. So much for theory. Now, Candidus asks 
why perpendiculars never appear, in fact, to converge. Let him consider 
that we seldom contemplate any building at a less distance than 40 yards. 
Before its perpendicular lines, therefore, will converge, they must be 200 ft. 
high; if we stand within 20 yards, more than 100ft., &c And, to satisfy 
himself that perpendiculars which subtend a greater angle than 60° do, in fact, 
appear to converge ; let him go to the bottom of the monument, stand 12 yards 
from its base, and look up; and then let him talk about the non-convergence 
of perpendiculars, if he can. 

Hence, it appears that perpendiculars do not, in general, appear to converge, 
because they are always at right angles to the direction in which the spectator 
is looking ; and they never can be represented as converging, because no picture 
may subtend a greater angle than 60°, either in breadth or height. Take, for 
instance, the annexed rude perspective outline of a cathedral nave ( fig. 36.). 

The height is 100 ft.; the 
distance between the co- 
lumns, 20 ft. ; oonsequenth', 
the angular elevation of the 
roof, between the two near- 
est columns, is gi eater than 
60°. The head would be 
turned upwards in looking 
at it; and it consequently 
cannot be represented in the 
drawing, whose upper limit, 
therefore, must cut off the 
roof between the second 
and third column. 

Secondly, Let it not be 
supposed that I mean to say 
that perpendiculars, being 
right lines, are to be repre- 
sented by lines which are 
first parallel, and then con- 
verging. Let us go back to 
fig. 35. Here, as the line d c 
subtends an angle of 60°, 
our distance from its central 
point b (supposing d c to 
be 100) is 90 feet, or yards, 
or anything. But our dis- 
tance from c or d is the 
length of the line, or 100. 
Now, a near line or space, in 
whatever direction distance 
is measured, must always 
appear greater than one 




96 



Retrospective Criticism. 



more remote. Therefore, the space b b' ', from which 
we are distant 90 ft., appears greater than the space 
c c 
the 



37 




from which we are distant 100 ft. Therefore, 
parallel lines b c, b' c ', Sec, appear to converge. 
Similarly, perpendiculars appear to converge ; but their 
apparent convergence is so excessively small, that it 
escapes the eye, until they subtend a greater angle than 
60°; and, for all practical purposes, may be considered 
as parallel, particularly as their convergence is infi- 
nitely small, when they are distant from the eye, as in 
the case of the distant lines of Jig. 35. 

But, that Candidus may be more perfectly convinced 
of the truth of this reasoning, applied to perpendiculars, 
let d efg in Jig. 37. be a vertical column : let the eye of 
the spectator be at a. Now, it is evident that the 
diameter of the column e d is at a greater distance from 
a than the diameter c b ; consequently, angle b a c is 
greater than angle d a c: therefore, the diameter c b, 
which the eye measures by means of the angle b a c, 
appears greater than the diameter e d, which is mea- 
sured by the angle due; and, consequently, the per- 
pendiculars g e,Jd, appear to converge. But, if a be removed to any moderate 
distance from the column, the difference betwefin the angles will be so exces- 
sively small, that the convergence is unperceived, and, in practice, ought to be 
unexpressed. 

Thirdly, I have hitherto referred perpendiculars to vertical vanishing points ; 
but, by considering them as the representatives of horizontal lines, they may 
be referred to vanishing points on the horizon. Let^g. 38. be a few perpendi- 
cular posts in water. Their reflections are, of course, also perpendicular. 
But let it be considered how these reflections are formed: they are formed by 
rays of light coming from the object, striking on the water, and reflected from 
its surface to the eye. But, in order that the rays may meet the eye, th e 
point on the water from which they are reflected must be directly between th c 
object and the eye ; and the 
whole line of points, there- 
fore, must be between the 
object and the eye. There- 
fore, all the actual lines of 
reflection on the surface of 
the water are lines diverging 
from the spectator to thc base 
of the reflected object. But 
those lines appear parallel and perpendicular ; whence, it is evident that all 
perpendiculars are the representative* of lines on a horizontal surface, diverging 
from the spectator as a centre. As a farther example of this, let us return to 
Jig. 35. Here, the portion of the line d'e, which is equal to d c, is o o ; therefore, 
the distance d' c' is greater than d c ; therefore, the perpendiculars d d', c d, 
are the representatives of horizontal divergent lines. 

Now, since the lines represented by perpendiculars diverge from the 
spectator, they meet at the spectator; that is, in a point beneath, in his feet. 
Therefore, perpendiculars which are below the horizon converge to a point 
beneath his feet ; and perpendiculars above the horizon, to a point above his 
head. These two points, therefore, are points of sight on a vertical horizon, 
to which all perpendiculars must converge. They correspond to the hori- 
zontal point of sight to which horizontal lines converge ; and the distance 
between the spectator and the base of the perpendicular corresponds to the 
perpendicular distance between his eye and thc commencement of thc horizontal 
line. From all this, it appears that perpendiculars only appear to converge 
under peculiar circumstances, which can never be represented in a drawing. — 
Kata Phusin. Oxford, Nov. 17. 1837. 




THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE. 



MARCH, 1838. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

Art. I. The Poetry of Architecture. By Kata Phusin. 

No. 2- The Cottage — continued. 

IV. The Mountain Cottage. — Westmoreland. 

When I devoted so much time to the consideration of the 
peculiarities of the Swiss cottage, I did not previously endea- 
vour to ascertain what the mind, influenced by the feelings excited 
by the nature of its situation, would be induced to expect, or 
disposed to admire. I thus deviated from the general rule 
which I hope to be able to follow out ; but I did so only because 
the subject of consideration was incapable of fulfilling the ex- 
pectation when excited, or corresponding with the conception 
when formed. But now, in order to appreciate the beauty of 
the Westmoreland cottage, it will be necessary to fix upon a 
standard of excellence, with which it may be compared. 

One of the principal charms of mountain scenery is its soli- 
tude. Now, just as silence is never perfect or deep without 
motion, solitude is never perfect without some vestige of life. 
Even desolation is not felt to be utter, unless in some slight 
degree interrupted : unless the cricket is chirping on the lonely 
hearth, or the vulture soaring over the field of corpses, or the one 
mourner lamenting over the red ruins of the devastated village, 
that devastation is not felt to be complete/ The anathema of the 
prophet does not wholly leave the curse of loneliness upon the 
mighty city, until he tells us that " the satyr shall dance there." 
And, if desolation, which is the destruction of life, cannot leave 
its impression perfect without some interruption, much less can 
solitude, which is only the absence of life, be felt without some 
contrast. Accordingly, it is, perhaps, never so perfect as when 
a populous and highly cultivated plain, immediately beneath, 
is visible through the rugged ravines, or over the cloudy sum- 
mits of some tall, vast, and voiceless mountain. When such a 
prospect is not attainable, one of the chief uses of the mountain 
cottage, paradoxical as the idea may appear, is to increase this 
sense of solitude. Now, as it will only do so when it is seen at 
a considerable distance, it is necessary that it should be visible, 
or, at least, that its presence should be indicated, over a con- 

Vol. V. — No. 49. H 



98 Poetry of Architecture. 

siderable portion of surrounding space. It must not, therefore, 
be too much shaded with trees, or it will be useless; but if, 
on the contrary) it be too conspicuous on the open hill side, it 
will be liable to most of the objections which were advanced 
against the Swiss cottage, and to another, which was not then 
noticed. Anything which, to the eye, is split into parts, appears 
less as a whole than what is undivided. Now, a considerable 
mass, of whatever tone or colour it may consist, is as easily 
divisible by dots as by lines ; that is, a conspicuous point, on 
any part of its surface, will divide it into two portions, each of 
which will be individually measured by the eye, but which will 
never make the impression which they would have made, had 
their unity not been interrupted. A conspicuous cottage on a 
distant mountain side has this effect in a fatal degree, and is, 
therefore, always intolerable. It should accordingly, in order 
to reconcile the attainment of the good, with the avoidance of 
the evil, be barely visible : it should not tell as a cottage on the 
eye, though it should on the mind ; for be it observed that, 
if it is only by the closest investigation that we can ascertain it 
to be a human habitation, it will answer the purpose of in- 
creasing the solitude quite as well as if it were evidently so; 
because this impression is produced by its appeal to the thoughts, 
not by its effect on the eye. Its colour, therefore, should be as 
nearly as possible that of the hill on which, or the crag beneath 
which, it is placed : its form, one that will incorporate well with 
the ground, and approach that of a large stone more than of any 
thing else. The colour will consequently, if this rule be fol- 
lowed, be subdued and greyish, but rather warm ; and the form 
simple, graceful, and unpretending. The building should retain 
the same general character on a closer examination. Every 
thing about it should be natural, and should appear as if the 
influences and forces which were in operation around it had 
been too strong to be resisted, and had rendered all efforts of 
art to check their power, or conceal the evidence of their action, 
entirely unavailing. It cannot but be an alien child of the 
mountains ; but it must show that it has been adopted and 
cherished by them. This effect is only attainable by great ease 
of outline and variety of colour ; peculiarities which, as will be 
presently seen, the Westmoreland cottage possesses in a super- 
eminent degree. 

Another feeling, with which one is impressed during a moun- 
tain ramble, is humility. I found fault with the insignificance 
of the Swiss cottage, because " it was not content to sink into a 
quiet corner, and personify humility." Now, had it not been 
seen to be pretending, it would not have been felt to be insigni- 
ficant ; for the feelings would have been gratified with its sub- 



~Mountain Cottage, Westmoreland. 99 

mission to, and retirement from, the majesty of the destructive 
influences which it rather seemed to rise up against in mockery. 
Such pretension is especially to be avoided in the mountain cot- 
tage: it can never lie too humbly in the pastures of the valley, 
nor shrink too submissively into the hollows of the hills ; it 
should seem to be asking the storm for mercy, and the mountain 
for protection ; and should appear to owe to its weakness, rather 
than to its strength, that it is neither overwhelmed by the one, 
nor crushed by the other. 

Such are the chief attributes, without which a mountain cot- 
tage cannot be said to be beautiful. It may possess others, 
which are desirable or objectionable, according to their situa- 
tion, or other accidental circumstances. The nature of these 
will be best understood by examining an individual building. 
The material is, of course, what is most easily attainable and 
available without much labour. The Cumberland and West- 
moreland hills are, in general, composed of clay-slate and grey- 
wacke, with occasional masses of chert (like that which forms the 
summit of Scawfell), porphyritic greenstone, and syenite. The 
chert decomposes deeply, and assumes a rough, brown, granular 
surface, deeply worn and furrowed. The clay-slate and grey- 
wacke, as it is shattered by frost, and carried down by the tor- 
rents, of course forms itself into irregular flattish masses. The 
splinterv edges of these are in some decree worn off bv the action 
of water : and, slight decomposition taking place on the surface 
of the clay-slate furnishes an aluminous soil, which is imme- 
diately taken advantage of bv innumerable lichens, which change 
the dark grey of the original substance into an infinite variety 
of pale and warm colours. These stones, thus shaped to his 
hand, are the most convenient building materials the peasant 
can obtain. He lavs his foundation and strengthens his angles 
with large masses, filling up the intervals with pieces of a more 
moderate size ; and using here and there a little cement to bind 
the whole together, and to keep the wind from gettinn- through 
the interstices; but never enough to fill them altogether up, or 
to render the face of the wall smooth. At intervals of from 
4ft. to 6ft. a horizontal line of flat and broad fragments is intro- 
duced projecting about a foot from the wall. Whether this is 
supposed to give strength, I know not ; but, as it is invariably 
covered by luxuriant stonecrop, it is always a delightful object. 

The door is flanked and roofed bv three large oblong sheets 
of grey rock, whose form seems not to be considered of the 
slightest consequence. Those which form the cheeks of the 
window (fig. 39.) are generally selected with more care from 
the debris of some rock, which is naturally smooth and polished, 
after being subjected to the weather, such as granite or syenite. 

h -2 



100 



Poetry of Architecture. 



The window itself is narrow and deep set: in the better sort of 
cottages, latticed, but with no affectation of sweetbriar or eglan- 
tine about it. It may be ob- 
served of the whole of the 39 
cottage, that, though all is 
beautiful} nothing is pretty. 
The roof is rather flat, and 
covered with heavy fragments 
of the stone of which the walls 
are built, originally very loose; 
but generally cemented by 
accumulated soil, and bound 
together by houseleek, moss, 
and stonecrop: brilliant in co- 




lour, and 



singular 



in 



abun- 



dance. The form of the larger cottages, being frequently that of a 
cross, would hurt the eye by the sharp angles of the roof, were 
it not for the cushion-like vegetation with which they are 
rounded and concealed. Varieties of the fern sometimes relieve 
the massy forms of the stonecrop, with their light and delicate 
leafage. Windows in the roof are seldom met with. Of the 
chimney I shall speak hereafter. 

Such are the prevailing peculiarities of the Westmoreland 
cottage. "Is this all?" some one will exclaim: "a hovel, 
built of what first comes to hand, and in the most simple and 
convenient form ; not one thought of architectural beauty ever 
coming into the builder's head!" Even so, to this illustration 
of an excellent rule, I wished particularly to direct attention; 
that the material which Nature furnishes, in any given country, 
and the form which she suggests, will always render the building 
the most beautiful, because the most appropriate. Observe how 
perfectly this cottage fulfils the conditions which were before 
ascertained to be necessary to perfection. Its colour is that of 
the ground on which it stands, always subdued and grey, but 
exquisitely rich, the colour being disposed crumblingly, in groups 
of shadowy spots ; a deep red brown, passing into black, being 
finely contrasted with the pale yellow of the .Lichen geographi- 
cus, and the subdued white of another lichen, whose name I do 
not know ; all mingling with each other as on a native rock, 
and with the same beautiful effect : the mass, consequently, at 
a distance, tells only as a large stone would, the simplicity of 
its form contributing still farther to render it inconspicuous. 
When placed on a mountain side, such a cottage will become a 
point of interest, which will relieve its monotony, but will never 
cut the hill in two, or take away from its size. In the valley, 
the colour of these cottages agrees with everything: the green 



Mountain Cottage, Westmoreland. 10 1 

light, which trembles through the leafage of the taller trees, falls 
with exquisite effect on the rich grey of the ancient roofs ; the 
deep pool of clear water is not startled from its peace by their 
reflection ; the ivy or the creepers, to which the superior wealth 
of the peasant of the valley does now and then pretend, in 
opposition to the general custom, cling gracefully and easily to 
its innumerable crevices; and rock, lake, and meadow seem to 
hail it with a brotherly affection, as if Nature had taken as much 
pains with it as she has with them. 

Again, observe its ease of outline. There is not a single straight 
line to be met with from foundation to roof, all is bending or 
broken. The form of every stone in its walls is a study ; for, 
owing to the infinite delicacy of structure in all minerals, a piece 
of stone 3 in. in diameter, irregularly fractured, and a little 
worn by the weather, has precisely the same character of outline 
which we should find and admire in a mountain of the same material 
6000 ft. high; and, therefore, the eye, though not feeling the cause, 
rests on every cranny, and crack, and fissure with delight. It is 
true that, we have no idea that every small projection, if of chert, 
has such an outline as Scawfell's ; if of greywacke, as Skiddaw's ; 
or if of slate, as Helvellyn's ; but their combinations of form are, 
nevertheless, felt to be exquisite, and we dwell upon every bend 
of the rough roof, and every hollow of the loose wall, feeling it 
to be a design which no architect on earth could ever equal, 
sculptured by a chisel of unimaginable delicacy, and finished to 
a degree of perfection, which is unnoticed only because it is 
everywhere. 

This ease and irregularity is peculiarly delightful here 
gracefulness and freedom of outline and detail are, as they 
always are in mountain countries, the chief characteristics of 
every scene. It is well that, where every plant is wild and every 
torrent free, every field irregular in its form, every knoll various 
in its outline, one is not startled by well-built walls, or unyield- 
ing roofs, but is permitted to trace in the stones of the peasant's 
dwelling, as in the crags of the mountain side, no evidence of 
the line or the mallet, but the operation of eternal influences, the 
presence of an Almighty hand. Another perfection connected 
with its ease of outline is, its severity of character : there is no 
foppery about it; not the slightest effort at any kind of orna- 
ment, but what nature chooses to bestow; it wears all its deco- 
rations wildly, covering its nakedness, not with what the peasant 
may plant, but with what the winds may bring. There is no 
gay colour or neatness about it; no green shutters or other 
abomination : all is calm and quiet, and severe, as the mind of 
a philosopher, and, withal, a little sombre. It is evidently old, 
and has stood many trials in its day; and the snow, and the tem- 

h 3 



102 Poetry of Architecture. 

pest, and the torrent, have all spared it, and left it in its peace, 
with its grey head unbowed, and its early strength unbroken, 
even though the spirit of decay seems creeping, like the moss 
and the lichen, through the darkness of its crannies. This 
venerable and slightly melancholy character is the very soul of 
all its beauty. 

There remains only one point to be noticed, its humility. This 
Mas before stated to be desirable, and it will here be found in per- 
fection. The building draws as little attention upon itself as possi- 
ble ; since, with all the praise I have bestowed upon it, it possesses 
not one point of beauty in which it is not equalled or excelled 
by every stone at the side of the road. It is small in size, sim- 
ple in form, subdued in tone, easily concealed or overshadowed; 
often actually so ; and one is always delighted and surprised to 
find that what courts attention so little is capable of sustaining 
it so well. Yet it has no appearance of weakness : it is stoutly, 
though rudely, built ; and one ceases to fear for its sake the 
violence of surrounding agencies, which, it may be seen, will be 
partly resisted by its strength, and which we feel will be partly 
deprecated by its humility. Such is the mountain cottage of 
Westmoreland ; and such, with occasional varieties, are many of 
the mountain cottages of England and Wales. It is true that 
my memory rests with peculiar pleasure in a certain quiet valley 
near Kirkstone, little known to the general tourist, distant from 
any public track, and, therefore, free from all the horrors of 
improvement; in which it seemed to me that the architecture of 
the cottage had attained a peculiar degree of perfection. But 
I think that this impression was rather produced by a few seem- 
ingly insignificant accompanying circumstances, than by any 
distinguished beauty of design in the cottages themselves. Their 
inhabitants were evidently poor, and apparently had not repaired 
their dwellings since their first erection ; and, certainly, had 
never torn one tuft of moss or fern from roofs or walls which 
were green with the rich vegetation of years. The valley was 
narrow, and quiet, and deep, and shaded by reverend trees, 
among whose trunks the grey cottages looked out, with a per- 
fection of effect which I never remember to have seen equalled, 
though I believe that, in many of the mountain districts of 
Britain, the peasant's domicile is erected with equal good taste. 
I have always rejoiced in the thought, that our native highland 
scenery, though, perhaps, wanting in sublimity, is distinguished 
by a delicate finish in its details, and by a unanimity and pro- 
priety of feeling in the works of its inhabitants, which are else- 
where looked for in vain ; and the reason of this is evident. 
The mind of the inhabitant of the continent, in general, is capa- 
ble of deeper and finer sensations than that of the islander. It 
is higher in its aspirations, purer in its passions, wilder in its 



Mountain Cottage, Westmoreland. 103 

dreams, and fiercer in its anger ; but it is wanting in gentleness, 
and in its simplicity ; naturally desirous of excitement, and inca- 
pable of experiencing, in equal degree, the'calmer flow of human 
felicity, the stillness of domestic peace, and the pleasures of the 
humble hearth, consisting in every-day duties performed, and 
every-day mercies received ; consequently, in the higher walks 
of architecture, where the mind is to be impressed or elevated, 
we never have equalled, and we never shall equal, them. It will 
be seen hereafter, when we leave the lowly valley for the torn 
ravine, and the grassy knoll for the ribbed precipice, that, if the 
continental architects cannot adorn the pasture with the humble 
roof, they can crest the crag with eternal battlements ; if they 
cannot minister to a landscape's peace, they can add to its terror; 
and it has been already seen, that, in the lowland cottages of 
France and Italy, where high and refined feelings were to be 
induced, where melancholy was to be excited, or majesty be- 
stowed, the architect was successful, and his labour was perfect : 
but, now, nothing is required but humility and gentleness ; and 
this, which he does not feel, he cannot give: it is contrary to 
the whole force of his character, nay, even to the spirit of his 
religion. It is unfelt even at the time when the soul is most 
chastened and subdued ; for the epitaph on the grave is affected 
in its sentiment, and the tombstone gaudily gilded, or wreathed 
with vain flowers. We cannot, then, be surprised at the effort at 
ornament and other fancied architectural beauties, which injure 
the effect of the more peaceful mountain scenery abroad ; but 
still less should we be surprised at the perfect propriety which 
prevails in the same kind of scenery at home; for the error which 
is there induced by one mental deficiency, is here prevented by 
another. The uncultivated mountaineer of Cumberland has no 
taste, and no idea of what architecture means; he never thinks 
of what is right, or what is beautiful, but he builds what is most 
adapted to his purposes, and most easily erected : by suiting the 
building to the uses of his own life, he gives it humility ; and, by 
raising it with the nearest material, adapts it to its situation. 
This is all that is required, and he has no credit in fulfillino- the 
requirement, since the moment he begins to think of effect, he 
commits a barbarism by whitewashing the whole. The cottages 
of Cumberland would suffer much by this piece of improve- 
ment, were it not for the salutary operation of mountain rains 
and mountain winds. 

So much for the hill dwellings of our own country. I think 
the examination of the five examples of the cottage which I have 
given have furnished all the general principles which are im- 
portant or worthy of consideration ; and I shall therefore devote 
no more time to the contemplation of individual buildings. But, 

h i 



10 + 



Poetry of Architecture. 




5 






Restoration of the Athenian Olympieum. 105 

before I leave the cottage altogether, it will be necessary to notice 
a part of the building which T have in the separate instances 
purposely avoided mentioning, that I might have the advantage 
of immediate comparison ; a part exceedingly important, and 
which seems to have been essential to the palace as well as to 
the cottage, ever since the time when Perdiccas received his 
significant gift of the sun from his Macedonian master, 7rsp»- 
ypa^/ag tov rj'Aiov, 05 rjv x/xtoL tyjV xonrvodoxYiv eg tov oikov icrsp^cov ; and 
then I shall conclude the subject by a few general remarks on 
modern ornamental cottages, illustrative of the principle so ad- 
mirably developed in the beauty of the Westmoreland building, 
to which, it must be remembered, the palm was assigned, in 
preference to the Switzer's ; not because it was more laboured, 
but because it was more natural. 
Oxford, Jan. ]838. 



Art. II. Supplementary Notice to the Paper on the Lotvland Cottage, 
Italy, p. 7- By Kata Phusin. 

The annexed woodcut (Jig. 40.) was intended to appear 
with, and in illustration of, the paper on the Lowland Cottage, 
Italy, but was delayed by the engraver ; it will, perhaps, make 
the remarks then advanced more intelligible. The building, 
which is close to the city of Aosta, unites in itself all the pecu- 
liarities for which the Italian cottage is remarkable : the dark 
arcade, the sculptured capital, the vine-covered gallery, the 
flat and confused roof; and clearly exhibits the points to which 
we wish particularly to direct attention ; namely, brightness of 
effect, simplicity of form, and elevation of character. Let it 
not be supposed, however, that such a combination of attributes 
is rare : on the contrary, it is common to the greater part of the 
cottages of Italy. This building has not been selected as a rare 
example, but is given as a good one. 

Oxford, Jan. 1838. 



Art. III. Ideal Restoration of the Athenian Olympieum. By Charles 

E. A. Blair, Architect. 

(Read at the Ordinary Meeting of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 

Jan. 15. 1838.) 

In presenting an ideal restoration of the Temple of Jupiter 
Olympius at Athens, some explanatory observations respecting 
the history of this temple appear to me to be in a measure neces- 
sary to exemplify the subject. I purpose, first, to advert to the 
descriptions left us by Pausanias and other authors ; and, after- 



10G 



Ideal Restoration 




wards, to show the materials from which I have produced the 
design {fig. 41.) now before you. That the subject is one of no 
ordinary interest, will, I think, be admitted ; and, should the 
restoration in any way elucidate the form, arrangement, and 
proportion of a Grecian decastyle temple of the pyenostyle 
species, my wishes will be fully realised. 

The state in which Pausanias (lib. i. c. xviii.) saw this temple, 
at the acme of its splendour, is thus described by him : — " The 
Emperor Hadrian dedicated the temple of Jupiter Olympius, 
and the statue, which is worthy of being seen; not, indeed, 
for its size (for at Rome and at Rhodes there are colossi much 
larger), but from being made of ivory and gold ! with skill equal 



of the Athenian Olympieum. 107 

to its magnitude. Here, also, are statues of Hadrian, two of 
which are of Thasian, and two of Egyptian, stone. In front of 
the columns there are brazen statues, belonging to the cities 
which the Athenians call colonial. The entire peribolus is about 
four stadia, or about one mile and a half, and is full of statues ; 
for an image of the Emperor Hadrian is placed in it from every 
city ; all of which the Athenians have greatly surpassed, by 
erecting the very remarkable colossus behind the naos, or cella, 
of the temple. There are within the peribolus, also, these anti- 
quities: a brazen Jupiter, and the temple of Chronos and 
Rhea, and a sacred enclosure, to which they give the name of 
Olvmpia. Here the pavement has been rent to the breadth of a 
cubit, where they report the waters, after the deluge of Deucalion, 
to have run off. Every year they throw into this opening a cake 
made of flour mixed with honey. There is, also, here, on a 
column, a statue of Isocrates. In the same place, there are, also, 
Persians, of Phrygian marble, supporting a brazen tripod, both 
deserving to be remarked. It is reported that Deucalion built 
the most ancient temple of Olympian Jupiter ; and, as a proof 
that Deucalion dwelt at Athens, thev show his tomb, which is 
not far from the present temple." 

Stuart describes the Olympium as consisting of seventeen Co- 
rinthian columns, each 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and nearly 60 ft. in 
height. The disposition of the plan evidently proves them to be the 
remains of a temple which had ten columns in front, and twenty- 
one in flank ; and that it had two ranges of columns on each 
side. The extent of the front has been 171 ft, and the length 
of the flank 356 ft. 3 in. ; so that, to describe this building in the 
language of Vitruvius, we must say it has been decastyle, dip- 
terous, and hypaethrous, of great dimensions, or a complete ex- 
ample of the most sumptuous and stately of all the aspects of 
temples. It stood within a spacious area, which was enclosed by 
a peribolus, or surrounding wall, at present in great part demo- 
lished, but not so entirely as to prevent the measure of its side 
(that facing the south) from being perfectly ascertained. 

Vitruvius tells us : " For at Athens, when Pisistratus set about 
building the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, the architects, Anti- 
states, Callaeschrus, Antimachides, and Porinos, laid the foun- 
dation. After the death of Pisistratus, because of the unsettled 
state of the republic, the prosecution of this work was discon- 
tinued ; insomuch that it was about two hundred years afterwards 
(when King Antiochus had engaged to defray the expense of 
the structure) that it was magnificently erected by Cossutius, a 
Roman citizen, who determined the magnitude of the cella, and 
adjusted the arrangement of the columns about the dipteros, and 
the disposition of the architraves, and other ornaments, with 



108 Ideal Restoration 

great skill and supreme science. This structure, indeed, is not 
spoken of with common praise: it is amongst those most renowned 
for their magnificence ; for in four places only are seen sacred 
edifices adorned with marble which are thus celebrated; the 
excellence and sagacious contrivance of which have been approved 
of in the assembly of the gods." (Fit. &c, lib. vii.) 

The Earl of Aberdeen truly observes, in the preface to Mr. 
Wilkins's translation of Vitruvius, " that they display the utmost 
beauty and propriety, with, perhaps, the greatest degree of mag- 
nificence and grandeur ever attained to by the architectural ex- 
ertions of the emperors of the Roman world. The remains of a 
dipteral temple, with columns, composed of the purest marble, 
more than 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and 60 ft. in height, cannot be 
described in any terms commensurate with the sensations ex- 
cited by the view of the original." 

Whenever, or by whomsoever, finished, these columns bear 
the indications of a pure age of Grecian art. Mr. Kinnard, the 
editor of the recent edition of Stuart's Athens, observes : " This 
was one of the largest and most sumptuous of all the temples of 
ancient Hellas ; it was, also, equal, or superior, in the beauty of 
the marble, and the richness of the ornament, to the great 
Herceum of Samos, to the Didymeean temple of Miletus, and, 
probably, to the far-famed shrine of Ephesus !" 

The ruins now existing of this temple do not comprise a tenth 
part of the entire structure, which, from the known dimensions of 
the great temples of antiquity spoken of by Vitruvius, appears 
(except that of Diana at Ephesus, and Jupiter Olympius at 
Afrrigentum) to have surpassed all the others, both in magnitude 
and magnificence, and in completeness and perfection of execu- 
tion. It was, in fact, the largest temple ever raised in Greece 
to the supreme pagan divinity. Speaking of Grecian art, Du 
Fresnoy, as translated by Dryden, poetically observes : — 

" Mid curves that vary in perpetual twine, 
Truth owns but one direct and perfect line ; 
Spread then her genuine charms o'er all the piece, 
Sublime and perfect as they glow'd in Greece." 

Stuart, who first described this temple as the Olympieum, being 
little explicit regarding the history of it, I shall here subjoin some 
of the leading circumstances attending its construction. It is pro- 
able that the earliest Athenian temple to Jupiter (of which, from 
tradition, Pausanias has attributed the foundation to Deucalion) 
was the first sanctuary raised at this spot ; and it, in all probability, 
partook of the rudeness and absence of order of primeval archi- 
tecture. 

Pisistratus was the founder of the sacred temple commenced 
about 5i0 years before Christ ; and, from the employment of 



of the Athenian Olympieum. 109 

four architects in laying the foundations, it would seem to have 
been projected on a scale correspondent with its subsequent ex- 
tent ; but, according to the style of architecture then chiefly cul- 
tivated in Greece, the order of the structure was, doubtless, 
Doric. 

The works of the temple were carried on by the sons of Pi- 
sistratus, but were discontinued on the destruction of that family ; 
and, probably, from a well-founded enmity to those tyrants, an 
edifice undertaken by them was suffered to remain a memorial of 
abortive enterprise ; but, from the testimony of Aristotle (De 
Rep., 1. v. c. 9.)? which places it in the same category with the 
pyramids of Egypt, and the Temple of Juno at Samos, it may 
be inferred that, even in his time, the structure was an object 
of extraordinary admiration. 

Long after the Pisistratida?, and the factions opposed to them, 
were no more, Antiochus Epiphanes refounded the temple, of 
which the ruins now surprise and delight us. Antiochus having 
been a hostage at Rome, at that city, probably, Cossutius the 
architect became known to him, who was consequently em- 
ployed on this temple, of which, according to Vitruvius, he de- 
signed with great taste and science the magnitude of the cella, 
the arrangement of the columns in the dipteros, the distribution 
of the architraves, and symmetrical introduction of the ornaments, 
with Corinthian decorations and proportions ; and it must have 
required no ordinary skill on the part of Cossutius to have con- 
structed the architraves, the distance from centre to centre of the 
columns being 15 ft. The temple appears to have been in a for- 
ward state when Sylla took Athens by assault. He is recorded 
to have transported to Rome some of the columns for the de- 
coration of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter : but it is probable 
that these columns belonged alone to the interior of the temple. 
So magnificent an offering to the Olympian divinity was not lono- 
suffered to remain, at that age, in a state of dilapidation and 
abandonment. 

Suetonius says that the kings in alliance with Augustus had 
resolved, at their common expense, to complete the temple, and 
dedicate it to the genius of that emperor. At length, however 
Hadrian appropriated to himself the renown of terminating and 
dedicating in person a temple which had been nearly 700 years 
in progress ; which many sovereigns had vied in attempting to 
complete, and on which are said to have been expended 7,088 
talents, or about 567,040/. 

Of this magnificence, and of these monuments of adulation, 
all that now remain are the seventeen columns already described, 
a part of the terrace wall, and vestiges of that of the peribolus, 
together with some inscribed pedestals scattered about Athens. 



110 Remarks on Competition Designs 

These, doubtless, sustained the tributary statues of Hadrian. 
And it is remarkable that a seeming record of the great architect 
Cossutius, confirming Vitruvius, has survived the near destruc- 
tion of this temple, in the following inscription, found in the 
vicinity of it, probably belonging to the base of a statue: — 

DECIMUS COSSUTIUS, 
SON OF PUBLIUS, A ROMAN. 

Historv does not inform us of the progressive stages of destruc- 
tion of this temple. At the time of the Marquis de Nointel, the 
ruin itself was in the same state as seen by Stuart and Revett, 
with the exception of a Greek chapel, rudely constructed within 
it, probably in a lower age, called St. John of the Columns, 
which now no longer exists. The Turks, also, had recently 
raised a stone pulpit, or praying place, at the south-east angle of 
the ancient peribolus; and, at periods of public calamity, were 
accustomed to assemble there for the purpose of simultaneous 
prayer; a proof how much the prejudice regarding the sanctity 
of a place once devoted to religion may impress the understand- 
ing, or to what a degree the emotion of the sublime, which is so 
powerfully produced by this ruin, is congenial with the contem- 
plation of the Divinity, and affects equally all mankind. 

JReigate, Jan. 26. 1838. 



Art. IV. Remarks on Competition Designs for rebuilding the Royal 
Exchange. By Henry Noel Humphreys. 

By the unfortunate conflagration of the Royal Exchange, 
another grand opportunity is created for a display of the powers 
of our national school of architecture. There will doubtless be 
an open competition, an open trial of skill for the glory of re- 
building " the temple of commerce." Much has been said and 
written in extenuation of the paucity of talent and true archi- 
tectural genius displayed in a vast majority of the competing 
designs for the Houses of Parliament: as the display of a great 
national school, it was certainly contemptible; but then it is 
urged, in reply, that the restrictions respecting style cramped 
the genius and invention of many of the competitors ; and, again, 
that the novelty of the system of open competition alarmed the 
prejudices of many among the most eminent of the profession; 
and, truly, after the long years of private jobbing, it was alarm- 
ing enough to many who enjoyed government patronage, un- 
challenged by public opinion as to capacity and qualification. 
However this may be, it may now be fairly assumed, that, in 
the present instance, these alleged causes of failure will no 



for rebuilding the Royal Exchange. 1 1 1 

longer exist. That no particular style will be dictated to com- 
petitors, is now pretty clear from the proceedings and consider- 
ations that have already taken place upon the question. The 
inconveniences experienced by a contrary course have proved 
that every architect ought to be left to the genuine impulse re- 
sulting from his own taste and judgment, as to the style and 
character which ought to be imparted to a new building, both 
with reference to its individual structure, and also to its group- 
ing with other buildings of importance in its immediate neigh- 
bourhood. 

The other point, the novelty of the system of open competition, 
can no longer be pleaded ; for public opinion has already pro- 
nounced too strongly upon this point, to admit of the slightest 
chance of any return to the old system of favouritism and mo- 
nopoly in great public works. Therefore, all such as shun the 
chances of such a struggle must be considered as hors de combat 
as public practitioners; and few indeed will be induced thus 
to retire, only such, in short, as have much more to dread than 
to hope from the contest ; and these cannot be considered a great 
loss to our school of architecture. Hence, we may infer that an 
open competition will now produce a fair sample of the state of 
the art in this country, an exhibition of the best powers of our 
best architects, and, I do trust, a noble display of national talent 
and genius in a truly noble art : for the European reputation of 
our school of architecture certainly requires that the impression 
produced by the late contest should be obliterated as soon as 
possible. 

As this is a glorious opportunity for young architects to make 
their struggle for distinction, I trust they will come to the work 
with all the hope and enthusiasm that success requires; and I 
venture to offer the few ensuing remarks upon the style and 
spirit in which it appears to me that designs ought to be con- 
ceived. Before bestowing a thought upon the effect to be 
produced in the elevation, I would well consider the plan ; 
which plan is to be founded upon the peculiar purposes and 
destinations of the building, to which it must be adapted with all 
possible fitness and convenience. It also behoves every ar- 
chitect well to consider whether the arrangements of the late 
building were good, and whether they fulfilled these conditions ; 
and, if even pronounced good, whether any still better can be 
devised. Without giving full play and much reflection to such 
considerations, one might be led to adopt the general principles 
of the previous plan as an authorised pattern and precedent : for 
it requires some independence of thought, and firmness of 
opinion, to design a building for a precisely similar purpose, yet, 
totally different in arrangement from its predecessor; par- 



1 1 2 Remarks on Competition Designs 

ticularly when that predecessor had not been condemned and 
removed for any defect, supposed or real ; but, on the contrary, 
being accidentally destroyed by a calamity generally deploi-ed, 
and being almost universally admired as one of the chief archi- 
tectural ornaments of the metropolis. These facts create in- 
voluntarily a sort of prejudice in favour of a similar arrangement, 
which we must suppress, and at once come to the simple question 
of fitness ; unshackled by any over-scrupulous veneration for 
preexistent forms and feelings. Let us consider, for instance, 
whether the open quadrangle with the surrounding colonnade 
offers every requisite convenience for the daily meeting of mer- 
cantile men in this climate. It appears to me that it does not. 
Now, there are many ways and means by which greater pro- 
tection from cold and wet may be advantageously obtained. I 
will just allude to two that have occurred to me as offering many 
advantages. 

In the first place, a quadrangle and colonnade might exist, as 
at present; but to each walk (" Baltic," "American," "Por- 
tuguese," &c.) a coffee-house might be attached, opening to 
the colonnade, as do the shops in the Palais Royal. These would 
be rather public rooms than mere coffee-houses, to which, in 
consideration of a small annual subscription, merchants, cap- 
tains, and others, should be entitled to free access and the use 
of tables, pens, ink, &c, without the necessity of taking re- 
freshments, which, nevertheless, could be had in the adjoining 
eating-room, if required. The respective entrances to these 
rooms from the interior colonnade should be closed at usual 
change hours ; but the entrance to the refreshment-room should 
be from the exterior, so that the general coffee-house business 
might be carried on in the regular way. Such establishments 
need not disfigure the symmetry of the building, on the exterior 
or interior, half so much as shops ; indeed, not at all, and they 
would bring in a far greater rental. It may be urged against 
this plan, that it would injure the proprietors of such concerns 
as the North and South American coffee-houses, &c. ; but, by 
giving the refusal of the proposed establishments to these in- 
dividuals first, all injustice would be done away with. I am 
indebted for this idea to a commercial friend, for whose opinion 
I have the highest esteem; and, from his great experience and 
judgment, I feel confident of its practicability. 

My other, and favourite, plan, would be to have no interior 
court, but to have the entire central space of such a quadrangular 
building occupied by a vast covered arena, a magnificent hall 
lighted from the roof, and surrounded by highly ornamented 
open galleries communicating with the entrance to the different 
apartments, offices, counting-houses, Lloyd's establishment, &c, 



for rebuilding the Royal Exchange. 113 

of which arrangement the loggia of the Vatican may serve to 
give an idea. I think a grand hall, with its surrounding tiers of 
enriched galleries, approached by suitable flights of steps, would 
have a noble and novel appearance, as well as answering the 
purpose in view ; namely, providing a suitable arena for the 
meetings of mercantile men, where business might be con- 
veniently discussed at all seasons. This idea is thrown out in 
the rough, without any pretension to a well-digested plan ; but, at 
a future time, I may attempt to develope it more completely. 
For the present, my only purpose is to call attention to a few 
principal points, for neither time nor space allow me to touch 
upon the more detailed arrangement of a plan. 

In conclusion, therefore, I will just note down a few stray 
thoughts upon the character of the elevation. In the first place, 
I would say that I think it highly improbable, taking the lo- 
cality and other circumstances into consideration, that any 
Gothic design will be adopted ; therefore, let competitors eschew 
Gothic. Next, I would say eschew porticoes ; nothing original 
can be done with them : the very few ancient models that remain 
to us have been twisted, and turned, and adapted in every pos- 
sible way : they are now threadbare ; and, unless some new 
model could be deterre to infuse a little freshness of spirit, 
Greek porticoes had, 1 think, better be left alone. I dare say 
most architects have a very nice pattern or two which could be 
brought in without much trouble ; but, I should say, leave it in 
the portfolio. Neither portico nor columns are indispensable re- 
quisites in such a building as the one in question : indeed, half 
the columns in our modern architecture support nothing. Co- 
lumns supporting nothing ! Incus a rum lucendo. The admired 
exchange of Paris may, perhaps, be brought in witness against 
me : but I presume we do not want, as it were, a mere reprint of 
an ancient building in a structure devoted to commerce. Such 
an idea appears better suited for a plaster model to be placed in 
a museum, or, at most, to a building devoted in some way to the 
arts and their history and origin,- than to one of the present 
character. 

The Royal Exchange should, in its structure and design, dis- 
play all the advantages resulting from the great discoveries of 
modern science which can be advantageously applied to archi- 
tecture : it should be a monument of the existing state of the 
intelligence and original genius of the country ; and a building 
conceived in this feeling could not fail to present such novel 
features as would be quite refreshing after all the servilities of 
the imitation system. I would just hint that a fire-proof struc- 
ture would, perhaps, be thought to possess claims to preference 
after the recent calamitous conflagrations in different parts of 
Europe; and to such as feel that their talents and studies qualify 

Vol. V. — No. 49. i 



114* Britton's History and Description 

them for such an attempt, I would suggest the employment of 
iron to a great extent in some designs, the proper adoption and 
application of which would produce an entirely novel archi- 
tectural feeling. Cast-iron columns of Doric proportions are 
ridiculous : half their bulk would support twice the weight 
above them. Every material, to insure elegance and truth, and 
such results as are alone in accordance with the real principles 
of taste, must be applied with due regard to its nature and 
to fitness; and, following out this principle, completely divested 
of the trammels of proportions fitted to and devised for other ma- 
terials, new forms and combinations must result, which cannot 
fail to be agreeable to the practised eye of taste. Fitness is the 
great originator of novelty and beauty, and the fundamental 
principle of taste. 

To those indisposed to venture so far from the beaten track, 
I would suggest, as a fit model, the early palatial style of modern 
Italy ; the most original style of modern times ; for it was one of 
impulse more than study. But, when I propose it, as a model, I 
mean only in spirit : I would have no measuring, I would have 
no curious imitation of detail. In the present instance, the pro- 
portions ought to be the result of the purposes of the structure, 
and the application of the true principles of art to any plan of 
construction employed : the detail ought to originate in the 
natural suggestions of circumstance and fitness ; and then alone 
can it possess that harmonious accordance with the plan and 
elevation of the edifice, which is the true test of propriety and 
beauty. 

Time obliges me to conclude abruptly; but I intend, at a 
future time, to offer a i'tsv more remarks upon this interesting 
subject. 

London, Feb. 1838. 



REVIEWS. 

Art. I. The History and Description, tvith graphic Illustrations, of 
Cassiobury Park, Hertfordshire, the Seat of the Earl of Essex. By 
John Britton, F.S.A., &c. Folio, 32 pages and 22 plates. Lon- 
don, 1837. 

This is a splendid work, uniting at the same time accuracy, 
elegant taste, and usefulness. It is splendid as a whole, from the 
number and large size of the plates, and the artistical excellence 
which they display; it is elegant, from the lightness and 
clearness of the page, and the airy vignettes with which it is 
illustrated; it is most accurate in its architectural details, the 
engravings being all from drawings by eminent artists; and, 
finally (and this is what enhances the value of the book more 
to us than anything else), it contains a number of ground plans 



of Cassiobury Park. 115 

of commodious cottages, for the keepers of gates and lodges, 
bailiffs, gamekeepers, woodmen, and other labourers and officers, 
usually to be found on an extensive estate. The plans of these 
cottages are not only exceedingly convenient, but the elevations 
are singularly picturesque : they are favourite objects with the 
present earl. Some of them, it is said, have been built from his 
designs, and they are always kept in the highest order. We 
shall notice them again when giving an account of the contents 
of the work. 

The dedication is to the venerable earl, whom Mr. Britton first 
met, in the last year of the last century, at Hampton Court, in 
Herefordshire. In the preface, which is introduced by a beau- 
tiful vignette of the Swiss cottage, the dignity and utility of the 
study of topography are pointed out, and the author's obligations 
are stated, and thanks given, to the different persons from whom he 
received assistance. The Earl of Essex generously presented 
him with the copperplates, mostly of folio size, and no fewer 
than twenty-two in number; and this circumstance accounts for 
the low price at which Mr. Britton is able to afford this work : 
for, had the copperplates, and the drawings from which they 
were executed, been paid for by the author, the price must have 
be fifteen or twenty guineas, instead of five guineas. The con- 
tents show that the work consists of three chapters : — 1. Local 
History; 2. Memoirs and Pedigrees; and, 3. Description of 
Modern Cassiobury. The list of illustrations comprises twenty- 
two copperplates, from drawings by Turner, Pugin, Hunt, Bil- 
lings, Ed ridge, Villiers, Alexander, and others ; and engraved 
by Hill, Havell, Lewis, Scriven, &c. The woodcuts are thir- 
teen, all by eminent artists, and principally engraved by S. Wil- 
liams. The list of subscribers, which is considerable, consists 
chiefly of architects, artists, and booksellers ; at the head of 
which, however, is the Duchess of Kent, and various dukes, 
earls, marquesses, and lords. 

Chap. i. is introduced by a most elegant vignette of Thorn 
Cottage. This chapter is entitled, " On Local History." — The 
Cassii, Cassio, and Cassio-bury. — Julius Caesar and Cassibe- 
lanus. — Connexion of Cassio with Verulamium, and with St. 
Alban's Abbey. — History of the Manor. This is an extremely 
interesting chapter, though the subject of it is foreign to that of 
this Magazine. Cassiobury is supposed to have been the resi- 
dence, or rather habitat, of Cassibelanus, the head of a tribe 
of aboriginal Britons, mentioned, in Caesar's Commentaries, as a 
man of importance. In point of antiquity and celebrity, there- 
fore, Cassiobury can hardly be equalled by any other place in 
Britain. Cassiobury first became private property in the time 
of Henry VIII., who granted the manor of Cassio to Sir 
Richard Morrison, Knight, who greatly improved the place, 

i 2 



116 



Britton's History and Description 



+2 







which was afterwards 'completed by his son, Sir Charles Morri- 
son, who died in 1599. " On the marringeof Elizabeth Morrison, 
the only surviving child of Sir Richard's grandson, the family 
property passed to her husband, Arthur Lord Cape!; from 
whom the present possessor of Cassiobury is lineally descended." 
(p. 15.) The tail-piece to this chapter is an exquisitely engraved 
woodcut of Cassio-bridge Cottage. 

Chap. ii. is introduced by a vignette of Russel Cottage, built 
with wooden framework, filled in with brick plastered over. It 
is entitled " Brief Memoirs,' 5 with pedigrees of the Morrisons 
and the Capels, lords of the manor of Cassio. The tail-piece 
exhibits a view of Ridge Lane Cottage, of which, through the 
kindness of Mr. Britton, we are enabled to give a fac-simile 
impression. ( t fig. 42.) 

Chap. in. is introduced by Great Beech Tree Cottage, a 
thatched structure, comparatively simple in its outline, as all 
thatched structures ought to be; "thatch being a material altoge- 
ther unsuitable for acute angles. This chapter is entitled " To- 
pographical Description of Modern Cassiobury," with accounts 
of the park, the gardens, the house, and its pictures, the 
cottages, lodge, &c. 

Cassiobury, as described in the two preceding chapters, is 
associated, more or less, with the Britons, at war with, or op- 
pressed by, the Romans; of Saxon vassalage; of Catholic 
aggrandisement, and its long reign of supremacy, and by the 



of Cassiobury Park. 117 

important revolution effected by the suppression of monasteries : 
but Cassiobury, in this third chapter, presents a scene of do- 
mestic peace and rural beauty. " It sparks, woods, lawns, and 
waters; its floral and horticultural accompaniments; its man- 
sion, stored with choice productions of art and literature ; and the 
serenity and general comfort which pervade the whole ; cannot 
fail to produce deep and salutary impressions on the philan- 
thropist and philosopher." (p. 25.) The park is first described, 
and next the house, then the gardens, next the cottages, and, 
lastly, the family monumental chapel at Watford. 

We shall extract what is said on the subject of cottages, and 
add the ground plans of some of them, the woodcuts having 
been kindly lent us by Mr. Britton. 

Cottages. 

" In different parts of the park and grounds, are various cottages and lodges, 
which are distinguished at once for their exterior picturesque features, and for 
the domestic comfort they afford to their humble occupants. Unlike the 
ragged wretched sheds and hovels which are too often seen by the road side, 
and even in connexion with some of the large and ancient parks of our island, 
the buildings here delineated are calculated to shelter, to console, and gratify 
the labourer after his daily toil, and to make his wife and family cleanly and 
diligent. Were the mechanics and work-people of large manufacturing 
towns, and the peasantry (our " country's pride ") provided with better and 
more comfortable habitations than are generally allotted to them, the debasing 
and ruinous gin-shop and public-house would be less frequented ; and ragged 
impudent children would not so constantly infest our streets and public roads. 
The cottage sat Cassiobury have been designed with the twofold object of 
being both useful and ornamental. They are occupied, exempt from rent and 
taxes, by men and women who are employed by the noble landlord in various 
offices about the park, the gardens, and the house ; thus the park-keeper, a 
game-keeper, a shepherd, a lodge-keeper, a gardener, a carpenter, a miller, 
a lock-keeper, &c, are accommodated." 

In the interior arrangement of these cottages, most of them 
contain a porch, a sitting-room, one or two bedrooms, and a 
wash-house, with an oven and copper. 

Fig. 43. is a ground plan of the park-keeper's cottage, in 
which a, is a slaughterhouse; b, a dairy and larder; c, a sitting- 
room ; d, kitchen ; e, entrance ; f, porch ; and g, staircase. 

Fig. 44. is a ground plan of Thorn Cottage, in which a 
is the sitting-room ; b, bakehouse and scullery ; c, d, cellar ; 
e, shed over well ; f, porch and covered-way. 

Fig. 45. is the shepherd's or keeper's lodge, in which a is 
the sitting-room ; b, wood-house ; c, wash-house and oven ; d, 
pantry ; e, staircase ; f, porch. 

Fig. 46. is the entrance lodge for two families, in which 
a and g are sitting-rooms; b, staircase; c, entrance; rf, wood- 
house ; e, passage with dwarf wall; J] gates; h, staircase ; i, wash- 
house. This cottage forms the lodge to the London entrance, 
and is understood to have been partly the design of Wyatt, and 

i 3 



118 



Br it ton's History and Description 




partly of the earl. It certainly forms a very handsome group. 
The massive gates are hung with Collins's hinges, and move so 
easily, that they may be opened or shut by a child. 

IiiiiiiiiBiiiiMiii iih Fig. 47. is Ridge Lane Cottage, which is 

e J of two' stories, each appropriated to a fa- 

mily. The elevation of this cottage has been 
ready given, p. 116., in which is seen the 
porch of entrance for the family who occupy 
the ground floor, and the porch at the top 
of an outside staircase, for the occupant of the 
upper floor. The ground-plan contains, a, 
kitchen ; b, sitting-room ; c, bedroom ; d, 





wash-house, oven, &c. ; e, pantry ; J", staircase to a floor for 
another family ; g, porch. 

Fig. 48. is a plan of Great Beech Tree Cottage, which, be- 
ing of larger extent than the others, and highly ornamented 
exteriorly, maybe considered in the light of a cottage ormc. 
It has five rooms on the ground floor, and others up stairs. The 
ground plan contains, a, sitting-room; b, bedroom; c, porch 
and passage ; d, sitting-room ; e, housekeeper's room ; f, pantry ; 
g, cellar: //, back entrance; /, kitchen; k, porch. 



of Cassiobury Park. 
47 48 



119 






Fig. 49. is called Russell Farm Lodge, and is erected at 
the entrance to Russell Farm, by the side of the public road, 
between Watford and Berkhamp- 
stead. Russell Farm is occu- 
pied by General Sir Charles Col- 
ville, Bart., who rents it from the 
Earl of Essex. The ground plan 
contains, «, back porch ; b, 
kitchen ; c, sitting-room ; d, bed- 
room; e, wash-house, &c. ; f, front 
porch with seat. 

Fig. 50. is Russell Cottage, for two labourers' families. The 
ground plan contains, for the one cottage, a porch (a), sitting- 
room (b), staircase (c), wash-house 
(d), and oven and copper common to 
both cottages (e). The other cot- 
contains a wash-house, com- 
with a room containing 
the common oven and boiler ; a liv- 
ing-room (/?), stairs to the bedroom 
(g), and porch (J). 

Fig. 5 1 . is Cassio-bridge Cottage, 
for two labourers' families. The 
walls of this cottage are covered 
with split hazel, and other rods, the 
flat side being applied to the walls, 
and the bark exhibited externally to the weather and the eye. 
The pieces are all of thesame diameter, but of different lengths ; 
and they are arranged so as to throw the surface into panels, 
variously composed, in the manner of the Duke of Marlborough's 
garden structures at White Knights. The ground plan of each 
of these cottages shows exactly the same accommodation as in 
the Russell Cottage ; viz., two porches (aj\ two living-rooms 
(b A), two stairs (eg), two wash-houses (dj '), an oven and boiler 
room common to both houses (e). 

i 4 



tage 
municatinff 




120 



Arnott on Warming and Ventilatiiuj. 



The gardens and grounds 
at Cassiobury are delightful, 
on account of their natural 
beauties, the magnitude and 
picturesque forms of the man- 
sion, and the artificial scenery 
of the gardens which adjoin 
it; but for the general air of 
comfort which pervades every 
part of the estate, the appear- 
ance of cleanliness, order, and 
high keeping in the park, 
which is so strongly impressed 
on the mind of the stranger, 
we think it is more indebted to these cottages than, perhaps, to 
any other feature. Perhaps the only useful addition that could 
be made to the interior of such dwellings would be one of Ar- 
nott's stoves to each. 




Art. II. On Warming and Ventilating ; tuith Directions for making 
and using the Thermometer Stove, or self-regulating Fire; and 
other nevo Apparatus. By Neil Arnott, M.D., F.R.S., &c, Physi- 
cian Extraordinary to the Queen, Author of the " Elements of 
Physics," &c. 8vo, pp. 138. London, 1838. 

We are much mistaken, if Dr. Arnott' s stove is not by far 
the best substitute that has yet been proposed for an open fire- 
place. We say this, not alone from having perused the work 
before us, and seeing the stoves at the manufacturer's, but from 
the experience of a gentleman at Bayswater, who (though we 
did not know it till quite lately) has had one of these stoves in 
operation for upwards of six months, and has experienced all 
the advantages from it set forth by its inventor. We entered 
the rooms heated by it on a very cold day, and found the 
temperature delightful. Fuel was only supplied twice a day, 
and no stirring it with poker or tongs ever given between. 
It was placed in the back room of the parlour floor : it heated 
that room and the front room ; and, when the parlour doors were 
opened, it heated the whole house, the thermometer opening 
the regulator so as to accelerate the burning of the fire, and 
produce the extra heat required. Dr. Arnott's stove has the 
great advantage over Mr. Joyce's, that any sort of fuel may be 
burned in it. In short, it differs chiefly from a particular kind 
of German stove, in which the fire is burned in an isolated 
furnace within a casing of sheet iron ; and from the Bruges stove, 
in which the fire is burned in an isolated grate within a casing 
of cast iron ; in having the self-regulating thermometer. As an 



Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 121 

invention, however, it is much more likely to come into general 
use from its being an improvement on preceding inventions, 
than if it had been in every respect original. The Bruges 
stove, figured and described in the Encyclopaedia of Cottage 
Architecture, and also in the First Volume of this Magazine, may 
be considered as the prototype of Dr. Arnott's stove, adapted 
for cooking. It is a most excellent stove for both purposes, 
and, notwithstanding the prejudices against stoves among 
English cooks, we are rather surprised that it has not come 
into more general use. It would save as much in the kitchen, 
as Dr. Arnott's stove would save in the parlour. 

Before describing the thermometer stove, we shall give a 
short notice of the treatise relating to it. This treatise is the 
substance of a lecture delivered at the Royal Institution in 
March, 1836. It was not published sooner, because it was 
desirable to have to report the result, not of one or two experi- 
ments only, but of many ; and, in consequence of more ex- 
tended experience, to be able to make evident to popular 
apprehension those popular misconceptions and prejudices 
which have hitherto prevented the introduction of better modes 
of heating. Every man, who has anything of the feeling of a 
tradesman about him, will naturally say, " Why did not Dr. 
Arnott take out a patent for his invention ? he would have made 
a fortune by it." Undoubtedly he would ; but Dr. Arnott had 
much nobler views, and has made a fortune of an infinitely more 
exalted kind than it is in the power of money to produce. We 
cannot introduce this subject better than in Dr. Arnott's own 
words : — 

" My reason for delivering the lecture before I had the book fully prepared, 
was, that, as I had decided not to reserve for myself any patent right in the 
new apparatus, I might, by having numerous competent witnesses of what I 
had proposed and accomplished, prevent other parties who might hear of my 
processes from appropriating them by patents, and thus coming between me 
and the public. 

" Because several of the new means, and particularly the thermometer stoves, 
are of the nature of the things for which patents are usually taken, friends 
had urged me strongly to follow the custom ; representing that the legisla- 
ture of this country has devised the patent alone as a mode of remunerating 
the proposers of useful inventions ; and that many honoured names, as lately, 
of Watt, Arkwright, Wollaston, &c, are in the list of those who have profited 
by the law ; and further, that, in the case of the stove, it would be an advan- 
tage to the public, that I should retain the right of naming the persons allowed 
to manufacture it, thereby to prevent such disappointments from imperfect 
workmanship as happened in some cases with regard to my hydrostatic bed, 
and other suggestions strictly professional. 

" I had decided not to take the patent ; because the stove was originally 
planned as a means of preventing and curing diseases, purposes for which it 
will always be important, whatever other advantages be derived from it ; and 
in this country it is usual for members of the medical profession to make an 
offering at once to the public of any means for the benefit of the general 
health, which they may discover or devise, without stipulating for private 
advantage. Then, although I believe I might have better served the public 



122 Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 

by keeping control over the sale of the floating bed, I think, in regard to the 
stove, that the construction and management will by this publication be 
rendered so intelligible to all, that mistakes can scarcely happen; and it is 
likely that the wide competition among the talented men about to engage in 
the manufacture will sooner lead to the adoption of the best and cheapest 
forms and construction than if the business had remained in fewer hands. 

" Since I gave my, lecture, and publicly described the thermometer stove, 
I have heard of various supposed improvements on it, and substitutes for it, 
which, however, have only proved how little the subject was understood, 
either by the persons who could make such proposals, or the portions of the 
public which could entertain them." 

In the introduction, the author illustrates in a popular 
manner the four conditions of health to man ; namely, " fit air, 
warmth, aliment, and exercise of his bodily and mental fa- 
culties." " The total want or privation of the four neces- 
saries quickly extinguishes life." " Mismanagement in regard to 
the four necessaries produces disease and premature death." 
" While faulty management in regard to the four necessaries 
is thus the chief cause of the great mass of diseases, peculiarly 
modified management of them becomes the chief part of the 
cure of all diseases." " The four necessaries, with poisons and 
violence, are the primary or original sources of human pleasures 
and pains, and the great motives of human actions." " The 
knowledge of some of the truths above announced has been 
slowly acquired by man." The educated members of civilised 
communities possess this knowledge ; and the object of Dr. 
Arnott's work is " to render the knowledge on the subjects of 
ventilation and warming, which now exists among the learned, 
familiar to all, and to introduce to public notice new and simple 
means of securing the ends in view." (p. 13.) The author next 
treats of ventilating and warming generally, and afterwards 
gives a history of heating apartments by fires in a chimney, by 
close stoves, by steam, by hot water, and by hot air; and, 
having thus given a popular and instructive sketch of the chief 
means which were used for warming and ventilating up to 1834-, 
he proceeds to describe the self-regulating fire or thermometer 
stove. His attention was drawn to the subject of " controlling 
temperature, for the purposes of health and comfort," by various 
professional occurrences which took place in that year. The 
subject had before engaged his attention, but he now set before 
him the problem, " To secure effectually, in any part of the 
world, and at all seasons, the temperature, moisture, and purity 
of atmosphere most congenial to the human constitution." 
After setting up an apparatus in his library, and making various 
experiments, the idea of a box of water " heated not by com- 
munication with a distant fire, but by a small fire within itself" 
(such as is used for heating portable baths), occurred to him. 

" This constituted a water-clad stove; and, as the steam of the water, when 
heated to the boiling point, passed, by an aperture provided, into the chimney, 



Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 



VIS 



the external surface of the box could never be hotter than boiling water, and 
conld no more, therefore, vitiate the air of the room than the simple water- 
box did. To prevent the water from boiling too rapidly, and being wasted, 
the air, to feed the combustion, was admitted only by a small aperture near 
the door of a close ash-pit, in which aperture was placed a throttle-valve, 
regulated by a peculiar thermometer, which will be described in a future page. 
The aperture was closed by the thermometer whenever the temperature 
reached the boiling point, or any other point that might be chosen, and was 
opened again whenever the thermometer fell to below the point chosen. 
This stove, besides its uniform moderate temperature (for it was a box of 
boiling water, which, although giving out heat, never cooled), had nearly all 
the economical advantages of the close German or Dutch stove; for so much 
of the chimney-flue might be exposed in the room as to apply usefully nearly 
all the heat of the smoke. There was here, however, still an apparatus 
rather difficult to make, and expensive, liable to be out of order, heavy, 
requiring considerable attention from servants, &c. It may be mentioned, 
however, that several forms of the water-clad stove may still be useful. 

" After the step made by the construction of the stove just described, it was 
easy to make another and more important step. The object sought was now 
clearly seen to be, merely to place in any apartment the required extent of 
metallic surface, kept steadily at a temperature not exceeding 200° of Fahren- 
heit. It evidently was of no importance what hot fluid filled and warmed 
the vessel (whether water, steam, oil, or air, or whether there were an 
included fire), provided the temperature of the surface was maintained; 
for the box in any case would be quite close, permitting no escape of its 
contents. If, therefore, in a box of the required size, a fire could be placed 
so as to warm the box with perfect uniformity all around, while the fire itself 
was so controlled by a self-acting regulator, that it should burn always 
exactly as fast as was required to keep the box steadily at any desired temper- 
ature, the object sought would be attained, and there would be many con- 
comitant advantages of cheapness, simplicity, Sec. These words have sketched 
the self-regulating fire or thermometer stove, of which the form first tried is now 
to be described more particularly by aid of the woodcut. 

" The outline abdc (fig.52.) represents a box formed of sheet iron, and di- 
vided by the partition g h into two chambers, communicating freely at the top 

and bottom. The letter e marks the fire-box 

or furnace, formed of iron, lined with fire 

brick, and resting on a close ash-pit, of 

which b marks the door, and near which 

door there is a valved opening, by which 

air enters, to feed the fire when the door 

is shut ; i marks the door of the stove, by 

which fuel is introduced ; c is the chimney 

flue. While the stove door and ash-pit 

door are open, a fire may be lighted, and 

will burn in the fire box just as in a com- 
mon grate, and the smoke will rise and 

pass away by the chimney, mixed with much 

colder air, rushing in by the stove door; 

but, if the stove door and ash-pit door be 

then closed, and only as much air is ad- 
mitted by the valved opening in the ash-pit 

as will just feed the combustion, . only a 

small corresponding quantity of air can pass 

away by the chimney, and the whole box 

will soon be full of the hot air or smoke 

from the fire circulating in it, and render- 
ing it every where of as uniform temperature as if it were full of hot water. 

This circulation takes place, because the air in the front chamber around 




124- Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 

the fire-box, and which receives as a mixture the red-hot air issuing from 
the fire, is hotter, and therefore specifically lighter, than the air in the 
posterior chamber, which receives no direct heat, but is always losing 
heat from its sides and back ; and thus, as long as the fire is burning, there 
must be circulation. The whole mass of air is, in fact, seen to revolve, as 
marked by the arrows, with great rapidity ; so that a person looking towards 
the bottom of the stove, through the stove door i, might suppose, if smoking 
fuel had been used to make the motion visible, that he was looking in at the 
top of a great chimney. The quantity of new air rising from within the fuel, 
and the like quantity escaping by the flue c, are very small, compared with the 
revolving mass. There remains to be noticed only the thermometer regulator 
of the combustion. Many forms presented themselves to my mind, as 
described in the section on the manufacture of the stove, any one of which 
will close the air- passage, slackening or suspending the combustion at any 
desired degree, and will open it again instantly, when the temperature falls 
below that degree. 

" I had thus a simple box of iron, of cheap and easy construction, answering 
all the purposes of expensive steam or hot-water apparatus, burning its fuel 
as steadily and regularly as an argand lamp burns its oil, or as 'an hour-glass 
lets its sand run through ; and allowing me, by merely touching a screw on 
the thermometer, rapidly to increase or diminish its heat, as by touching 
another regulating screw we increase or diminish the light of a lamp. 

" What chiefly surprises a stranger in this new stove, is the very small 
quantity of air required to support the combustion which warms a large 
room : the whole might enter by an opening of half an inch diameter, and the 
quantity of air or smoke which passes into the chimney is, of course, pro- 
portionally small. These facts at once suggest how small the consumption 
of fuel must be, as that depends on the quantity of air entering ; how perfect 
the combustion of the fuel must be where so little is expended ; and how 
completely the heat produced in the combustion must be turned to account. 
The combustion is so perfect, because the fuel is surrounded by thick fire- 
brick, which confines the heat so as to maintain intense ignition ; and the 
saving of heat is proved by the rapidly diminishing temperature of the flue, 
detected by a hand, passed along it from the stove. During the winter 
1836-7, which was very long and severe, my library was warmed by the 
thermometer-stove alone. The fire was never extinguished, except for 
experiment or to allow the removal of pieces of stone which had been in the 
coal ; and this might have been prevented by making the grate with a move- 
able or shifting bar. The temperature was uniformly from 60° to 63°. I 
might have made it as much lower or higher as I liked. The quantity of 
coal used (Welsh stone coal) was, for several of the colder months, six 
pounds a day (less than a pennyworth), or at the rate of half a ton in the 
six winter months. This was a smaller expense than of the wood needed to 
light an ordinary fire ; therefore, the saving was equal to the whole amount 
of the coal merchant's ordinary bill. The grate, or fire-box, fully charged, 
held a supply for twenty-six hours. It might have been made twice as large, 
or to hold a supply for two days, and there would have been no waste, as 
the consumption is only proportioned to the air allowed to enter ; but, in 
general, it may be convenient to have to look at and charge the fire in the 
middle of the day and at bed-time. Many strangers coming into my room 
did not suspect that I had fire in the stove, for it was used generally as a 
table for a book-stand. They thought the agreeable warmth of the room 
came from the kitchen, or some neighbouring room. I believe that persons 
must themselves feel to be able truly to conceive the charm, in dreary winter, 
of knowing, wherever they be, in cold, or rain, or snow, that a perfect and 
unvarying summer room always awaits their return home. 

" The thermometer stove, as compared with other modes of warming, will 
be best understood by reviewing its chief qualities. A generaPexpression 



Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 125 

for them is, that it possesses all the advantages of steam or hot-water warminp, 
with many advantages peculiar to itself." 

The particular advantages are : Economy of Fuel. A common 
open fire wastes seven eighths of the heat produced ; but Dr. 
Arnott's stove does not allow the air, which has fed combustion 
to escape until it is deprived of nearly all the heat; and it does 
not allow any of the warm air of the room, except the little 
which feeds the fire, to escape through the chimney. To 
render palpable the difference of effect between fuel consumed 
in an open fireplace and fuel consumed in a close stove, set fire 
to a sheet of paper in each. That in the stove will warm it, as 
if boiling water had been poured into it, and the heat will be 
given off into the room ; while that in the open fireplace will 
produce no sensible effect in the room. One eighth of the fuel 
which is needed for a common fire suffices for a thermometer 
stove; and stone coal, or anthracite, coke, and even cinders, 
in a word the cheapest fuel, answers better than that which is 
dearer. 

Uniform Temperature is obtained in all parts of the room 
throughout the day, and throughout the night also, if re- 
quired. 

The Stove is always alight, by which the temperature of the 
place warmed is uniform, and much fuel is saved. " More fuel 
would be wasted in one morning hour, by the attempt suddenly 
to raise the temperature of a room which had become cold in 
the night, than by keeping the fire burning moderately all the 
night." 

No Smoke can come from the stove, or dust ; there is no 
danger to persons approaching it ; no danger to property by 
live coal being shot from the fire. Obedience to command 
is another advantage, the screw of the regulator as certainly 
increasing or diminishing the temperature as the screw of a 
lamp varies the light. An open fire is often the master of the 
attendant, but a child may manage the stove without failing. 

" The trifling original Expense, compared with the cost of apparatus for 
warming by steam, hot water, or distributed hot air, and as compared even 
with a good open grate and fire-irons. The saving of fuel in one winter would 
nearly pay for the stove. 

" The small Expense of Attendance upon it ; whereas, if a common fire is to 
be kept burning, there must be some person to watch it ; and, if there be 
several such fires, the servant will be almost constantly employed passing 
from room to room. 

" It is easily moved, after the chimneys are prepared, from room to room, 
or house to house, nearly as a large chair, or a chest of drawers, may be 
moved. 

" Graceful Form. It may be fashioned to please the fancy; as a pedestal, 
vase, urn, pillar ; even a statue, or indeed, may be of almost any beautiful 
form. 

" // is a good Cooking Stove, and, therefore, the poor man's stove. — A second 
small iron box placed within it, with a door opening outwards through the 



26 Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 

side of the stove, is a perfect oven ; as is proved, indeed, by the common 
American stove, described at art. 31., which in this respect resembles it. A 
small kettle or cooking vessel may be placed directly on the fire. Potatoes 
and other things maybe roasted in the ash-pit; and, if the ash-pit be made 
large, with the fire-bars sloping, so as to present a considerable surface of 
naked fire looking downward and forward, meat may be roasted there. The 
top of the stove is a perfect hot plate, on which anything may stand, either 
to be heated or to be kept warm. If the stove be heated to the boiling point 
of water, a tea-pot of cold water placed upon it, under a dish cover, soon 
contains boiling water; and similarly eggs or other things may be boiled. 
Tims the breakfast of a solitary student in London chambers may be easily 
prepared by himself. 

" No Sweeping Boi/s are required, as already explained. 

" The advantages hitherto enumerated of the stove, in its domestic bearing, 
might be otherwise classified under the heads of Economy of Fuel, Economy 
of Original Expense, Economy of Service, Economy of Comfort, Economy 
of Health and of Life, Economy of Furniture and Property generally, and 
Economy of Time. 

" There is one circumstance connected with this stove, as used in a sitting- 
room, which may at first by some be deemed a disadvantage; namely, that the 
fire is concealed from view. But that the English feeling on this subject is 
merely an accident, is proved by the contrary feeling existing as strongly 
elsewhere, as in Northern European and some American countries. While 
the Englishman dreads losing his cheerful hearth or fireside because of his 
pleasing associations with it, people on the Continent dread having such 
a fire, because their experience tells them that the open fire is accom- 
panied by cold draughts, discomfort, and danger, which do not attend the 
close stove ; and, if the Englishman himself would, in summer, fly from a fire 
as an insufferable object, he may soon, in winter, when the thermometer stove 
makes a summer for him, cease to desire it. It is possible, however, to have 
an open fire, with many of the qualities of the stove, as will be shown in a 
future paragraph. 

" Another objection likely to be made by person sbefore reflection, is, that 
they would be rendered very susceptible of cold by living in rooms always 
heated to about 60°. Now, the temperature of 60° is in most countries the 
medium equally distant from the extremes of heat and cold, which persons 
may permanently use, or may approach or leave, with perfect safety. The 
danger of catching colds or heats is on entering or leaving rooms with open 
fires, heated, as they often are, to 70° and more, or cooled to 50° and below." 

The author next recurs to the subject of ventilation ; and, on 
this point, we think the use of his stove, as a substitute for open 
fireplaces, will be most liable to objections. We have little 
doubt that, were people once accustomed to it, the current of 
fresh air introduced by the draught of the stove fire, and the 
change of air produced by opening and shutting the door when 
persons came in or went out of the room, with the air intro- 
duced through crevices in the windows, doors, &c, would be 
sufficient for health ; but, after having been accustomed, for the 
greater part of our lives, to that perpetual change of air, which 
takes place in the case of an open fireplace, it may reasonably 
be doubted whether the sudden change to the air of a room 
heated by a close stove might not have some unpleasant effects. 
Judging from our own experience, having passed a winter in 
Petersburg, some spring months in Sweden and the north of 



Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 127 

Germany, besides several winter months in the south of Ger- 
many and in Fiance, we should say that the change from open 
fireplaces to close stoves, with j an ordinary degree of inter- 
course between the rooms and the passages of a house, would be 
attended with no bad effects whatever ; but, by a number of 
persons in this country, the matter will, we have no doubt, 
be viewed differently. If we live till next winter, we shall 
substitute the Bruges stove for an open fireplace in our 
kitchen, and try Dr. Arnott' s stove and Mr. Joyce's in sitting- 
rooms and bedrooms, and let our readers know the result after 
six months' experience. In the mean time, let us hear what 
Dr. Arnott states on the subject of ventilating common rooms. 

" Sufficient ventilation for an ordinary sitting-room will be insured, in a 
cold winter day : 1st, by the demand of air for the combustion in the stove; 
2dly, by the considerable change occurring through the crevices around doors 
and windows, which may be taken at about six cubical feet a minute for each ; 
and, 3dly, by the hundreds of gallons of fresh air, which, every time the door 
is opened, enter and displace an equal quantity of the air previously in the 
room. In warmer weather, when the difference between the external tem- 
perature and that of the room is less, and there is, therefore, less tendency 
to spontaneous change, some additional means may be used from among those 
to be described hereafter. But the three already mentioned have so con- 
siderable an effect, that, even in Russia, where they are the only means in 
common operation, and where they are counteracted very much by double 
doors and windows, and the closest fittings every where, in rooms without an 
open fireplace, and heated entirely by the action of stoves which are fed with 
air from the lobbies or passages, they still are sufficient. This is proved by 
the ruddy healthy countenances and long lives of the persons dependent 
upon them." 

The remainder of the work we must pass over, as chiefly 
entering into details on warming and ventilating large buildings, 
and for the construction of the stove by those who intend to 
manufacture it. We have done enough, we trust, to induce 
every architect and builder, and, indeed, we'might say, every 
reader, to procure the work and study it. Even on the general 
subject of heat, air, and ventilation, as connected with health, 
the work will richly repay perusal. Every subject on which 
Dr. Arnott touches in this work, on warming and ventilating, is 
treated of in so clear and satisfactory a manner, and so totally 
devoid of technicalities, that, like The Elements of Physics, it 
forms a most delightful piece of reading from beginning to end : 
the more delightful, because every line of it can be applied by 
the reader to some useful purpose. 

The stoves are manufactured by Messrs. Bramah, Cottam 
and Hallen, May and Moritt, Mr. Huxley, and others. The 
present price, we believe is from 31. to 10/. : but, we trust, by com- 
petition, it will soon be less, so as to render the stove available 
to the journeyman mechanic and the common labourer, both 
in town and country. We would suggest the idea of manufac- 



128 Arnott on Warming and Ventilating. 

turing some for warming only, and others for heating and cooking ; 
some for being regulated by a thermometer, and others (for 
country labourers) without thermometers, for being regulated 
by hand. The trouble of hand regulation would be nothing, in 
comparison with that which is at present required for keeping 
up a fire in a common open fireplace. 

It is a laudable practice of many benevolent persons in 
different parts of the country, to join in subscriptions for sup- 
plying the poor with coal, blankets, &c, during the winter. 
We would suggest that, in addition to this kind of association, 
societies should be formed for raising subscriptions to assist 
meritorious poor men in purchasing Arnott's stoves, fitted up 
in such a manner as to serve at once for heating and cooking;. 
Were some influential persons to take up this subject, and 
pursue it with the ardour which is frequently evinced in the case 
of political or scientific societies, the quantity of good that 
would be effected throughout the country is incalculable. Thou- 
sands of cottages, from being cold and miserable abodes in the 
winter season (though a considerable quantity of fuel is burned 
in them), would, with one eighth part of that fuel, be rendered 
warm and comfortable ; and the heat produced would not be 
confined to the kitchen or sitting-i'oom, but would rise up to 
the bed-rooms, and, in short, be diffused over the whole house. 
Many country gentlemen give their cottagers Christmas pre- 
sents ; such as a load of coals, sacks of potatoes, meal, flour, 
blankets, &c. : we would suggest, as a present likely to be of 
permanent advantage, one of Arnott's stoves, or a proportion of 
the cost of one, or the loan of as much as would purchase one, 
to be paid back by instalments. We are aware of the prejudices 
that exist among the labouring classes against improvements, 
especially those that require anything like nicety of manage- 
ment : but let it be remembered that a new generation is 
coming into action ; and, besides, that in every part of the 
country, and among every class of labourers, there are always 
some less prejudiced than others. Let these be tried first; let 
the carpenter, the smith, the mason, and the gardener, be 
offered stoves, with directions how to use them, and the result 
will, in time, induce their neighbours to follow their example. 
One feature in this stove will prejudice many against it as an 
article for the poor man, and that is the thermometer ; but the 
thermometer, we contend, is not an essential part of the stove, 
because the same regulation produced by it may be produced by 
hand ; and it cannot be much trouble to turn a register one 
way when the room is too hot, and another way when it is too 
cold ; say even a dozen times a day. As we have just observed, 
this would be nothing to the trouble attendant on a common 
fireplace. 



Godwin's Churches of London. 129 

Akt. III. The Churches of London : a History and Description of 
the Ecclesiastical Edifices of the Metropolis. By George Godwin, 
jun., Architect, Associate of the Institute of British Architects ; 
Assisted by J. Britton, F.S.A., &c. The Illustrations by Robert 
William Billings, Associate of the Institute of British Architects. 
Nos. 11. to 14.-. Svo. Price Is. each. 

This cheap and truly beautiful work continues to appear regu- 
larly; and, though we are generally inclined to think the last 
number the best, yet we certainly have no hesitation in expressing 
that opinion with respect to the fourteenth number. The fifteenth 
number, for March, contains the following interesting notice of 
Inigo Jones, who. it appears, was buried in St. Bennett's church, 
Paul's Wharf: — 

" It appears from the register books here preserved, that the celebrated 
architect Inigo Jones, who maybe deemed the first professor that introduced 
pure Italian architecture in England, was buried in this church ; and, as it is 
our desire in tracing the history of the metropolitan churches, to connect them 
with as many events which relate to the alterations that have occurred in 
London, to the progress of improvement, and to the good and great of our 
species, as maybe practicable (and thereby to increase the interest which 
they must of themselves possess in the estimation of their frequenters), we 
scruple not to avail ourselves of the circumstance, and sketch briefly the 
principal events of his life. 

The father of Inigo Jones appears to have been in indifferent circumstances, 
and apprenticed his son, when young, to a joiner. While with his master, 
however, he displayed so much skill as a draughtsman, that he attracted the 
notice of William Earl of Pembroke, and was sent by that nobleman to Italy, 
to improve his taste, and acquire knowledge. Here he quickly gained so 
good a reputation, that Christian IV., King of Denmark, appointed him his 
architect ; and, when the sister of that king married James I. of England, 
Jones came into this country, and received an appointment from her. About 
1612, he again visited Italy, and, on his return, was made Surveyor-General to 
the king ; and designed several buildings which were erected in London and 
various parts of the country. 

In the reign of King Henry VIIL, pointed style of architecture de- 
clined in England ; the simplicity and beauty which characterised it in its 
best state had given way before a redundancy of ornament heaped upon it, 
through a craving for novelty on the part of its professors, and want of skill 
legitimately to gratify the desire. Artificers capable of executing works 
similar to those with which, up to that time, England had been adorned, began, 
too, to fail ; and when, through the exertions of travellers, examples of Italian 
mouldings and ornaments were imported, they, being easily imitated, were 
eagerly adopted, and were used for some time indiscriminately with the forms 
of the last period of " Gothic " architecture. In 1566, we find at Caius 
College, Cambridge, small Roman Doric or Tuscan columns ; and, at the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century, we see the five " orders," as they are 
termed (or so many varieties of columns) piled one above another on the face 
of the Schools tower at Oxford ; but, previously to the time of Inigo Jones, 
there were ro buildings designed entirely in accordance with the revived prin- 
ciples of Italian architecture; nur was there any great improvement observable 
in the style of domestic buildings in London. As among the best known of 
his numerous designs, we may mention the Banqueting House, Whitehall, 
intended to form a portion of a magnificent and most extensive palace, designed 

Vol. V. — N> \'J. k 



130 Catalogue of Works on Architecture, 

by him for King James I. but never executed ; a portion of Greenwich Hospi- 
tal ; Colcshill House, in Berkshire ; the chapel of Lincoln's Inn ; anil St. Paul's 
Church, Covent Garden, which is more singular than beautiful ; and, although 
(since the investigation of the remains of Grecian architecture, from which 
arose that of Rome, has taught us the value of simplicity, and the beauty of 
breadth of parts) we cannot express that admiration for them which they 
once excited, we must nevertheless, extol the inventive powers which he pos- 
sessed, and the taste which guided them. At that time, the monuments of 
Greece had not been examined, nor indeed were the remains of Rome's former 
magnificence so well known then as those of the former country are now, 
through the labours of Stuart and Revett, Donaldson, Wilkins, and others. 

In his admiration of classic art, Jones sometimes allowed his judgment to 
sleep, as was the case when he affixed to old St. Paul's Cathedral, which was 
in the pointed style of architecture, a Corinthian portico; and again, when he 
laboured to prove, that Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain, was a Roman temple : 
but for these mistakes, and some others, he may readily be pardoned. 

The latter part of his life was much disturbed, in consequence of the civil 
dissensions during the reign of King Charles I., with whom he was a great 
favourite. Being a Catholic, he was called on to pay a heavy fine in 1646, and 
it is supposed that the mortifications he endured hastened his death, which 
took place in 1651. He was about eighty years old when he died. 



Art. IV. Catalogue of Works on Architecture, Building, and Fur- 
nishing, and on the Arts more immediately connected therewith, 
recently published. 

Le Kjeux's Memorials of Cambridge, $rc., No. IV. 

This work may safely be commended for the great beauty of 
of its plates and wood engravings, as well as for the copious- 
ness of its letterpress, and its very low price. In an early num- 
ber, we shall review it at greater length. 

The Millwright' 's and Engineer's Pocket Director : comprehending 
select and useful Prices of Mill- Work, Machinery, Engines, tyc. ; 
together with Explicit Calculations, Estimates, Tables, eye, with 
the Weights of Wrought Iron, Cast Iron, Copper; Brass, S$c.s 
including, also, a variety of Miscellaneous Information oj prac- 
ticable Utility. By John Bennett, Engineer, &c, Author of 
" Artificers' Lexicon," " Geometrical Illustrations," &c. 12mo, 
pp. 172. 

A useful little work, calculated entirely for the practical man. 
Among the information not alluded to in the titlepage, is a list 
of the principal millwrights, engineers, iron-founders, &o, in and 
about London, which cannot fail to be useful, as well to the work- 
ing man as to his employer. 

Some Account of Mont Orgueil Castle, in the Island of Jersey ; 
its present State, its various Alterations and. Additions : with a 
poetical Description of the Castle, written by William Prynne, 



Building, and Furnishing. 131 

during his Conjincmcnt therein, from 1637 to 1646. Pamph. 
8vo, 54 pages. 

Mont Orgueil Castle may be described as the ruins of a most 
remarkable fortress ; which has figured in history since the begin- 
ning of the fourteenth century, but which is said by some to 
have been erected in the year 1000; and by Julius Caesar, 
according to others. The remains of this castle might be well 
worth the study of the young architect, who might devote a 
country excursion to it; and, with this pamphlet in his hand, 
explore its remains, and make a drawing of their restoration. 
Such a drawing would be extremely interesting and instructive; 
not as affording a model to copy, but as showing the wonderful 
resources of the human mind, according to the circumstances in 
which it is placed. 

A Historical Sketch of the Royal Exchange. Chiefly compiled 
from Stone and other Authorities. By Samuel Angell, Author 
of the " Antiquities of Selinus." Pamph. 8vo, pp. 38. Lon- 
don, 1838. 

Interesting at the present time from the recent calamitous fire, 
of which, an account is given at the end, abridged from the 
Times newspaper. In this account, one of the most interesting 
circumstances connected with the fire is altogether omitted ; 
viz. that, while the flames were raging round the tower, the 
clock continued going, the chimes playing as usual at twelve, 
though a few minutes after the bells fell. 



o 



Questions relating to Fires in general, the Draught of Smoke, and 
the Saving of Fuel, dedicated by Permission to Earl de Grey, 
President of the Institute of British Architects. By F. A. 
Bernhardt, Architect, Honorary Member of the Polytechnic 
Society in Leipzic. Pamph. 8vo, 15 pages. London 

We have been favoured with a copy of this pamphlet, which, 
though not published, has been privately circulated. From it, 
and from another pamphlet of 20 pages, entitled Certificates, 
it would appear that M. Bernhardt has enjoyed considerable 
repute in Berlin, for improving the draughts of chimneys, and for 
warming and ventilating. The following is the last of these 
certificates: — 

" At Dusseldorf on the Rhine, a technical construction has been achieved, 
which, as an invention peculiar in its kind, does much honour to the founder. 

" The Royal General Post- Office had built, many years ago, a factory adjoin- 
ing the post-house for the repair of the mail coaches ; and, since the building 
of the diligences, and the increase of business, it has become a very large 
coach manufactory, in which about seventy workmen are at present daily 
employed. In a building at the back, arranged for that purpose, a forge for ten 

K 2 



132 Catalogue of Works on Architecture, 

fires was put up, and erected in the usual form. Smoke and soot penetrated 
into the dwellings of the neighbours, rendering them uninhabitable, and worth 
no rent. Complaints arose, and an expensive law-suit, which naturally termi- 
nated to the disadvantage of the Post-Office department. Experiments were 
then made to clarify the smoke, and separate the soot. The Prussian consul 
in England, that land of invention, was even desired to make enquiries whether 
any means were known to remedy the evil : but nothing could be done ; and the 
most learned professional men doubted the possibility of an invention to answer 
the purpose, because it was believed that any attempt to separate the smoke 
from the soot would only be made at the expense of the draught. It became a 
point of consequence to the Post-Office authorities here to satisfy the neigh- 
bours at any price, and they continued their endeavours to suppress the nui- 
sance arising from the soot, by removing the smithy into another intermediate 
building constructed for the purpose, by experiments with such artists as were 
to be found, in inventing an apparatus by means of which it was hoped to 
banish the soot. A cistern of water was applied over the roof, which was 
intended, by being placed round the outlet for the smoke, to absorb its heavier 
parts ; but the soot soon covered the water with an incrustation, and the finer 
particles of the soot escaped from the chimney, and filled the gardens of the 
neighbours ; besides, the smoke spread itself through the smithies in a very 
dangerous and insupportable manner for the workmen at the fires. At that 
time, the architect, M. Bernhardt of Saxony, was in Berlin, and had been 
employed in the Royal Palaces, having devoted the whole of his life to the study 
of the deficiencies at present existing in the construction of fires. He was then 
occupied in correcting similar faults in the General Post-Office buildings. His 
plans were crowned with the best success, and gained him in particular the 
full confidence of His Excellency Baron Von Nagler, Minister and General 
Postmaster of the state, from whom M. Bernhardt received the honourable 
commission of visiting Dusseldorf on his way to Rotterdam, London, Paris, 
and Vienna, in order to report upon the embarrassing situation of its coach 
factory. The penetrating intelligence of His Excellency had found in him the 
right person. M. Bernhardt discovered the means of forcing the draught of the 
smoke, and separating the soot from it. His plans were carried into execu- 
tion. In a short time, without interruption of the coach factor//, the work stands 
completely erected. The smoke ascends in a purified state through two cylinders 
of zinc on the roof, and the soot remains in the interior of the three story high 
building, concentrated in separate channels, and chambers for it. 

"It is remarkable to observe the soot depositing itself here in coarse qualities, 
and afterwards becoming finer as it ascends; to see the smoke rising through 
narrow wire nets. In the channels of the five chimneys a mass of 26§ cubic 
feet of soot was found after three months' purifying, which had formerly been 
mostly conducted over the roof. 

" We would willingly give a more detailed account of the whole arrangement, 
if the modest inventor, M. Bernhardt, had not reserved the doing so to him- 
self at its proper time, in a lithographic representation. It is his secret and 
property. The whole is as simple as nature, from whom it has been copied. 
Air, fire, smoke, are respectively weighed in these premises: its physical rights 
are left to each, and the problem is solved. After the conversations we had 
with the technical artist, he displayed other knowledge and experience, equally 
important for the interest of mankind. He has not only the smoke entirely 
in his power, but he understands how to construct each kind of fire, and knows 
the great secret of economising fuel. The health of the inhabitants is a princi- 
pal point he has in view. That which appears the most extraordinary in him, 
is the certainty and the self-confidence with which he acts without making 
trials. His theory, is the practice of remedying evils in all cases. His univer- 
sal expedient is the air, which he understands how to measure out to fire. 
He examines the kitchens, rooms, fire-places, and stoves, where required ; the 
construction of the fires, the sloping of the chimneys, and the upper part of the 



Building, and Furnishing. 133 

same over the roof. A remedy that is applicable in one case would be inju- 
rious in another. Fashion, in architecture, attempts sometimes to operate 
comparative! v on fires. The draught of fires is often too strong or too weak. 
Often the elements of nature, and architecture itself, and often the self-conceit 
of architects, tend to oppose that which is invented. 

" ML Bernhardt's chief object in travelling is, to give proofs that his science 
is true and certain. He will bring to light the useful and the good, and, by the 
prosperity of the same, gain the confidence of authorities and the public. 

" (Signed) Carl Schaeffer, Professor of Architecture." 

IVcales Scientific Advertiser. Nos. I. and II., for January 20. 
and February 5., to be continued on the 5th and 20th of every 
Month, an Advertising- Circular, on a new Plan, expressly 
designed for the Announcement of Publications connected 
with Architecture and the Fine Arts, Civil, Mechanical, and 
Military Engineering, Naval Architecture, and the various 
Branches of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. This 
Advertiser will be printed in foolscap folio, and stamped; and 
circulated gratuitously by the General and Twopenny post. 

In compliance with the suggestions of several of his connex- 
ions, and having himself long been sensible of the inconvenience 
felt by those whose occupations attached them to any of the 
above-named pursuits, owing to the want of some more direct 
mode of conveying or obtaining intelligence, than that afforded 
by the usual newspapers and periodicals, the editor (Mr. Weale, 
of the Architectural Library, Holborn), purposes to establish a 
Circular, that will, in the most efficient and direct mode, convey 
the information it professes to give to those individuals, free of 
all charge, who are chiefly interested in it, and who will thus of 
necessity have it brought under their notice. 

Observations on the Proposal of building at the Cross, and of 
shutting up the Royal Bank Close. By P. Neill, LL.D., and 
W. Fraser. Pamph. Svo, 1 1 pages. 

Suggestions for Warming and Ventilating Thirty-seven Cells, to be 
erected in the Salop Gaol, for the separate Confinement of 
Prisoners. By T. N. Parker, Esq. Pamph. 8vo, 4 pages. 

" I have already protested against gas, steam, and hot (or burnt) air, in 
regard to warming houses, or any other buildings, for human habitation ; and I 
have endeavoured to recommend hot-water within metal pipes, as a safe and 
wholesome substitute. It is not fit that any one should be exposed to the 
choking effects of almost any kind of stove ; and the columns of the news- 
papers abound with the details of accidents, from gas and steam, which never 
should be intrusted to inexperienced hands, whereby the commission of a 
mistake, or the omission of a dut}', might at any time involve the most fatal 
consequences." 

Description of an Inkstand, upon a simple, cheap, and useful Plan, 

K 3 



3 34- Domestic Notices : — England. 



a' 



in which the Supply of Ink adjusts itself by a Float, with 
Figures engraved on Wood. Pamph. 8vo, 8 pages. 

The plan is to have a float of cork swimming in the ink, and a 
guide to keep it always under the orifice into which the pen is 
inserted. 

Remarks on the Report of the Lord Provost's Commit tee, 19th 
July, 1837, relative to the Proposal of building at the Cross. 
By P. Neill, Esq. Pamph. 8vo, 8 pages. 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 
Art. I. Domestic Notices. 

ENGLAND. 

" New Light" in the House of Commons. — Last night, the House of Com 
mons presented a novel and pleasing effect, from the peculiar mode in which 
it was lighted. Instead of being lighted with wax candles, as heretofore, in 
chandeliers, suspended along either side, which, from their position, were 
found inconveniently obstructive, and disagreeably dazzling in many parts of 
the house, the ingenious experiment was tried of producing a blaze of light, 
from a vast number of gas jets (we understand 3680 in number), displayed 
in six rows along the whole extent of the house, but behind the glazed ceiling 
which was recently erected, within the old roof of the quondam House of 
Lords. The ceiling being glazed with ground glass, gives a brightness to the 
light as it passes through it, which causes it to resemble daylight in an extra- 
ordinary degree ; and the result, to those who have just passed from the dark- 
ness without doors, through the fiery glare of oil lamps along the lobb'es, is 
one almost of enchantment. For the first second or so after entering, the 
change, perhaps, rather dims the sight than otherwise : but the eye very soon 
becomes at home in its new medium, and discerns that it is at once cooler, 
and more uniformly luminous, than that which it had been accustomed to 
within these walls. The immense body of flame which is required for this 
purpose, as may naturally be supposed, emits a considerable volume of heat ; 
but this, from being confined to the upper part of the building, naturally tends 
to cool its general atmosphere, upon the well-known principle of pneumatics, 
by which theatres are cooled, by means of a furnace-like chandelier over the 
pit. On the whole, we consider the experiment of last night decidedly 
successful, and one which is capable of application, with a decided increase 
of comfort and health, to other buildings, besides the House of Commons. 
The expense, however, we understand to he rather great : some say as much 
as three pounds, others thirty shillings, an hour. (Morn. CAron., Feb. 13. 1888.) 

Improvement of London. — We are happy to observe, that Alderman Wood's 
committee is reappointed. We hope that, among numerous other points, the 
two following will be attended to: — 1. To render the street crossings more safe 
for persons on foot, and especially the aged, the infirm, and women carrying 
or having the care of children, by breaking up these crossings by lamps into 
spaces from 12 ft. to 20 ft. wide, always taking care that the number of spaces 
be equal, in order that the passage of carriages, either way, may be equal. 2. 
The laying down a line of flagstone, or asphaltic pavement, along the centre 
of the graveled footpaths, all round London, to the distance often or twelve 
miles from town. This last is, perhaps, not within the power of the committee; 
but, if they approved of it, they might recommend it. We fear, however, 
that Alderman Wood's object is rather splendid streets than safety for foot 
passengers. There are some others of the committee, however, from whom 



Domestic Notices : — England. 1 35 

we expect better things, and to them we would address ourselves as to the 
crossings. — Cond. 

Ci'i/ of London Literary and Scientific Institution, 165. Ahlcrsgate Street. — 
On the *20th of November, the first stone of a new library, and other offices 
belonging to the institution, was laid by Mr. John Reynolds, the senior mem- 
ber oi the committee, who delivered an address on the occasion. The prin- 
cipal features of the buildings now erecting are as follows : — 

The exterior of the building next Aldersgate Street is to be faced with 
white Suffolk brick ; and the cornices and dressings are to be in part executed 
with Bath stone, and in part with Roman cement. The entrance to the in- 
stitution is through a doorway of good proportion, and of rather an original 
character. Above this is a stylobate, upon which rests the window of the 
committee-room, consisting of two Corinthian pilasters and columns, in en- 
tire relief, with entablature and archivolt over. The upper windows are of a 
plainer description, but by no means destitute of architectural embellishments. 
The facade is surmounte J by a massive modillion cornice and blocking-course. 
The interior is arranged as follows : — On the basement story are, the porters' 
apartments, laboratory, and an entree to the theatre, or lecture-room, with 
accommodations of a domestic nature. On the ground floor are, the porters' 
hall, principal hall and staircase, and various entries. The depth of the new 
building is about 75 ft. The one-pair story contains a library, 45 ft. long and 
17 ft. high, lighted by skylights, introduced into the panels of ceiling ; a 
handsome committee-room, with entrees and lobbies to the other rooms and 
offices. The upper portion of the building is appropriated as a residence for 
the secretary. The reading-room intended to be made in the present build- 
ing will be nearly 35 ft. square, and some of the class-rooms will be exceed- 
ingly spacious. The newspaper-room will be about 32 ft. by 20 ft. The 
lecture-room is to be heightened, and a gallery erected. The address was as 
follows : — 

" Fellow Members, 
" Time rolls on, empires rise and fall, but the mind of man still progresses 
towards maturity. Such, however, is the perfection of the Divine intellect, 
and so manifold are the resources of His power, that, notwithstanding every 
year teems with new discoveries, and every day adds fresh sources of enjoy- 
ment to those we already possess, even now we find ourselves only on the 
threshold of that state which the great Creator has destined us ultimately to 
attain. Shall we not, then, hail with pleasure, and embrace with delight, every 
opportunity, and every means that will enlarge our minds, elevate our thoughts, 
and expand our views concerning all things around us : for knowledge is to the 
mental, what light is to the material, world. Let us, then, rejoice my friends, 
that this day we have met to lay the first stone of a temple dedicated to lite- 
rature and science, which, when complete, will offer increased advantages to 
their votaries; a temple wherein worshippers of every denomination may meet, 
as it were, around one family altar, where all who " learning love " may 
join as in one common brotherhood. Among the nations of the earth, the 
tree of knowledge is still comparatively barren ; it has found, however, a con- 
genial soil in this our favoured land ; and the long list of Britain's sons and 
daughters who have enrolled their immortal names on the pages of her history, 
proves that here, as elsewhere, the good seed, when properly nurtured, will 
alwavs produce a rich and abundant harvest. Judging from the success of 
the past, we may venture to predict that, through future years, the City of 
London Literary and Scientific Institution will continue to be a blessing to the 
youth of this great metropolis, the alma mater to thousands yet unborn. 
It has been said that a to the art of printing we owe our rank as a nation, 
the wonderful discoveries in science, and the blessed diffusion of religion ; " 
but the preservation and continuance of these privileges must greatly depend 
on the increased intelligence of the people, arising from an extended and im- 
proved system of instruction. May the day, then, be not far distant when the 
blessings of a sound and liberal education shall be so widely spread, that to 

k 4 



136 Domestic Notices : — England. 



&■ 



refuse it to the humblest subject of these realms, will be considered as an in- 
sult to the whole community. To me, this is the proudest era of my life : the 
labours of the past are all rewarded in the pleasure of this moment ; and let 
us hope that our humble labours in the diffusion of knowledge will be crowned 
with that success we fondly anticipate, and which persevering exertion in a 
good cause must ultimately secure." 

In the stone was deposited a bottle, containing a short account of the rise 
and progress of the institution ; the number of members (830); the number 
of volumes in the library, 7G00; and .a list of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
officers, and Committee of Management, written on vellum ; a copy of the 
laws, cSrc, a newspaper of the day, and a medallion of the Queen, struck in 
commemoration of her visit to the city. J. Blyth, Esq., Architect; Mr. 
Griffiths, Builder. — J. R. London, Dec. 1837. 

The Reform Club-House. — The Reform Club have set an example to all 
similar institutions who have it in their power to encourage competition in 
the fine arts. They have received designs and plans for a new club-house, 
from the most eminent architects, and hung them up in the committee- 
room for the inspection of members. A premium of 500/. was offered for 
the successful design ; and the committee, having given the preference to Mr.C. 
Barry's design, in the bold and massive style of Florentine architecture, called 
a general meeting of the club, for the purpose of finally deciding between 
that and the other designs. The meeting was very numerously attended, 
and confirmed the selection of the committee. The whole of the ground 
between the Travellers' and the open space facing the Carlton, is intended to 
be occupied by the new building, which svil! surpass in magnificence, if erected 
on the scale now planned, any edifice in London erected for similar purposes. 
(Morn. Chron, Dec. \5.) 

Improvements in the North-Western Part of London. — Two new squares are 
now being formed on the west side of the Edgeware Road, on the large space 
of ground between the back of Oxford Terrace and Connaught Square. The 
one to the north of Burwood Place and St. John's Church is called Cam- 
bridge Square; that to the south, Oxford Square. Another, to the west of 
these is also commenced, termed Hyde Park Square; and the fine row of first- 
rate houses, named Hyde Park Gardens, on the Uxbridge Koad, facing the 
Park, are nearly finished. The Park itself has been recently much improved, 
by the judicious substitution of an iron railing for the long dead wall which 
constituted its northern boundary, by the erection of the Victoria Lodge and 
gates, and by the formation of a broad gravel walk (with handsome and sub- 
stantial iron guard-rail and posts) from Cumberland Gate to Kensington 
Gardens.— G. B. W. London, Dec. 1. 1837. 

A new Street is projected from Westminster Abbey to Pimlico, by Mr. 
Bardwell. Other great changes are contemplated in that quarter, including 
the erection of a market. — G. Dec. 2. 1837. 

Safety of Bonds, Bills, $c. — A large banking-house, which has recently 
been finished in the first style of architecture, consequent upon the improve- 
ments in the city, had an immense pit or well dug many feet below the sur- 
face, and made water-proof by substantial brickwork. The mouth of the pit 
opens in the floor of the bank parlour, but, during the hours of business, is 
effectually covered by the oaken floor. At the close of the day, and in the 
presence of the responsible parties, the bank books, bonds, bills, notes, secu- 
rity and specie, enclosed in proper receptacles, are placed on the trap over the 
orifice of the well, and, by the aid of ingeniously contrived machinery, the 
property is lowered to the* bottom, a depth of about 40ft., the trap-door is 
secured, and at the opening of the bank in the morning, the property is again 
raised to suit the purposes of the day. (Morn. Chron., Jan. 13.) 

Specimens of painted Glass. — Those of your readers who are lovers ol 
painted glass, 1 beg to refer to a specimen that may be seen at Brook's Glass 
repository, Strand, which is an admirable imitation of the window painted by 
Jervas, and designed by Sir J. Reynolds, in New College Chanel. Oxford. In 



Domestic Notices : — England. 1 37 



O" 



Russell the curiosity dealer's shop, King Street, Covent Garden, there is also 
a small painted window of the Crucifixion, which might form, in a larger one 
ot* the Gothic style, a very good centre piece, with a border. It was, no 
doubt, the work of an old master; but, as I could not learn whence it was 
taken, his name is unknown to me. — Frederick Lush. Nov. 30. 1837. 

Roe's Water-Closet, without the usual Apparatus, which may be seen at the 
Gallery of Practical Science, Lowther Arcade, Strand, deserves notice, as 
showing how a water-closet may be placed at any distance whatever from the 
cistern. The construction is extremely simple : wires, cranks, box, valve, &c, 
being dispensed with, and the water being admitted to the basin simply by 
turning a cock under the seat. Of course, the force of the water, after the 
cock is turned, will be in proportion to the height of the head ; and, if the 
pressure on the cock is very great, there mav be some danger of its leakage. We 
shall be glad, however, to see this water-closet fairly tried. The inventor's 
address is Windmill Place, Camberwell Road. 

Cheshire. — New Church at Stayley Bridge. — On Feb. 2, the corner 
stone of this church was laid by Lord Viscount Combermere. Stayley church 
has been commenced upon a plot of land containing not less than five acres, 
statute measure, which has been most generously given for the purpose by 
the Right Hon. the Earl of Stamford and Warrington. The land fronts 
the turnpike road from Stayley Bridge to Huddersfield ; and the nature of 
the substrata is such as to render it admirably adapted for interments. It is 
most beautifully situated, with reference to the delightful scenery of the sur- 
rounding country, which will render the church a conspicuous; and pleasing 
land-mark. The church will be a Gothic edifice, in that style of architecture 
which prevailed towards the close of the thirteenth century, as beautifully 
exemplified in the cathedrals of Salisbury, Lincoln, and York, and also in 
Beverley minster. The leading features of the design are, a lofty nave in the 
centre, lighted from clerestory windows ; with ailes on the sides, lighted by 
coupled lancet windows between the buttresses. The tower is placed at the 
west end of the nave, and it is in four stories, or compartments, in height. In 
the first story is placed the west entrance to the church, which consists of a 
bold recessed doorway, 6 ft. wide, having moulded architraves round, and 
a hood mould over, terminating upon carved heads. In the second story of 
the west front is placed a two-light window, with elegant tracery and appro- 
priate hood mould, terminating upon grotesque heads. The next story is 
formed by paneling for clock-dials on three sides of the tower. The last 
story is formed by two narrow lancet belfry windows, on each face of the 
tower, filled in with louvre slates, to keep out the weather, and to allow free 
egress for the sound of the bells. Each angle of the tower is flanked by 
double buttresses, in four stages, the two first terminating in double-wea- 
thered offsets, and the two last in weathered canopies. Above the latter rise four 
octagonal turrets, with shafts at their angles, supporting canopies over their 
faces ; the whole surmounted by lofty pinnacles, terminating in appropriate 
finials, the highest part of which will be 88 ft. above the ground-line. The 
staircases to the galleries are placed on each side of the tower, and are lighted 
by lancet windows. The east end of the nave projects beyond the ends of the 
ailes, to form the chancel ; the external angles being flanked with bold double 
buttresses, in one unbroken height, having large attached circular shafts at the 
angles, and terminating in large plain canopies ; above these are placed twe 
large octagonal turrets, having a rich corbel table round their upper parts, sur- 
mounted by lofty pinnacles, terminating in plain nobs as finials. The east enc 
of the nave, or chancel, is pierced for a four-light window, formed of rich and 
elegant tracery, similar to a part of the window in the east end of Lincoln 
Cathedral, and having an appropriate hood mould over the same, terminating 
upon carved heads. The chancel is flanked by two small buildings, one of 
which forms the vestry or robing-room, and the other a porch to the east en- 
trance to the church. The east front of these buildings is pierced with small 
coupled lancet windows, having hood moulds, stopping upon carved bosses 



138 Domestic Notices : — England. 



6" 



and the side fronts are pierced with doorways, having lancet heads and appro- 
priate hood moulds. The sides of the ailes are divided by buttresses into 
five compartments, with double buttresses at the external angles ; each but- 
tress is in two stages, the first terminating in a weathered set-off, and the last 
in a weathered canopy. In each compartment are coupled lancet windows, 
with appropriate hood moulds, terminating upon grotesque beads. The upper 
part of the ailes finishes with a plain slope, as a cornice, over which rises the 
parapet, finishing with a moulded tablet or coping. The clerestory is divi- 
ded into compartments by flat buttresses, ranging with those to the ailes; 
above which are a cornice and parapet, similar to what has been described to 
the ailes. The clerestory windows are in the form of spherical equilateral tri- 
angles, filled in with tracery. The authority for this description of window 
may be found in the upper part of the ailes to Westminster Abbey, and in the 
clerestory of Lichfield Cathedral, as well as in a few of our parochial churches 
in the west of England. The whole of the church is to be built of stone, of 
a very hard and lasting quality, faced with hammer-dressed walling, and 
havin'' tooled ashler dressings to all the doors, windows, &c. The extreme 
length of the building will be 102. ft., and the width 57 ft. The principal 
approach to the interior is through a porch, in the base of the tower, 
which communicates by arched openings on each side with the staircase to 
the naileries, and directly through folding doors with the ground floor. 
The church is divided into nave and ailes ; the latter being separated from the 
former by five arched compartments on each side, supported on solid octa- 
gonal stone piers, with moulded capitals, from which spring the solid stone 
arches that support the clerestory walls, which are pierced for a window 
over each compartment. The east end of the nave, as before noticed, is con- 
tinued beyond the end of the ailes, to form the chancel, the floor of which is 
raised 2 ft. above the ground floor of the church. The west end of the 
nave is open, by a large archway, to the interior of the tower. The whole of 
the nave is to have a groined ceiling, with moulded ribs upon all the intersec- 
tions of the vaulting, stopping upon moulded stone corbels affixed to the span- 
dril walls of the arches. These are to be galleries in the ailes, and at the west 
end of the nave. The interior will contain sittings for one thousand and six 
persons, three hundred and sixty of which are free. The greater portion of 
the free sittings are in pews, and not in open skeleton seats, as is usually the 
case in the government churches. There is, also, ample room for an organ of 
adequate size, without diminishing the number of sittings. The pulpit, read- 
ing and clerk's desks, are designed in strict accordance with the architecture 
of the church. The tower will hold a peal of bells, and there is ample room 
for a clock. There is, also, provision made for warming the building with hot 
water. It is expected that the church will be completed, and ready for the 
celebration of divine service, by March, 1839. The total cost of the building, 
including architect's commission, &c, will be about 1-100/. The cost of its 
erection will be defrayed by subscription, and it is to be built under the act of 
parliament passed in the first and second years of William IV. The architect 
is Mr. It. Tattersall of Fountain Street, Manchester. (Afaiic/icstcr Times, 
Feb. 10. 1838.) 

Norfolk. — Norwich. I have been so much engaged of late about the new 
poor houses, in addition to my general business, that I have been literally 
employed night and day. As soon as I perceive a desire on the part of your 
readers to become acquainted with the details of these buildings, I shall band 
you some plans, &c. At present, I fancy I see a manifest design in ex- 
cluding them from your Magazine. We used to hear of them through 
Mr. Frederick Lush ; but now that gentleman is silent. Let the profession 
think as they please : there are some members of it, who arc eminent, who 
have gone great lengths to obtain them in competition. They afford some 
experience, in man}- points, applicable to higher classes of buildings ; and I 
do not hesitate to assert, that he who has erected several poor houses is a 
better judge of the best method of adapting buildings to their site, of effect in 



Domestic Notices : — Emland. 1 39 



the mass or tout ensemble, of domestic and economical arrangements, and of 
warming and ventilating, than half the architects in the kingdom ; and I am 
sure that you will be personally gratified when you find that many of your ideas 
for the amelioration of mankind are embodied in these structures; which, of 
course, is advancing those ideas a step towards consummation. — William 
Thorold. Bee. 8. 1837. 

Warwickshire. ■ — Stratford upon Avon Church. — Every thing connected 
with the peaceful mausoleum of Shakspeare is interesting : but we feel doubly 
annoyed when our pleasurable thoughts are interrupted with other objects. 
I trust these few words will not be construed in any other sense than that of 
good feeling, as the object of pointing out defects should be the assistance it 
would give in creating works of a better and more skilful kind than any that 
have hitherto been erected, rather than that of censure to the architect of 
any particular building. 

It is exceedingly gratifying to find that persons have come forward so liberally 
as to allow of erecting a new oak roof to this building, and that no expense 
has been spared to render it perfectly in character witn the rest of the archi- 
tecture ; but, as I have been informed there is very little authority for the 
present design, the defects, which I am about to mention should not have 
appeared. In the first instance, the form of the roof is decidedly weak ; the 
tie-beam, connected nearly to the middle of the principal rafter, is liable to 
cause that timber to collapse, which will then give considerable leverage to the 
corbel-piece below, and therefore, tend to thrust the walls out. The chancel 
should have been spanned with one tie-beam ; and the principal rafters should 
have shown evidently their connexion with it ; in fact, the roof should have 
been trussed : at present, its principle is more like that of an arch, depending 
upon the side walls for abutments ; this appears more striking from the princi- 
pal rafters being of much larger scantling than the tie-beam, which latter has 
all the appearance of being part only of a light framing, conveying little idea 
of strength. These defects in construction tend to show the deficiency of 
harmony in design ; I have no doubt that the object of the architect ws to 
raise the tie-beam above the label moulding of the east window, so that it 
might not be injured in effect by a continued tie-beam running over it ; a diffi- 
culty which he would have been excused in obviating by raising the roof some- 
what higher. The horizontal corbel-beams, the perpendicular queen-posts (if 
that tenii can be applied to them), and the tie-beam, bear no affinity to the 
principal rafters and the curved lines of the corbel-piece; and, together, they 
form so much unconnected variety, that the design is very much injured in 
effect. This is, however, caused more immediately by the want of connexion 
in the horizontal beams ; for, if there had been but one horizontal line, and 
that the tie-beam, to contrast with the inclined rafters and the curved corbel- 
pieces, had been placed to add to the strength of the roof, and to give the 
appearance of uniting with the walls, the effect would have been good,"because 
the mind would have been satisfied ; but, as it is now, even the curved lines of 
the east window become disagreeable, as the union with the curve of the corbel- 
piece is broken by the abrupt angles in the roof. In other respects, the work 
appears to be well done : perhaps the stone corbels may come in for a little 
objection, as there appears to be a deficiency of moulding, which renders them 
meagre when compared with the rich moulded work in connexion with them. 
Whether these are the ancient or modern corbels, I know not : the deficiencv in 
either would be equally obvious. To the professional eye these defects'are 
sufficiently apparent ; but they ought not to detract from the general merit of 
the work, conspicuous in other parts, and more particularly from the noble 
spirit of those individuals who have evinced so much good feeling in com- 
memorating theimmortal poet by the preservation of a lasting memorial, which 
will ever elicit honour to them from the world, and an individual gratification 
to themselves, only to terminate with their lives. — B. London, Dec. 1837. 

[A very beautiful engraving of the chancel of Stratford church, as it is now 
restored, has just been published by Mr. Britton. — Cond.] 



14 Retrospective Criticism. 



Art. II. Retrospective Criticism. 

ERRATUM, — In my article, p. 55., I find the words Norman bard are in- 
serted instead of Roman bard, which makes nonsense. In comparing the 
disadvantages of building in an extinct style of architecture with writing in a 
dead language, 1 allude to the scholiasts of the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies, and more particularly to Trissino, who wrote a Latin poem (a very 
perfect thing in its way), which the schoolmen of the day had the temerity to 
compare with Virgil; but which is now generally allowed to be inferior, as 1 
say, to the lay of the meanest Roman bard who sung in his mother tongue ; 
that is, the real Latin. You see the absurdity which the word Norman 
makes of the whole comparison. What I meant to say, in short, was, that the 
most elaborate attempts with the Latin, as a dead language, could never reach 
its simplest efforts as a living one; and, in the same way, that Gothic archi- 
tecture, as a resuscitated style, could never enjoy the same advantages which 
regulated its developement during the period of its natural existence. — //. N. 
Humphreys. London, February, 1838. 

Another ]Vord on Parsct/'s Doctrine of Perspective, (p. 91.) — I am not 
quite annihilated, notwithstanding all that Mr. Parsey and his allies have 
poured down upon me in such formidable force. Annihilated ! not even dis- 
comfited: rather ought I to feel flattered at the notice bestowed upon me, 
and not a little grateful both to the ass. of Inst. Brit. Arch, (as he is 
pleased to style himself), and to Kata Phusin, whose attack upon me is a mere 
feint; for, while they pretend to come to his aid, to support his cause and 
fight under his banners, it is Mr. Parsey himself whom they have completely 
upset. It is true they both make some show of opposition to me ; yet more, 
it would seem, for the sake of letting it be seen that they can prove by de- 
monstrations the principle about which Mr. Parsey makes so much noise to 
be perfectly correct, than with any intention of refuting me; since they vo- 
luntarily admit all that I contend for; namely, that the practical application of 
such principle would be preposterous and absurd. 

If it was chiefly for my own private information they took so much pains 
to show that the system to which I am opposed is theoretically correct, I 
believe they might have spared themselves their trouble ; for I never disputed 
that, but was fully aware of the law according to which objects appear to di- 
minish in proportion to their distances from the eye. This I thought might 
very well be taken for granted when 1 remarked that, if " perpendiculars" be 
made to converge, horizontal lines, parallel also to the picture, should be made 
to do the same. Mr. Parsey himself, it is true, disclaims this as an absurdity, 
which makes no part of his system. I am sorry for it, because if so, his sys- 
tem is all the more absurd, being at variance with itself, and without the merit 
of even consistency. Surely, he cannot be ignorant that, in regard to per- 
spective appearance, it matters not which lines are to represent horizontal, 
and which vertical, ones. Suppose, for instance, I begin an interior, and draw 
the five planes, representing the three sides of the room (one of them parallel 
to the picture), the floor, and ceiling. Now, it would make no difference, were 
I. before proceeding further, to make one of the sides of the picture its base; 
by which means the ceiling and floor would become walls, and what, in the 
first instance, were intended for vertical lines would become horizontal ones, 
ami vice versa. Lest this should not be considered sufficiently clear, I will 
help myself to further illustrations from one of Kata Phusin's diagrams ; 
namely, tig. 37. at p. 96., which will answer my purposes; for, if we reverse this, 
so that I) (I be considered the base, and b c, e d, to represent the front of a 
building, b c and d e become perpendiculars, and measures, not of breadth, but 
of height. We will further suppose that the eye is directly opposite the line 
b e, consequently, that it is nearer to it than the line d e, which, as, according to 
the rectified Parseyan system, it would be narrower if representing a hori- 
zontal line, ought here to be shorter; and the lines b d and e c, instead of 



Retrospective Criticism. 1 1 1 

being parallel to each other and to the base of the picture, would converge to 
some point on the horizon. 

As Kata Phusin has shown, for the goodnatured purpose of perfectly con- 
vincing me of the truth of his reasoning, the object is not parallel to the 
plane of the eye, or, in other words, perpendicular to the horizontal ray of 
vision a d; consequently, does not show it as it could be represented in any 
picture, where the spectator is supposed to be looking forward, and not up- 
wards as is here the case; and, therefore, his diagram does not at all apply 
to my remarks. So much pains has been taken to set me right, that I suspect 
I have been misunderstood. In denying the convergence of vertical lines, all 
I meant was, that it is not perceptible, and, therefore, does not require to be 
attended to in drawing. Mr. Pocock tells me that I might satisfy myself, as 
they do, by making use of a sextant, or even a common foot-rule. Un- 
doubtedly ; yet people generally trust to their own eyes, and not to sextants, 
on such occasions ; at least, such is the fashion in England, whatever it may 
be in Laputa. So, also, is there always some degree of animal heat in the 
body : nobody, however, save a Laputan philosopher, will assert that, such 
being the case, we ought never to say we are cold. 

To what, after all, I ask, do such over-refined hair-splitting distinctions 
amount? or of what practical value are they? Let Mr. Pocock and Kata 
Phusin reply for me; and the answer of both is, None; they perfectly agreeing 
with me, that, notwithstanding the doctrine of the convergence of perpen- 
diculars is speculatively right, it ought to have no influence upon practice, 
where it would be altogether useless, if not decidedly wrong. Were Mr. 
Parsey to paint the Tower of Babel (and I really do not think he could hit 
upon a better subject for the illustration of his theory), then, I grant, he might 
be justified in making the summit visibly narrower than the lower part ; yet, 
as there never was but one Tower of Babel, and as towers of sufficient altitude 
to call for the application of Mr. Parsey's theory to them are by no means 
very common, 1 am afraid he will not be greatly benefited by the discover}', 
which, it is evident from what he says, he himself rates very highly, but 
which even those who dissent from me do not hold to be a particularly 
valuable one, because they admit it to be quite useless, or worse than useless, 
in practice. Were I myself to express my own opinion of it unreservedly, 
most certainly I should not make amends for my former want of courtesy by 
the term I should apply to it. That I was in the first instance quite as 
courteous as the occasion called for, is my own opinion : my object was not 
to compliment Mr. Parsey or his system ; nor did I care to make a show of 
great deference and respect for the former, while attacking the latter. Had I 
arfected more courtesy, it would, perhaps, have been construed as sneering 
hypocrisy; therefore, ne more excuse on that head. Happily, Mr. Parsey 
himself is less sensitive than his seconds are for him : he is too warmly 
wrapped up in the consciousness of having achieved a great and important 
discover}', to care much for what cither myself or any one else may say to its 
disadvantage. I leave him, therefore, to the enjoyment of having brought 
forward a theory so ingenious and refined, that, as is admitted even by those 
who defend it, it is utterly useless in practice. Yet, if I am decidedly hos- 
tile to the species of reform in perspective which he is endeavouring to bring 
about, I freely admit that there is ample room for reform, not in theory, but 
in the practical application of perspective ; and not least of all in regard to 
fixing the horizontal at the natural level of the eye, instead of placing it quite 
arbitrarily, as is frequently done, and as, I perceive, is the case in the cut given 
at p. 91., of the Glyptotheca at Munich, which, were it perfectly correct in 
every other respect, would in that be sufficiently erroneous; since it conveys 
the idea of a building not much more than double a person's height ; whereas 
the height from the ground to the top of the pediment is 60 English feet. 
[The engraving at p. 91. was not from a sketch by Mr. Humphreys; but was 
one that we had had engraved from the Munich Guide for the Encyclojicedia 
of Gardening, some years since.] — Candidas. London, Feb. 1838. 



1 4 2 Queries and Answers. 

])r. lire's Report on M. Bernhardt 's System of Warming and Ventilating. 
(p. 31.) — Being at present very much occupied, I am prevented from re- 
plying in detail to the attack upon my new system of warming and ventilating, 
by Dr. Ure, published in the January Number of this Magazine. I beg to say, 
for the present, that I am executing a very important work ; which, when 
finished, will, like Lord King's house itself, and other works, that for four 
years have been in operation, refute all the charges and misstatements made 
bv him in his hasty report. I cannot avoid briefly noticing one chief point ; 
which is, that Dr. Ure's examination of Lord King's residence took place in 
July, whin the temperature of the atmosphere was 72°; and when the fires 
were kept up day and night, expressly for drying the house, which was com- 
pletely accomplished in about three weeks. — F. A. Bernhardt. 92. York Road, 
Lambeth, Feb. 12. 1838. 



Art. III. Queries and Answers. 

Mode of securing Water-Pipes against Frost. — If you will peruse the fol- 
lowing paragraphs, you will the better be able to understand my questions 
appended to them. 

" During the late frost, almost every family in England has suffered from an 
evil which might have been very nearly, if not entirely, prevented by a very 
simple precaution, and at very inconsiderable cost : I refer to the freezing of 
water in pipes. On the return of mild weather, the pipes, in most cases, have 
burst, and great injury has been done to property and health. 

If the water-pipes had been enclosed in pipes, or cases, and surrounded 2 in., 
or even 1 in., by sawdust, coal-ashes, or, better still, powdered charcoal (which 
is one of the best non-conductors we know), the water in the pipes would 
have retained its temperature, and the inconvenience complained of could not 
have taken place. There would, also, be this additional advantage, that, in 
summer, the water would not be (as most of the London water is) tepid, when 
drawn from the pipe. I have been greatly surprised to find that, in houses 
built with the utmost care, at a very great expense, and by the most eminent 
architects, such an obvious and simple preventive against so general and 
serious an evil should have been so generally overlooked." (Morning Chronicle, 
Feb. 15.) 

" It is a pity that the author of the above paragraph has not given his name 
and address, or the name and address of some competent person, to whom 
one could apply for advice in matters of this kind. I have great doubts if 
1 in., or even 2 in., of powdered charcoal would keep out the frost, when the 
surrounding temperature is at zero of Fahrenheit, or Cven lower; but, perhaps, 
there is some positive evidence on this subject, which, if one knew where to 
find, might, perhaps, be satisfactory to them. The mode of emptying the 
pipes, immediately after the water has been supplied, is, I believe, the most 
general about London ; but this is of no use in very severe frosts, because the 
water freezes the moment it is turned on. Charcoal, or deeply burying the 
pipes in the earth, is, doubtless, better ; because, if the receiving cistern should 
be out of the reach of frost, a supply may be received regularly during the 
most severe weather. But how is the receiving cistern to be kept from frost. 
In the house which I occupy there is one large cistern in the area, surrounded 
by 9-in. brick walls, the water in which has been one solid lump of ice for the 
last six weeks. There is a wooden cistern, enclosed in a house, the water of 
which is also one solid lump of ice. There are two cisterns, for water-clo- 
sets, under shed roofs, similarly frozen ; and there is a cistern to a water- 
closet within the house, on the first floor, similarly circumstanced. Thus, in 
a house for which ,j/. a year is paid to a water company for ordinary and high 
service, not a drop of water has been delivered to the house for the last six 
weeks ; and the only means for procuring a supply for daily use have been the 
plugs in the street. The idea of a fire breaking out under such circumstances 



Institute of British Architects. 143 

is dreadful. No fault is to be found with the water companies; but there is 
obviously something very defective in the builders' arrangements. Surely, this 
kind of improvement would be well worth a premium by the Institute of Bri- 
tish Architects, at least, as much so as the restoration of Greek temples. I 
should wish to know how we are to be certain of having an abundant supply 
of water to a street house in winters like the present. Perhaps some of your 
readers can state how the supply is obtained in cold countries. It is surely 
time that the art of supplying water to houses, from main pipes laid in the 
streets, were reduced to a regular and secure system. 1 wish some German 
architect, M. Bernhardt, for example, would inform us how water is supplied 
to the houses in Germany in the winter season. I should, also, be "lad to 
know what is to be done in the case of fire, when no water is obtained. I 
have thought of powdered ice or snow, if there happened to be anv on the 
ground. But how is it to be thrown on the fire ? with shovels ; or should it be 
made up into balls or fragments, and thrown, by hand, in at the windows or 
on the roof? There is great want of information on the subject of extin- 
guishing fires, as well as on that of supplying water ; and I hope scientific 
builders and plumbers will turn their attention to the subject, and favour the 
public, through your pages, with their advice and experience. — T. W. S 
Brompton, Feb. 16. 1838. 

Fire-proof Safes. — - In consequence of the fire at the Uoyal Exchange, and 
at other places, this winter, some experience must have resulted as to the com- 
parative value of different kinds of safes. Which, then, after all, is the best ? 
Is Chubb's as good as it would appear to be from the following advertise- 
ment ? — 

" Chubb's Patent Fire-proof Safes. 

" Saw-Mills, Grosvenor Basin, Pimlico, Jan. 25. 18.36. 

" We certify that these papers were enclosed in Chubb's patent fire-proof box, 
and exposed in the furnace of a steam-engine of twenty-two horse power, by 
which the box became red-hot in three minutes, and remained in the furnace 
in that state for a considerable time, and were taken out in our presence, per- 
fectly uninjured. 

" R. R. Amz. 

" E. W. Loiver. 

" R. Goodman, Engineer." (Morn Chron., Jan. 13. 1837.) 

I am informed that a banking-house in Lombard Street has a well 40 ft. 
deep, as a safe. Is this fact ? and, if so, can any of your readers five anv ac- 
count of it? — Henry B. White. Chelmsford, Feb. 10. 1838. 

Filtration. — A committee appointed by the French Academy of Sciences 
have examined into the merits of the apparatus invented bv M. de Fonvielle 
for the filtration of water, and which has been in constant use at the Hotel 
Dieu for eight months. The committee give it their full approbation ; and 
the principles on which it acts are those of high pressure, combined with two 
opposing currents, put in daily motion by means of taps and pipes, for the pur- 
poses of cleansing and preventing all adhesion of earthy and impure matter. 
(Athenceum, Dec. 9.) Can any of your readers explain to me the precise 
meaning of the above paragraph ; or, in other words, explain the mode of 
filtering referred to. — James Simpson. 24. Great George Street, Edinburgh. 



Art. IV. Institute of British Architects. 

Dec. 15. 1837. — P. F. Robinson, V. P., in the Chair. 

Elected. F. H. Groves, London; S. S. T. Carlow, Kennington; and W. A. 
Buckley, Bayswater ; as associates. 

Presented. Catalogue of Medals struck in France and its Dependencies 
8vo. Hood on Warming by Hot Water, 1 vol. Svo. Campanari's Essay on 
Etrurian Vases. Model of the Obelisk of Materiah, near Cairo, from M. 



] 44 Obituary. 

Bonomi. Bust of the late T. Harrison, Esq., Architect of Chester. Print of 
the Altar Window of St. Peter's Church, Hampton Lacey, Warwickshire. 
Sch loss's List of the Meetings of the learned Societies of London. Specimens 
of Granite and Limestone used in Dublin. 

,' 'apen rend. A paper on the Restoration of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius 
at Athens, by C. E. A. Blair, Esq. Architect. On the relative Strength of 
several Cast-iron Beams, when subjected to a transverse Strain ; by C. Parker, 
Fellow. 

Exhibited. The following Drawings sent in for the Soane Medallion. Two 
Restorations of the Abbey of St. Mary, York ; Restoration of Kirkstall Abbey, 
Yorkshire; Restoration of Llanthony Abbey, Monmouthshire. 

Dec. 18. 18.37. — P. F. Robison, V. P., in the Chair. 

Elected. The Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart., as Honorary 
Fellow. M. Hubsch, Carlsruhe; M. De Salucci, Stuttgard ; M. Ohlmuller, 
Munich; M. Lavess, Hanover; M. De Lassaulx, Coblentz; M. Forster, 
Vienna; M. De Nabile, Vienna; M. Bourla, Antwerp; and M. Louis Ser- 
rure ; as Honorary and Corresponding Members. 

Read. Part II. of Mr. Blore's History of the English School of Gothic 
Architecture. A paper on Architectural Notation, with the Proposition of a 
Uniform System for general Adoption ; by T. L. Donaldson. A Description 
of Wellerstedt's newly invented Metal for covering Roofs. A Description 
of Roe's Water-closet. 

Presented. Palladio, translated into French by Leone, 2 vols, folio ; Rut- 
tcr's Description of Fonthill Abbey ; and various French pamphlets. 

Jaii. 29. 1838. — Earl de Grey," President, in the Chair. 

Elected. C. J. Richardson, Architect, London, as Fellow ; G. B. Webb, 
London, and C. Henman, London, as Associates. 

Presented. Seven original Drawings, by Bibiena and others, from Sir J. 
D. Stewart. An ancient Roman Roof-tile, from G. Saunders, Esq. Tredgold 
on Warming and Ventilation, 3d edition, ] vol. 8vo. Britton's History of 
Cassiobury, 1 vol. folio. Original Drawings, by Hardwick and Adam. Trans- 
actions of the Geological Society for 1837 and 50/. from G. B. Greenhough, 
Esq. 

Read. A Communication from H. E. Goodridge, Esq., " On the Ruins of a 
Roman Villa, recently discovered at Newton, near Bath." Part of an Essay, 
sent in for the Institute Medal, " On the Excellence which distinguishes the 
ancient Athenian Architecture, and on the Principles of Art and Science b\ 
which they were obtained, with regard to Design, Proportion, Light and 
Shade, Colour, Construction, and Adaptation to Purpose, to Situation, and 
to the Materials employed." 

Exhibited. Mr. Joyce, of Camberwcll, gardener, attended with one of his 
newly invented stoves, and explained its general uses, and applicability to 
various purposes. A Portrait of Her Majesty, by E. A. Challon, Esq., R.A. 



Art. V. Obituary. 

Died at Berlin, June 29., Aloysius Hirtt, the eminent antiquary and pro- 
fessor of archeeology, known to the learned world by his various treatises on 
architectural subjects; such as the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, Solomon's 
Temple, The Pantheon at Rome, &c; especially by his treatise on the architec- 
ture of the ancients, entitled, Die Baukunst nac'h den Grunds'dtzen der Allen, folio, 
1809, with 50 plates; a work of very superior merit, and no ordinary ability. 
Latterly, he was much occupied in the arrangement of the collection in the 
Museum at Berlin, lie was born at Donaueschingen, in Suabia, in 1759, and 
was therefore about 78 years old ; yet, notwithstanding his advanced age, re- 
tained not only his faculties, but his cheerfulness and activity of mind, almost 
to the very last. 



THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE. 



APRIL, 1838. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

Art. I. The Poetry of Architecture. By Kata Phusin. 

No. 2. The Cottage — continued. 

V. A Chapter on Chimneys. 

It appears from the passage in Herodotus, which we alluded t° 
in the last paper, that there has been a time, even in the most 
civilised countries, when the king's palace was entirely un- 
furnished with anything having the slightest pretension to the 
dignity of chimney tops ; and the savoury vapours which were 
wont to arise from the hospitable hearth, at which the queen or 
princess prepared the feast with the whitest of hands, escaped 
with indecorous facility through a simple hole in the flat roof. 
The dignity of smoke, however, is now better understood, and 
it is dismissed through Gothic pinnacles, and (as at Burleigh 
House) through Tuscan columns, with a most praiseworthy 
regard to its comfort and convenience. Let us consider if it is 
worth the trouble. We advanced a position in the last paper, 
that silence is never perfect without motion, that is, unless some- 
thing which might possibly produce sound, is evident to the eye : 
the absence of sound is not surprising to the ear, and, therefore, 
not impressive. Let it be observed, for instance, how much the 
stillness of a summer's evening is enhanced by the perception of 
the gliding and majestic motion of some calm river, strong but 
still ; or of the high and purple clouds ; or of the voiceless leaves, 
among the opening branches : to produce this impression, how- 
ever, the motion must be uniform, though not necessarily slow. 
One of the chief peculiarities of the ocean thoroughfares of 
Venice, is the remarkable silence which rests upon them, en- 
hanced, as it is, by the swift, but beautifully uniform motion of 
the gondola. Now, there is no motion more uniform, silent, 
or beautiful, than that of smoke ; and, therefore, when we wish 
the peace or stillness of a scene to be impressive, it is highly use- 
ful to draw the attention to it. 

In the cottage, therefore, a building peculiarly adapted for 
scenes of peace, the chimney, as conducting the eye to what is 
agreeable, may be considered an important, and, if well managed, 

Vol. V. — No. 50. l 



1 46 Poetry of Architecture. 

a beautiful accompaniment. But in buildings of a higher class, 
smoke ceases to be interesting. Owing to their general greater 
elevation, it is relieved against the sky, instead of against a 
dark back ground, thereby losing the fine silvery blue, which, 
among trees, or rising out of distant country, is so exquisitely 
beautiful, and assuming a dingy yellowish black: its motion 
becomes useless ; for the idea of stillness is no longer desirable, 
or, at least, no longer attainable, being interrupted by the nature 
of the building itself: and, finally, the associations it arouses 
are not dignified; we may think of a comfortable fireside, per- 
haps, but are quite as likely to dream of kitchens, and spits, and 
shoulders of mutton. None of these imaginations are in their 
place, if the character of the building be elevated ; they are 
barely tolerable in the dwellinghouse and the street. Now, 
when smoke is objectionable, it is certainly improper to direct 
attention to the chimney ; and, therefore, for two weighty rea- 
sons, decorated chimneys, of any sort or size whatsoever, are 
inexcusable barbarisms ; first, because, where smoke is beautiful, 
decoration is unsuited to the building; and, secondly, because, 
where smoke is ugly, decoration directs attention to its ugliness. 
It is unfortunately a prevailing idea with some of our architects, 
that what is a disagreeable object in itself may be relieved or con- 
cealed by lavish ornament; and there never was a greater mis- 
take. It should be a general principle, that what is intrinsically 
ugly should be utterly destitute of ornament, that the eye may 
not be drawn to it. The pretended skulls of the three Magi at 
Cologne are set in gold, and have a diamond hi each eye ; and 
are a thousand times more ghastly than if their brown bones 
had been left in peace. Such an error as this ought never to be 
committed in architecture. If any part of the building has dis- 
agreeable associations connected with it, let it alone : do not 
ornament it; keep it subdued, and simply adapted to its use ; and 
the eye will not go to it, nor quarrel with it. It would have 
been well if this principle had been kept in view in the renewal 
of some of the public buildings in Oxford. In All Souls Col- 
lege, for instance, the architect has carried his chimneys half as 
high as all the rest of the building, and fretted them with Gothic. 
The eye is instantly caught by the plated-candlestick-like columns, 
and runs with some complacency up the groining and fretwork, 
and alights finally and fatally on a red chimney top. He might 
as well have built a Gothic aisle at an entrance to a coal wharf. 
We have no scruple in saying that the man who could de- 
secrate the Gothic trefoil into an ornament for a chimney has 
not the slightest feeling, and never will have any, of its beauty 
or its use ; he was never born to be an architect, and never will 
be one 

Now, if chimneys are not to be decomited (since their existence 



A Chapter on Chimneys. 147 

is necessary), it becomes an object of some importance to know 
what is to be done with them : and we enter into the enquiry 
befbre leaving the cottage, as in its most proper place; because, 
in the cottage, and only in the cottage, it is desirable to direct 
attention to smoke. 

Speculation, however, on the beau-ideal of a chimney can 
never be unshackled ; because, though we may imagine what it 
ought to be, we can never tell, until the house is built, what it 
must be; we may require it to be short, and find that it will 
smoke, unless it is long; or, we may desire it to be covered, 
and find it will not go unless it is open. We can fix, there- 
fore, on no one model ; but by looking over the chimneys of a 
few nations, we may deduce some general principles from their 
varieties, which may always be brought into play, by whatever 
circumstances our own imaginations may be confined. 

Looking first to the mind of the people, we cannot expect to 
find good examples of the chimney, as we go to the south. The 
Italian or the Spaniard does not know the use of a chimney : 
properly speaking, they have such things, and they light a fire, 
five days in the year, chiefly of wood, which does not give smoke 
enough to teach the chimney its business; but they have not 
the slightest idea of the meaning or the beauty of such things 
as hobs, and hearths, and Christmas blazes ; and we should, 
therefore, expect, d priori, that there would be no soul in their 
chimneys ; that they would have no practised substantial air about 
them ; that they would, in short, be as awkward and as much in 
the way, as individuals of the human race are, when they don't 
know what to do with themselves, or what they were created 
for. But in England, sweet carbonaceous England, we flatter 
ourselves we do know something about fire, and smoke too, or 
our eyes have strangely deceived us ; and, from the whole com- 
fortable character and fireside disposition of the nation, we 
should conjecture that the architecture of the chimney would 
be understood, both as a matter of taste and as a matter of 
comfort, to the ne phis ultra of perfection. Let us see how far 
our expectations are realised. 

Figs. 53, 54, and 55. are English chimneys. They are distin- 
guishable, we think, at a glance, from all the rest, by a down- 
right serviceableness of appearance, a substantial, unaffected, 
decent, and chimney-like deportment, in the contemplation 
of which we experience infinite pleasure and edification, parti- 
cularly as it seems to us to be strongly contrasted with an 
appearance, in all the other chimneys, of an indefinable some- 
thing, only to be expressed by the interesting word " humbug." 
Fig. 53. is a chimney of Cumberland, and the north of Lanca- 
shire. It is, as may be een at a glance, only applicable at 
the extremity of the roof, and requires a bent flue. It is built 

l 2 



148 



Poetry of Architecture. 


















8 WJ^ 





!2 




of unhewn stones, in the same manner as the Westmoreland 
cottages; the Hue itself being not one third the width of the 



A Chapter on Chimneys. 149 

chimney, as is seen at the top, where four flat stones placed on 
their edges form the termination of the flue itself, and give 
lightness of appearance to the whole. Cover this with a piece 
of paper, and observe how heavy and square the rest becomes. 
A few projecting stones continue the line of the roof across the 
centre of the chimney, and two large masses support the pro- 
jection of the whole, and unite it agreeably with the wall. This 
is exclusively a cottage chimney ; it cannot, and must not, be 
built of civilised materials; it must be rough, and mossy, and 
broken ; but it is decidedly the best chimney of the whole set. 
It is simple and substantial, without being cumbrous; it gives 
great variety to the wall from which it projects, terminates 
the roof agreeably, and dismisses its smoke with infinite pro- 
priety. 

Fig. 54. is a chimney common over the whole of the north of 
England ; being, as I think, one that will go well in almost any 
wind, and is applicable at any part of the roof. It is also 
roughly built, consisting of a roof of loose stones, sometimes 
one large flat slab, supported above the flue by four large sup- 
ports, each of a single stone. It is rather light in its appearance, 
and breaks the ridge of a roof very agreeably. Separately con- 
sidered, it is badly proportioned ; but, as it just equals the height 
to which a long chimney at the extremity of the building would 
rise above the roof (as in Jig. 53.), it is quite right in situ, and 
would be ungainly if it were higher. The upper part is always 
dark, owing to the smoke, and tells agreeably against any back- 
ground seen through the hollow. 

Fig. 55. is the chimney of the Westmoreland cottage which 
formed the subject of the last paper (p. 97.). The good taste 
which prevailed in the rest of the building is not so conspi- 
cuous here, because the architect has begun to consider effect 
instead of utility, and has put a diamond-shaped piece of orna- 
ment on the front (usually containing the date of the building), 
which was not necessary, and looks out of place. He has 
endeavoured to build neatly too, and has bestowed a good deal 
of plaster on the outside, by all which circumstances the work is 
infinitely deteriorated. We have always disliked cylindrical 
chimneys, probably because they put us in mind of glasshouses 
and manufactories, for we are aware of no more definite reason ; 
yet this example is endurable, and has a character about it 
which it would be a pity to lose. Sometimes when the square 
part is carried down the whole front of the cottage, it looks like 
the remains of some grey tower, and is not felt to be a chimney 
at all. Such deceptions are always very dangerous, though 
in ^his case sometimes attended with good effect, as in the 
old building called Coniston Hall, on the shores of Coniston 

l 3 



150 



Poetry of Architecture. 



Water, whose distant outline [fig. 71.) is rendered light and 
picturesque, by the size and shape of its chimneys, which are 
the same in character as Jig. 55. 

Of English chimneys adapted for buildings of a more elevated 
character, we can adduce no good examples. The old red brick 
mass, which we see in some of our venerable manor-houses, has 
a great deal of English character about it, and is always agree- 
able, when the rest of the building is of brick. Fig. 67. is a 

71 










f 




chimney of this kind: there is nothing remarkable in it; it is 
to be met with all over England ; but we have placed it beside 
its neighbour fig. 68., to show how the same form and idea are 
modified by the mind of the nations who employ it. The 
design is the same in both, the proportions also ; but the one is 
a chimney, the other a paltry model of a paltrier edifice. Fig. 68. 
is Swiss, and is liable to all the objections advanced against 
the Swiss cottages; it is a despicable mimicry of a large building, 
like the tower in the engraving of the Italian cottage (fig. 40 
p. 104.), carved in stone, it is true, but not the less to be re- 
probated. Fig. 67., on the contrary, is adapted to its use, and 
has no affectation about it. It would be spoiled, however, if 
built in stone; because the marked bricks tell us the size of 
the whole at once, and prevent the eye from suspecting any 



A Chapter on Chimneys. 151 

intention to deceive it with a mockery of arches and columns, 
the imitation of which would be too perfect in stone ; and there- 
fore, even in this case, we have failed in discovering a chimney 
adapted to the higher class of edifices. 

Fig. 56. is a Netherland chimney, Jigs. 57 and 58. German. 
Fig. 56. belongs to an old Gothic building in Malines, and is 
a good example of the application of the same lines to the 
chimney which occur in other parts of the edifice, without be- 
stowing any false elevation of character - . It is roughly carved 
in stone, projecting at its base grotesquely from the roof, and 
covered at the top. The pointed arch, by which its character 
is given, prevents it from breaking in upon the lines of the rest 
of the building, and, therefore, in reality renders it less con- 
spicuous than it would otherwise have been. We never should 
have noticed its existence, had we not been looking for chimneys. 

Fig. 57. is also carved in stone, and where there is much 
variety of architecture, or where the buildings are grotesque, 
would be a good chimney, for the very simple reason, that it 
resembles nothing but a chimney, and its lines are graceful. 
Fig. 58., though ugly in the abstract, might be used with effect 
in situations where perfect simplicity would be too conspicuous; 
but both Jigs. 57- and 58. are evidently the awkward efforts of a 
tasteless nation, to produce something original : they have lost 
the chastity which we admired in Jig. 53., without obtaining the 
grace and spirit of Jigs. 63. and 66. In fact, they are essen- 
tially German. 

Figs. 60. to 64., inclusive, are Spanish, and have a peculiar 
character, which would render it quite impossible to employ 
them out of their own country. Yet they are not decorated 
chimneys. There is not one fragment of ornament on any of 
them. All is done by variety of form ; and with such variety 
no fault can be found, because it is necessary to give them the 
character of the buildings, out of which they rise. For we 
may observe here, once for all, that character may be given 
either by form or by decoration, and that where the latter is 
improper, variety of the former is allowable, because the humble 
associations which render ornament objectionable, also render 
simplicity of form unnecessary.* We need not then find fault 
with Jantastic chimneys, provided they are kept in unison with 
the rest of. the building, and do not draw too much attention. 

Fig. 60., according to this rule, is a very good chimney. It is 
graceful without being pretending, and its grotesqueness well 
suits the buildings round it — we wish we could give them : 
they are at Cordova. 

* Elevation of character, as was seen in the Italian cottage, depends upon 
simplicity of form. 

i. 4 



152 Poetry of Architecture. 

Figs. 62. and 63. ought to be seen, as they would be in rea- 
lity, rising brightly up against the deep blue heaven of the south, 
the azure gleaming through their hollows ; unless perchance a 
slight breath of refined, pure, pale vapour finds its way from 
time to time out of them into the light air ; their tiled caps casting 
deep shadows on their white surfaces, and their tout ensemble 
causing no interruption to the feelings excited by the Moresco 
arches and grotesque dwelling-houses with which they would 
be surrounded; they are sadly spoiled by being cut off at their 
bases. 

Figs. 59. 65, and 66. are Italian. Fig. 59. has only been given, 
because it is constantly met with among the more modern build- 
ings of Italy. Figs. 65. and 66. are almost the only two 
varieties of chimneys which are to be found on the old Venetian 
palaces (whose style is to be traced partly to the Turk, and 
partly to the Moor). The curved lines of Jig. 65. harmonise 
admirably with those of the roof itself, and its diminutive size 
leaves the simplicity of form of the large building to which it 
belongs entirely uninterrupted and uninjured. Fig. 66. is seen 
perpetually carrying the whiteness of the Venetian marble up 
into the sky ; but it is too tall, and attracts by far too much at- 
tention, being conspicuous on the sides of all the canals. Figs* 
68, 69, and 70. are Swiss. Fig. 69. is one specimen of an ex- 
tensive class of decorated chimneys, met with in the north- 
eastern cantons. It is never large, and consequently having 
no false elevation of character, and being always seen with eyes 
which have been prepared for it, by resting on the details of the 
Swiss cottage, is less disagreeable than might be imagined, but 
ought never to be imitated. The pyramidal form is generally 
preserved, but the design is the same in no two examples. 

Fig. 70. is a chimney very common in the eastern cantons, 
the principle of which we never understood. The oblique part 
moves on a hinge, so as to be capable of covering the chimney 
like a hat, and the whole is covered w-ith wooden scales, like 
those of a fish. This chimney sometimes comes in very well 
among the confused rafters of the mountain cottage, though it 
is rather too remarkable to be in good taste. 

It seems then, that out of the eighteen chimneys, which we 
have noticed, though several possess character, and one or two 
elegance, only two are to be found fit for imitation ; and, of 
these, one is exclusively a cottage chimney. This is somewhat 
remarkable, and may serve as a proof: — 

1st, Of what we at first asserted, that chimneys which in any 
way attract notice (and if these had not, we should not have 
sketched them) were seldom to be imitated ; that there are few 
buildings which require them to be singular, and none which can 
tolerate them if decorated; and that the architect should always 



A Chapter on Chimneys. 153 

remember that the size and height being by necessity fixed, the 
form which draws least attention is the best. 

2dly, That this inconspicuousness is to be obtained, not by 
adhering to any model of simplicity, but by taking especial 
care that the lines of the chimney are no interruption, and its 
colour no contrast, to those of the building to which it belongs. 
Thus, Jigs. 60. to 64. would be far more actually remarkable, in 
their natural situation, if they were more simple in their form; 
for they would interrupt the character of the rich architecture by 
which they are surrounded. Fig. 56., rising as it does above an 
old Gothic window, would have attracted instant attention, had 
it not been for the occurrence of the same lines in it which 
prevail beneath it. The form of Jig. 65. only assimilates it 
more closely with the roof on which it stands. But we must 
not imitate chimneys of this kind, for their excellence consists 
only in their agreement with other details, separated from which 
they would be objectionable ; we can only follow the principle 
of the design, which appears, from all that we have advanced, 
to be this : we require, in a good chimney, the character of the 
building to which it belongs divested of all its elevation^ and its pre- 
vailing lines deprived of all their ornament. 

This it is, no doubt, excessively difficult to give ; and, in 
consequence, there are very few cities or edifices in which the 
chimneys are not objectionable. We must not, therefore, omit 
to notice the fulfilment of our expectations, founded on English 
character; the only two chimneys fit for imitation, in the whole 
eighteen, are English ; and we would not infer anything from 
this, tending to invalidate the position formerly advanced, that 
there was no taste in England ; but we would adduce it as a 
farther illustration of the rule, that what is most adapted to its 
purpose is most beautiful. For that we have no taste, even in 
chimneys, is sufficiently proved by the roof effects, even of the 
most ancient, unaffected, and unplastered of our streets, in which 
the chimneys, instead of assisting in the composition of the 
groups of roofs, stand out in staring masses of scarlet and black, 
with foxes and cocks whisking about, like so many black devils, 
in the smoke on the top of them, interrupting all repose, an- 
nihilating all dignity, and awaking every possible conception 
which would be picturesque, and every imagination which would 
be rapturous, to the mind of master-sweeps. 

On the other hand, though they have not on the Continent 
the same knowledge of the use and beauty of chimneys in the 
abstract, they display their usual good taste in grouping, or con- 
cealing them ; and, whether we find them mingling with the fan- 
tastic domiciles of the German, with the rich imaginations of the 
Spaniard, with the classical remains and creations of the Italian, 
they are never intrusive or disagreeable ; and either assist the 



1 54* Historical Not in 

grouping, and relieve the horizontally of the lines of the roof, or 
remain entirely unnoticed and insignificant, smoking their pipes 
in peace. 

It is utterly impossible to give rules for the attainment of 
these effects, since they are the result of a feeling of the pro- 
portion and relation of lines, which, if not natural to a person, 
cannot be acquired, but by long practice and close observation ; 
and it presupposes a power rarely bestowed on an English ar- 
chitect, of setting regularity at defiance, and sometimes comfort 
out of the question. We could give some particular examples 
of this grouping; but, as this paper has already swelled to an 
unusual length, we shall defer them until we come to the con- 
sideration of street effects in general. Of the chimney in the 
abstract, we are afraid we have only said enough to illustrate, 
without removing, the difficulty of designing it ; but we cannot 
but think that the general principles which have been deduced, 
if carefully followed out, would be found useful, if not for the 
attainment of excellence, at least for the prevention of barbarism. 

Oxford, Feb. 10. 



Art. II. Historical Notice of Solomon's Temple: with some pre- 
liminary Remarks on the Tabernacle. From Lectures on Archae- 
ology, delivered in Paris by M. Raoul Rochette, and published in 
" L'E'cho du Monde savant." Translated for the " Architectural 
Magazine," by M. L. 

The Jewish people had no woi'ks of art but such as were 
borrowed. Therefore, it is as a part of Phoenician archaeology, 
that we must study two principal monuments which Hebrew 
architecture supplies us with : viz. the tabernacle and temple of 
Jerusalem, which refer to the ages of Moses and of Solomon ; 
and both of which display Egyptian and Phoenician influence. 
The tabernacle, erected after the departure from Egypt, and in 
the Desert, recalled the idea of an Egyptian temple, or of the 
tent of a pastoral people ; and the temple of Jerusalem repro- 
duced this general form, with the accessories and ornaments 
with which the artists of Tyre embellished it. 

The Tabernacle. — The sacred writings inform us, that when 
God had made known his laws and commandments to the 
Israelites, by the mouth of Moses, his prophet, he commanded 
them to construct a monument, which they should carry with 
them, and into which he would occasionally descend. 

At this happy intelligence, the people immediately began the 
work, and brought as offerings, gold, silver, copper, odoriferous 
woods, skins of goats and sheep of all colours, purple and white 
wool, precious stones set in gold, and perfumes. 

Every thing being prepared, Moses ordered an enclosure to 



of Solomon's Temple. 155 

be made of 100 cubits long, and 50 broad *, in which the 
tabernacle was placed : 20 pillars of bronze were arranged on 
the sides, and 10 of the same metal at the ends, each 5 cubits 
high : the capitals were of silver, and the bases of gold. A 
large veil of very fine linen, stretched round this quadrangular 
enclosure, surrounded it like a wall. The front of the enclosure 
was 50 cubits. 

On each side of the door was placed a double pillar covered 
with leaves of gold and silver ; and to this double pillar were 
added, within the enclosure, three other pillars, arranged on each 
side, in a straight line, so as to form a vestibule 5 cubits in depth. 

A veil 20 cubits long and 5 broad enclosed the entrance : it 
was woven of purple and hyacinth-coloured linen, and repre- 
sented images of cherubim, to which we shall hereafter refer. 

In the vestibule stood a large vessel of copper, supported by 
a base of the same metal, from which the sacrificing priest took 
the water for ablutions. 

The tabernacle, which was 30 cubits long and 20 broad, was 
placed in the middle of this enclosure. The entrance was 
turned towards the east, that the sun might illuminate it with its 
first beams. Each side was composed of 20 planks of wood, 
covered within and without with plates of gold, cut in right 
angles, the breadth of each being a cubit and a half. The 
tabernacle was divided into three parts in its whole length ; and 
this division, according to Josephus, represented the symbolical 
figure of the world. The space in the middle, enclosed by 
columns and veils of linen, was called The Holy of Holies, 
or The Most Holy. 

To cover the top and sides of the tabernacle, 10 pieces of 
tapestry, 28 cubits long and 4 wide, were fastened to the wood- 
work by clasps of bronze gilt. 

It is evident, from this succinct description, that the tabernacle, 
a monument of a mixed style, borrowed from the Egyptians 
and Phoenicians, had, so to speak, no character peculiar to itself ; 
and clearly expressed how much the Jews had borrowed from the 
systems of architecture of these two nations, and how much 
they respected the law of Moses, which prohibited the Jews 
from using sculpture and other imitative arts. 

Solomon's Temple, -j- — The city of Jerusalem, according to the 
Jewish Antiquities, was seated on two hills facing each other, and 
separated by a magnificent valley. The highest hill was called 
the high city, the other, named Area, was the site of the low 
city, and faced, on the east side, Mount Moriah, on which 
Solomon erected his temple. 

* The Hebrew cubit is about lift. 

f See Third Book of Kings, Second of the Paralipomena, and the works 
of Vilalpond, Calmet, and Bernard Lamy. 



156 Historical Notice 

This mountain being only an irregular hill at first, it was 
necessary, in order to extend the appurtenances of the temple 
on a level surface, to support the sides by enormous construc- 
tions. The eastern sides skirted the valley of Cedron; that of 
the south was furnished with a wall of masonry, of 300 cubits 
in height ; the western side was in the form of a theatre ; and 
that of the north was separated from the temple by a large 
ditch. 

About six centuries after the construction of the tabernacle, 
David, having taken possession of the city of Salem, drove out 
all the Jebusites, repaired the breaches, rebuilt the dwelling- 
houses, and resolved to establish here the seat of his govern- 
ment, by raising a temple to the Eternal, and giving to this city 
the name of Hieru-Salew, Jerusalem, or Sacred City. But the 
following night the Lord appeared to the prophet Nathan, and 
spoke to him in these words : — 

" Go find mv servant David, and tell him : Behold what the 
Lord sayeth : I shall place upon the throne after you your son, 
who shall proceed from you, and I shall establish his kingdom. 
He shall build a house to my name, and I shall render the 
throne of his kingdom secure for ever." 

David having learnt from Nathan that his kingdom should 
descend to his posterity, and that one of his children should 
build a temple, went immediately to prostrate himself before the 
tabernacle and return thanks to God for this favour. 

Solomon, son of David, in the fourth year of his reign, and 
in the month Jar (April), 592 years after the departure from 
Egypt, 1440 years after the Deluge, and 3102 after the creation 
of the world, realised the grand intention of his father, by erecting 
a temple to the Eternal on Mount Moriah. As there was a 
want of wood and artists in Judea, he wrote on this subject to 
Iraam, or Hiram, king of Tyre, who sent him hewers of stone, 
sculptors, and casters of metals. The correspondence occa- 
sioned by this negotiation was still in existence in the time of 
Josephus, at Jerusalem, and in the archives of the city of 
Tyre. 

" Hiram, having heard the words of Solomon, was greatly 
delighted, and gave him wood of cedar and pine, as much as he 
desired. Solomon also chose workmen, and commanded that 
30,000 men should be appointed for this work. He sent them 
to Lebanon in turns, 10,000 each month, so that they remained 
two months at home. Adoniram had the superintendence of all 
these people. Solomon had 70,000 labourers who carried 
burdens, and 80,000 who cut the stones on the mountain; 
besides those who had the superintendence over each work, and 
who were 3300 in number." 

This magnificent temple was 60 cubits long, only 20 broad, 



qfSolomoyis Temple. 157 

according to Josephus, and 30 cubits high. On this edifice was 
raised another of the same size, which made the general height 
of the temple 60 cubits : round it were 30 chambers, of 25 
cubits in length and 20 in height, built in the form of galleries, 
and communicating with each other. 

It was in these chapels, as they may be called, that the vases, 
and all the precious ornaments used at the sacrifices, were pre- 
served. Josephus gives, perhaps, an exaggerated list of them. 

In front of the temple was a portico, 120 cubits high by 10. 
These extraordinary dimensions accord so ill with the height of 
the temple, that most commentators have been led into error. 
In this difficulty they have taken the most convenient way of 
getting off, by saying that there must be a fault in the text. M. 
Hirt, himself, in his Dissertation critique sur le Temple de Jeru- 
salem, is greatly mistaken in giving only 20 cubits in height, for 
the dimensions of the portico : it is not so. The learned 
German Stieglitz has clearly proved that the dimensions of the 
portico should be 120 cubits high by 10. This portico is, besides, 
only an imitation of the pylorus which preceded the Egyptian 
temples. 

Two beautiful pillars of bronze, ornamented with circles of 
gold and capitals of silver, decorated the portico. These two 
pillars, named Jachin and Boaz, were executed by the cele- 
brated artist, Huram, whom Solomon had sent for from Tyre : 
thev were 35 cubits high, and their capitals five. 

These pillars are referable to a system of architecture which 
is not unknown to us, and to the idea of theology of the first 
nations, that is, to religious dualism ; for these round pillars 
are to the temple of Jerusalem what the obelisks or sphinxes 
were to the edifices of Nubia and Egypt, and the phalli or the 
cones to the temples of Gazza, Hierapolis, and Paphos. In the 
middle of this wonderful enclosure was placed the sea of brass, 
a vast basin reposing on twelve supports of the same metal, 
and serving for the legal purifications. 

By adhering only to the details transmitted to us by the 
Bible, as the most authentic in every respect, it is possible to 
reconstruct the edifice almost entirely. 

The temple of Solomon was composed of a cella 60 cubits 
long. This cella was divided into two very distinct parts, by 
the pillars of cedar wood, covered with gold, the Holy and 
the Most Holy of the sanctuary : the first part, which was appro- 
priated to the sacrifices, was 40 cubits long and 30 high ; the 
Most Holy was 20 cubits each way : there was therefore a 
difference of 10 cubits between the two roofs, which has given 
rise to the belief of the mysterious chamber situated above the 
Most Holy. To the upper part of these two pillars, was 



^ 



158 Historical Nut ice of 'Solomon' 's Temple. 

attached a veil of linen, woven with great delicacy, and repre- 
senting various flowers of all colours. 

It is remarkable, that windows were made in this temple : 
"And he made slanting windows in the temple," says the Book 
of Kings. We know that the edifices of Egypt and of Phoenicia 
are without windows; and, although they existed in the temple of 
Jerusalem, they were so narrow, that they did not light the 
sanctuary. Solomon also says : " The Eternal dwells in dark- 
ness. " A circumstance which it would be of great advantage 
to know, but on which the sacred writings are silent, is the 
form of the roof of the temple. A flat roof would be the most 
analogous to the Egyptian style ; but there is no proof that it 
was so arranged, neither do we know whether it was sloping. 

The Book of Kings, indeed, informs us that Solomon made a 
ceiling (plancher) above the whole edifice; consequently it 
appears that the temple was covered ; but we are not informed 
how this ceiling was made. 

In the decoration of the temple, Phoenician influence is visibly 
manifested. No part of the wall appears ; it is entirely covered 
by beams of cedar, and the interior partitions of wood were 
entirely covered with leaves of gold, rich hangings, skins of 
sheep, and goat's hair. 

On the outside nothing was seen but the stone, and in the in- 
side, nothing but gold. There was not a single place, according 
to the sacred writings, that was not overlaid with gold : the 
ceiling itself was covered with it. This system is evidently 
borrowed from the Phoenician architecture, in which only wood 
overlaid with gold was made use of for the interior decoration 
of buildings. 

To adorn his temple, Solomon ordered two cherubim of solid 
gold, to be made, each 5 cubits high; their wings, which were 
also 5 cubits, were placed in such a position in the sanctuary 
that they covered the ark of the covenant. 

Much discussion has taken place on the symbolical repre- 
sentation of these cherubim. According to Clement of Alexan- 
dria, they were only fantastic and imaginary beings. According 
to the Bible, on the contrary, they had wings, and conse- 
quently were ranked in the class of animals. M. Raoul Ro- 
chette thinks, and his opinion will appear very probable, that 
these cherubim were only sphinxes, imitated from the Egyp- 
tian and Phoenician archaeology ; as, according to the testimony 
of Ezekiel, the cherub consisted of a head placed on a body, 
half lion, half bull, bearing eagle's wings extended; and, from 
the drawings which have reached us, we find a striking resem- 
blance between the cherubim of the Hebrew temples, and the 
sphinxes placed in front of the religious edifices of Nubia and 
Egypt. 



Preservation of Architectural Remains, 159 

The temple of Jerusalem was reduced to ashes by Nebuchad- 
nezzar II., 4-70 years after its foundation, 598 B. C. ; and, 70 
years afterwards, Zorobabel laid the foundation of the second 
temple, which was destroyed at the taking of Jerusalem by 
Titus. (L'Echo, Dec. 6, 1837, p. 198.) 



Art. III. Brief Hints for the Preservation of the Architectural Re- 
mains of the Middle Ages. By E. B. Lamb, F.I.B.A. 

" To collect the productions of art, and examples of mechanical science or 
manual ability, is unquestionably useful, even when the things themselves are 
of small importance ; because it is always advantageous to know how far the 
human powers have proceeded, and how much experience has found to be 
within the reach of diligence." {Rambler, No. 83.) 

During my perambulations in various parts of the country, I 
have had opportunities of observing in what state many of the 
most useful and interesting buildings of the middle ages, ecclesi- 

CD O O 7 

astical and domestic, are now found : in some instances neg- 
lected and falling to decay, and in others a needless sacrifice to 
tasteless improvers and modern innovations. It would be ab- 
surd indeed, if, in my love for the great works of past ages, 1 
should blindly decry the wonderful improvements which are now 
fast spreading over the whole country ; this is not my intention : 
it is true, I would think twice before demolishing a building 
which has been a lesson to the scientific architect, a delight to 



L ; 



the lover of the picturesque, and has called forth the energetic 
praises of the poet for ages past. Even the railways, those won- 
ders of modern times, which are now sweeping every thing be- 
fore them, might, perhaps, sometimes, be just sufficiently turned 
to prevent the wholesale demolition of ancient buildings, which, 
I fear, some of them may cause; and, surely, this might be 
done, upon consideration, without prejudice to the line of road. 
To say, however, that all modern improvement should give place 
to the relics of masonic craft, would not only be contrary to my 
wish, but also to my interest as an architect. Improvement, in- 
deed, is not always the reason for destroying the ancient edifices 
of this country : decay, which is suffered to go beyond repair, in- 
convenience for present customs, and, too frequently, incompetent 
persons, intrusted with the care of repairing them, recklessly 
cutting away and disturbing parts which a little ingenuity might 
preserve, are the principal causes, which have, in many instances, 
swept from us studies that might have been of the greatest value 
to the modern architect. If not entire buildings, at least many of 
the parts which had escaped the ravages of time might have been 
secured for our benefit, if a proper place had been assigned for 



160 Hints fur the Preservation 

their reception. All we now see of demolished buildings is by 
mere chance. An industrious antiquary, or, perhaps, mere col- 
lector of curiosities, may have some choice fragments hidden in 
his cabinet; but these can only be seen by the few comprising 
his own immediate circle. As enquiry is not to be circum- 
scribed, and new discoveries and instruction may be gained from 
resources which now appear trivial, it behoves every thinking 
being to assist in the preservation of such records as are within 
his power, that he may, at least, have the gratification of having, 
in some measure, contributed to the welfare of his fellow-crea- 
tures. With this view, these observations have been hastily 
penned, as hints for the preservation of ancient architecture, 
either in buildings now existing, or in fragments which have ne- 
cessarily been displaced from unavoidable circumstances. This 
could be done in such places and manner that they might be 
easily referred to, not only by the antiquary and the architect, 
but by the ordinary sight-seer, who frequently spends his time in 
gazing at the usual show places, without any peculiar object. 
To the historian, ancient architecture is a book of reference, 
where he reads, in the rude decorations it displays, many of 
the customs of past ages in no other way recorded. Too often, 
there are details of crimes of the blackest dve, and tvrannv the 
most oppressive: but crimes are not the only memorials he 
finds in such works, virtues are unsparingly immortalised by 
the hand of the sculptor. Statues of benefactors to churches and 
charities were conspicuously interspersed among saints and angels 
in the cathedrals; and, in other buildings, we are frequently re- 
minded of a good deed, by the statue of a munificent donor ; nor 
is the fact less interesting, although conveyed to us in a simple 
and rude manner of execution. In many cases, perhaps, this 
is the only record of a name which ought to stand on the 
tablets of our memory, as an example of some bright star 
shedding its influence in the midst of the darkest ages of super- 
stition and oppression. Here the historian seeks for his heroes, 
who have nobly fallen in defending their patrimony ; here, too, 
he finds the direful effect of civil wars; in the contemplation of 
these remains, his mind is richly stored with historical truths 
which are every day becoming more visionary, as the romantic 
legends, which are too frequently relied upon as authentic re- 
cords, are, in many instances, only transmitted by oral tradition. 
If to the historian the remains of antiquity are of importance, 
how infinitely more so are they to the architect, who is awe- 
stricken at the daring results of the great scientific knowledge of 
the masters of the craft. He looks with wonder at the lofty spire, 
beautifully proportioned, gradually carrying the eye, step by 
step, to the summit; the great variety displayed in ancient edi- 
fices, the amazing sparkle of the different parts, and yet the 



of Architectural Remains. 1 6 1 

perfect harmony of the whole ; he is impressed with the bold- 
ness of the groining of stone, more elaborate in its mysterious 
windings than the richest embroidery ; he views with delight and 
veneration the continued and lofty vaulting, which appears to 
hang in mid air ; and he is astonished at the fertile genius that 
produced the luxuriant ramifications of the traceried window. 
He examines these works closely, and endeavours to dive into 
the deep mystery which still hangs over the principles which 
governed the labours of the master minds which erected them : 
every new object he looks upon as a step advanced in his study, 
and every mutilation as so much loss to the art. But how are 
these objects to be preserved, when the hand of improvement is 
grasping every thing within its reach? Easily and effectually. 
When it is necessarv to destroy anv of these wonders of art, 
let the best and most useful of the ornamental fragments be de- 
posited in the large and now useless naves of our cathedrals : 
there cannot be more appropriate places ; surrounded as they 
would then be by works of the same period, which would be 
rendered still more interesting and useful by these important 
accessaries. Any objections that could be started to this ar- 
rangement surelv would only be made by the over-fastidious : in 
this part of the cathedral none of the forms and ceremonies of 
our religion are performed, and in this situation a useful and 
highly interesting classification of the architecture of the middle 
ages might be arranged in every cathedral in the country, with- 
out in the least interfering with the convenience of, or cumbering, 
the building. Between the columns of the nave, and against the 
walls of the ailes, might be arranged fragments : which, even 
when in the building they belonged to, could not be better seen 
or better understood : and a judicious classification would give 
picturesque effect and interest to these parts of our ecclesiastical 
buildings which thev never before obtained. What a field of 
interest and instruction would thus be thrown open to the whole 
community ! How easily might these fragments bear their own 
brief history ! For instance, I will merely suppose the fragment 
of a rich moulded arch : it would only be necessarv to mention 
where it came from, the span and height of the arch, and all 
other matters relating to the building might be kept, and would 
be kept, in histories devoted to the purpose. I need not mention 
in how many different ways these things may be impressed on 
our minds : and the opportunity this would give for that general 
knowledge and love of architecture which is so necessary for the 
promotion of the art. Here the idler, who previously sought the 
cathedral merely as a place of curiosity, and without any other 
reason for so doing than that of killing time, or doing as others 
have done before him, might, almost imperceptibly, acquire an 
interest he never before thought of; and this might be the 
Vol. V. — No. 50. m 



1 62 On the Establishment of a Society 

means of turning a useless member of society into a useful 
one, and of applying resources for the benefit of science which 
before were only wasted in idle dissipation. It must not be 
imagined, however, that I expect every one who entered the 
cathedral would have the same feeling on this subject. I am 
aware that it requires a mind generally predisposed to the pur- 
suit, and that great time and application are necessary to become 
versed in this study : but a good, clear, and well-arranged 
classification might be so briefly and evidently explained, that 
it would be understood by, and would become interesting to, 
the most ordinary capacity. 

In the preservation of the remains of the architecture of the 
middle ages, if only a few are benefited or interested in their 
study, even then a great object will be gained ; and as they then 
would be placed within the reach of every professor of the art, 
it would be a step to the study of the architecture of their own 
country, in a superior way than that now generally pursued. It 
would induce a fuller enquiry into the principles of the compo- 
sition of the ancient architects, and might effectually put a stop 
to the bad taste, so prevalent of late, for making miniature 
imitations of cathedrals, castellated cottages, and Gothic steam 
engines. 

To the ecclesiastical members of the church, and all others 
officially engaged therein, or in the least desirous of preserving 
the edifices of the middle ages, these relics would be of the 
highest importance ; not only to assist in the restoration and 
repairs of ancient architecture, but in ascertaining any date upon 
which the least doubt had been thrown. They would be of use 
to all ; and, by becoming the objects of a laudable curiosity, 
would imperceptibly assist in refining the taste of the lower 
orders, and securing the patronage of the higher. 



Art. IV. On the Establishment of a Society for the Restoration of 

ancient Buildings. By M. 

About a year ago it was contemplated to form a society for 
the purpose of raising funds for the repair and restoration of 
ancient buildings. Many beautiful monuments of the piety and 
taste of the olden time have lately been rescued from decay by 
individual exertion; but it is now absolutely necessary, that 
immediate steps should be taken to raise a general fund, to be 
applied according to the discretion of a committee, to the pre- 
servation of such churches, or other ancient edifices, as are valu- 
able for their architectural beauty, or as national memorials. 
Many of our finest old parish churches, the present neglected 
state of which is disgraceful to us as a nation, are so circum- 
stanced as to make the preservation of their beauties by any other 



for the Restoration of ancient Building*. 163 

means impossible. Every year increases the evil, and none but 
those who are in the habit of examining country churches can 
tell how much has been done in the last few years, towards sweep- 
ing away from our villages whatever was interesting or beautiful 
in these ancient structures. The note of alarm was first sounded, 
ten years ago, by an able writer in the British Critic. He gives 
a list of churches which deserve the most careful preservation, 
and which are, or lately were, unrepaired or ill-repaired to a 
very great extent. From this list I will make a few extracts, 
adding examples which have come under my own observation. 
In Bedfordshire, Dunstable Priory is in great want of repair : of 
Luton Church, Rickman says that "it has been a rich and beau- 
tiful specimen, but is now sadly dilapidated and disfigured in the 
ornamental parts." In Derbyshire, the stonework of Chester- 
field Church is in very bad condition. The once splendid east 
window of Dronfield Church is stripped of its tracery, and partly 
bricked up. Bebbington Church in Cheshire, a beautiful com- 
position, is rather dilapidated. Trinity Church, the Ladye 
Chapel of Ely Cathedral, is in very great want of exterior repair. 
In Gloucestershire, Cirencester Church has a fine porch, much 
decayed. Elliston, a curious Norman relic, is also perishing for 
want of attention. The large church of Romsey, in Hampshire, 
is very much out of repair. In Lancashire, the east window of 
Holland Chapel, a very fine specimen of the early decorated, has 
been unsafe for many years ; and the chancel window of Winwick 
has lost all its tracery, once very fine. Lincolnshire formerly 
contained more magnificent churches than any other county, 
and the devastation has been proportionably extensive. Ravenby 
and Leadenham, two very fine churches, have lost their tracery, 
and are losing their stonework. At Ripingale, part of the south 
aile is used as a schoolroom : here are two very fine tombs with 
effigies, which are subject to continual mutilations. At Hecking- 
ton, one of the richest and most valuable churches in the county, 
the tracery of the north transept window has been destroyed. 
The west front of Crowland, which Rickman styles one of the 
most beautiful portions of rich early English in the kingdom, is 
in such a state, that a very slight fall from above would entirely 
destroy it. The fine church of Higham Ferrers, in Northampton- 
shire, has lost much of its stonework. In Oxfordshire, the 
windows of Adderbury have been deprived of their fine tracery ; 
and the curious church of Barford is much decayed. The win- 
dows of Tamworth have lost their tracery. In Warwickshire, the 
stonework of the two splendid spires of Coventry is sadly decay- 
ing. In Yorkshire we have Headon despoiled of tracery ; How- 
den Chancel, one of the most elegant decorated buildings in 
England, in ruins ; Selby, Old Malton, and St. Michael, Malton, 
in a miserable state. To these may be added, Llandafl' Cathedral 

M 2 



164 Society for the Restoration of ancient Buildings. 

in ruins ; part of St. David's in ruins ; east end of St. Alban's in 
ruins; the large cruciform church of All Saints, Pontefract, in 
ruins ; Bridlington, once as fine as Beverley, now presenting a 
melancholy picture of mutilation. The grand east window of 
Hawton, Notts, is falling to pieces from the decay of the stone- 
work. But it is needless to proceed with this enumeration, to 
which every reader could add many similar examples. The 
destruction of painted glass has been so general, that except a few 
wretched fragments, it is now seldom seen in village churches ; 
and the numerous coats of arms, often so useful in determining 
points of family history, have perished. In Devonshire, a few 
years since, few churches were without a rich screen and pulpit ; 
but now many have fallen. I would also mention the disgrace- 
ful condition of the cloisters and chapter-house at Westminster, 
and of many of the finest monuments in the Abbey. How long 
are the splendid tombs of queen Eleanor, of Edward III., of 
Henry III., with the neighbouring screen, and (with the almost 
solitary exception of the tomb of Aymer de Valence) nearly all the 
monuments of early English and decorated date, with their beau- 
tiful canopies and rich sculpture, to be suffered to moulder away 
in the very centre of the wealth and refinement of the kingdom ? 
Let it not be said of us, that the noble and costly structures, in 
which our forefathers in past ages worshipped God, have been 
suffered to perish by our neglect, and that we, their descendants, 
so far from emulating these glorious works, want even the taste 
and spirit to preserve them from ruin. There have lately ap- 
peared some symptoms of a better feeling ; and there wants but 
the establishment of a society as I have suggested, to embody 
and increase it. If but a few hundreds were annually raised, this 
would rescue from decay every year some beautiful remnant of 
our national architecture. Let clergymen in every part of the 
kingdom be invited to report on the state of their churches, and 
where the parishioners are willing to come forward to the extent 
of their ability (as is almost every where the case), let a grant of 
money be voted by the society to assist them in the work of 
restoration. In this manner, many a beautiful window, screen, 
niche, font, canopy, &c, would be preserved from decay ; and 
their preservation would have a most beneficial influence upon the 
national taste, and promote the revival, upon true principles, of 
English architecture.' I have trespassed upon your indulgence 
to a length which nothing but the importance of the subject 
could warrant; and most sincerely do I hope to see the matter 
taken up by those who have displayed such praiseworthy zeal in 
particular instances, and whose knowledge and influence would 
insure success. 
January ) 1838. 



Immense Chimney at Carlisle. 16; 



Art. V. An Account of an immense Chimney, recently built at Car- 
lisle ; tvith Suggestions Jbr applying Chimneys or Cones, of im- 
mense Height, to scientific Purposes. By P. A. 

" The immense chimney attached to the new cotton factory, now being 
built for Messrs. Peter Dixon and Sons, in Shaddongate, had the last stone 
placed upon it on October 24. 1837. It is one of the highest buildings in 
England, being 305 ft. from the ground ; and, for the purpose to which it is to 
be applied, is understood to be the highest erection in the world. It may be 
distinctly seen for many miles in all directions around Carlisle, and forms a 
beautiful object in the view of our city, from which ever quarter you approach 
it. The building is of the octangular form, and is built with brick, the angles 
being formed of stone. The base, which is built with fire-bricks, is 17 ft. 8 in. 
in width inside, and the thickness of the wall at the foundation is 10 ft. It 
tapers upwards to a width, inside, of 6 ft. 3 in. ; and on the outside 8 ft. 9 in. 
Near the top there is a cornice of stone, 7 ft. in depth, which projects 3 ft., 
and above this there are 8 ft. 3 in. of brickwork, surmounted by a coping 
stone, one foot in thickness. The cornice gives a finished and classical ap- 
pearance to the building ; and the whole would be taken for some splendid 
national monument, rather than a mere conduit pipe for smoke. It is not 
a little creditable to Carlisle, that this magnificent work was entirely executed 
by a native of that city, a builder, Mr. Richard Wright, who has completed it 
in a way to give the most entire satisfaction to ever}' scientific man who has 
examined it. Considering its immensity, the work was completed in an in- 
credibly short period of time. The foundation stone was laid on Sept. 11. 
1835, by P .Dixon, Esq. ; the first brick was laid by Mr. Wright, on Sept. 1 7. ; 
the last course of bricks, also by Mr. Wright, on Oct. 22., and the last coping 
stone on Oct. 25. 1836; thus completing the work in thirteen months. The 
erection was carried on from the inside, stages being erected as the work pro- 
ceeded, and the workmen and materials being taken up in boxes prepared for 
the purpose, by a crab worked by four men ; and it is gratifying to add that 
the whole was finished without any accident occurring to any individual en- 
gaged in it. 

" As the work approached conclusion, numbers of people expressed an 
anxiety to have a peep from the top. In order to gratify the public curiosity, 
the Messrs. Dixon ordered a box to be prepared, and the necessary arrange- 
ments to be made to accommodate as many as might choose to ascend. The 
w orkmen finished their labours about noon ; and, the day being very clear, 
although very windy and extremely cold, numerous parties ascended in the 
course of the afternoon, and this accommodation was continued for a fevr 
davs. The box was calculated to hold four persons, three visitors and a 
guide, who had been accustomed to ascend the building. A door opened on 
each side of the box, to admit the passengers, and was then locked, and the 
word being given, it slowly ascended to the " upper regions," a process which 
occupied about fourteen minutes. When within a few feet of the top the box 
passed through a trap door, which immediately fell down again, and thus af- 
forded a secure landing place. From this the ascent to the top is by two 
ladders of about 7 ft. each, and as the visitor rises upon the last platform the 
most magnificent sight imaginable bursts upon the view. The city lies at his 
feet, with all its winding streets clearly and distinctly seen as upon a map ; 
and the huge factory itself, to which the chimney is but an adjunct, looks like 
a building of some two stories in height. It forcibly illustrates Shakspeare's 
description of the appearance from Dover cliffs : — 

■ How fearful 

And dizzy 'tis, to cast one's eyes so low ! 
The crows and choughs that wing the midway air 
Show scarce so gross as beetles : half-way down 

M 3 



166 Immense Chimney at Carlisle. 

Hangs one that gathers samphire ; dreadful trade ! 
Methinks he seems no bigger than his head : 
The fishermen that walk upon the beach 
Appear like mice : and yon tall anchoring bark, 
Diminished to her cock ; her cock, a buoy 
Almost too small for sight.' 

" The view of the country around is most extensive and picturesque. The 
spot on which the chimney stands seems the centre of a huge amphitheatre, to 
which the horizon forms a circular boundary. Rich and fertile valleys, inter- 
sected with farm-houses and the seats of country gentlemen, and with the 
rivers winding, like streaks of silver, in the most beautiful curves, lie extended 
in such extent and variety, that the eye for a time is bewildered by the number 
of objects presented ; whilst the mountains rise pile above pile on each side, 
like walls surrounding the mighty area. On the west side might be seen the 
estuary of the Solway, with vessels taking their departure from Bowness; 
anil on the other, the locomotive engines careering along to the opposite side 
of the island, carrying with them to the east tokens of the wealth and en- 
terprise of the west. Altogether a sight more enchanting and exhilarating 
can scarcely be conceived. On Oct. 24. the thermometer at the bottom of the 
column stood at 41° in an exposed situation ; at the top of the column, ex- 
posed in the same aspect, it was at 38°." {Carlisle Journal, Oct. 29. 1836.) 

Soon after I read the above account, I fancy I fell asleep ; 
but whether awake or asleep, as I sat by my fire, the following 
thoughts came into my head, which I hope you will not set me 
down as unpardonably foolish for communicating to you. I 
thought the British Association had grown enormously rich (as 
it is to be hoped they will) ; that they had money at command to 
spend upon every great object for the advance of science; 
and that, amongst others, it had been determined to erect a 
tower, or chimney, five thousand feet in height, to be wholly 
devoted to the purposes of scientific research or observation. 
It was conceived, that by having a tower of this height, with 
easy access to its summit, many problems in meteorology, 
electricity, terrestrial magnetism, and astronomy, &c, might be 
solved at once, which can now either be only arrived at circuit- 
ously or not at all. It seemed that the designs were com- 
plete ; and that nothing more was required, but to choose a 
site, where a foundation sufficiently good, and abundance of 
material, could be procured. One of the coal districts was 
chosen, where there was foundation on the solid rock ; clay, to 
make bricks; sandstone and lime in abundance; and coal to 
be used in making the bricks, dressing the stones by steam 
power, and elevating them on the lofty summit by the same. 

The general form was to be conical, and a floor with a cir- 
cular aperture was to be placed at every 500 ft., while by 
suitable machinery a stage could be elevated to the summit 
from below, or lowered again with people or instruments, in a 
few minutes. 

The lower part was to be made of stone, and the upper of 
brick ; lest if all be made of the latter, the upper might crush 



Stove on a new Construction. 167 

the lower part with its weight. I thought I heard that the first 
experiment was to be, to repeat that made in St. Paul's, of 
letting a body fall so as to prove the rotation of the earth ; and 
that in this case, some other important deductions could be 
made from the experiment. 

It seemed to me, at first, that a high mountain would answer 
all the purposes of the tower ; but, on reflection, I soon saw this 
was not the case. Now, my reverie, or dream, as such things 
generally are, was rather confused and indistinct in some 
places ; but I was so much struck with a sort of vein of sense 
or reality which ran through the whole, that I determined to 
give you an account of it ; and would be much obliged for my 
own information, and that of other country readers like myself, 
if you or some of your intelligent and scientific correspondents 
would consider, and say whether such a tower could be built ; 
and, if so, would it really have any scientific uses ? and, if both, 
what would be the detail of its construction and its cost? 
Surely a company could be got up to build it, if it could be 
shown to be of use : and how grand a national monument it 
would be ! In an economical point of view, it would pay by 
showing people the view from the top, at so much a head. 

I hope, because I have sent you the above speculation, you 
will not consider me bereft of my wits. The idea is not in- 
tended as any covert attack upon the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science ; far from it : on the contrary, I 
seriously do believe, that, if such a tower, cone, or pyramid, 
could be accomplished (but this, I fear, is out of the question), 
its scientific uses would be many and great; at all events, the 
novelty of the idea will, I trust, set some of your corre- 
spondents to work, to consider the means of carrying such an 
idea into execution ; and, in this view, the problem which I have 
proposed may prove neither useless nor uninteresting. 

Belfast, Jan. 29. 1838. 



Art. VI. A Stove on a new Construction, for heating any large 
Apartment^ or the House of Commons. By R. Mallet. 

I send you a sketch (fg. 72.) of mine for a new stove, 
to heat a great hall, library, or drawingroom, of a palace or 
other large edifice. The stove is intended for a large party to 
sit round ; and its objects are not only to warm to the best 
advantage, but to look warm ; and at the same time to ventilate 
effectually, without causing those drafts of air at the back, 
which are so miserably felt at our common fires. 

This stove is intended to burn charcoal, coke, or anthracite, 

M $ 



168 



Stove on a tieiv Constmction, 
72 




or wood, or turf, or, with certain precautions, even feoal. It is 
placed in the centre of the apartment. The lower part consists of 
a sort of open cage, to hold the fuel, with a close top or dome over 



for heating any large Apartment. 169 

it, communicating with a cylindrical vertical flue, proceeding to 
the ceiling. It rests upon a single stud below, and is strongly 
fastened above, so as to be a in great measure suspended. The 
floor of the room beneath it, for about 8 ft. in diameter, consists 
of a polished plate of cast iron, surrounded with a perforated 
ornamental ring-fender. In the centre of this plate, and com- 
municating with an air-flue in the floor, is a large ventilator for 
supply of air to the fire. Above the fire cage, or " focus," is a 
conical hood, suspended by two slight chains parallel to the flue, 
and having a hollow cylindrical balance- weight inside of it, to 
which the chains are attached ; they pass over two small pulleys, 
where they enter the sides of the flue above. 

The draft, or smoke, of course, passes through this hollow 
cylindrical weight. Thus the hood is enabled to be slid up and 
down for a certain space. When at the lowest, it is so placed, 
that a short tube, which forms its centre and grasps the flue, 
covers completely certain openings or slits therein ; but, when it 
is thrown up about 18 in., it uncovers them. 

The vertical flue passes along horizontally above the ceiling, 
in the thickness of the floor, to the side flue in the wall, where 
such is a convenient arrangement, care being taken to guard 
against fire. 

The hood is proposed to be made of sheet brass or sheet 
steel, and polished or burnished inside. Now, the working of the 
stove is thus: — The situation, as to height of the " focus," is so 
arranged, and its own form so made, that as large a quantity of 
heat, or rather as great a number of rays of heat, shall reach the 
polished iron plate beneath, as possible. These are all thrown 
upwards and outwards at various angles, as shown in the sketch. 
In the same way the angle, diameter, and height of the conical 
hood are made such, that the largest possible number of rays 
shall reach it also from the "focus;" and these are either 
reflected downwards and outwards directly, or reflected against 
the lower plate, where they pass outwards by a second reflection. 
Now, as the form of the cage, or " focus," is circular, almost 
the whole of the radiated heat is made effective, either directly, 
or after one or two reflections. 

So much for heating; now for ventilation. The fuel, it has 
been said, is supplied by an air-flue from below. Over the 
architraves of the windows are long slits, opening and shutting, 
and admitting fresh air, which, when the hood is at the lowest, 
diffuses itself through the hot air, and finds its way at last to 
the fire, at least in part ; but, when more ventilation is desirable, 
the hood is thrown up, when, at once, not only the rays of heat 
are thrown further out, beyond the sitters round, and more 
diffused, but the slits into the flue are opened beneath the hood, 



170 Stove on a new Construction, 

when immediately a current of air begins to flow in under its 
edges, and is collected and drawn up the flue ; but at such a 
height as to be above the heads of the sitters round, while the 
rays of heat, now shed far outside them, shield them from any 
draft of cold air, like an invisible aegis. If the ventilator of 
the air-flue now be shut, the ventilation of the apartment is the 
greatest possible. 

The upper and lower parts of the " focus," it will be seen, 
are united only by four rods of iron : it may be all made of cast 
iron, and richly ornamented, and must be provided with four 
sheet-iron segmental blowers, to urge the fire with at first, until 
the draft is established, or they may be of talc, and permanently 
hung to the cage. The draft will require to be good and sharp ; 
but with that there will be no danger of dissipation _of smoke or 
vapours. The flue may be of sheet iron, with a covering of 
fluted and polished brass; the hood, and indeed every part of 
it, is susceptible of being gorgeously ornamented in bronze and 
gilding, &c. ; and would afford an august style of ornament for 
a great room, and permit the greatest possible facility for con- 
versation with comfort. The usual dimension of the hood 
should not be less than 8 ft., and its height from the ground 
about the same. It is usually considered that, of the heat of a 
hot body in free air, one half is lost by radiation, and the other 
by " evection," or carried off by currents of air. Now, in the 
common fire-places, as only one side is exposed to radiation, 
only one fourth of the whole heat can ever be available, and 
the average heat obtained from house fires has been esti- 
mated as low as only one twentieth of that given out by the 
fuel ; but, in this case, nearly all the radiant heat, or one half 
the whole is effective, and a larger portion of the " evective " 
heat, by subsequent radiation and conduction from the flue. 
The inside lining of the hood may be made partly hyper- 
bolic, as shown in Jig. 73., to throw the heat outwards the 
better. 

It will be observed, that the ventilation of the apartment is 
here carried on above the heads of the persons present, as it 
always should be. By a simple addition, the hood may be 
made to rise and fall by a self-acting apparatus, so as to keep the 
apartment at a constant temperature. The proportions of heat 
radiated by combustible bodies in burning, to that carried off by 
" evection," varies in every body, and has been found a maxi- 
mum in coke and turf; these, in consequence, would be the 
fittest fuels for this stove. Berthier has given us some very 
valuable information on this point. 

Perhaps a gigantic stove of this sort, placed in the centre of 
a horse-shoe building, like the French Chamber of Deputies, 



Hope's Historical Essay on Architecture. 



171 



73 




and with a hood equal to one halt' the diameter of the building, 
would be the best and most sightly mode of warming and ven- 
tilating the new Houses of Parliament, which seems to be a 
very puzzling problem to those concerned. It might be so 
contrived as in no way to interrupt the view in any direction ; 
and might be made to have an Atha7ior-\\ke addition, so as 
to hold twenty-four hours' consumption of fuel, to be gradually 
consumed. Of course, the form I have shown is only one of a 
thousand far nobler and handsomer, that might be given to the 
apparatus, preserving still its principles of action. 
Dublin, Feb. 1. 1838. 



REVIEWS. 

Art. I. An Historical Essay on Architecture. By the late Thomas 
Hope. Illustrated from drawings made by him in Italy and 
Germany. Royal 8vo, 2d edition. London, 1835. 

(Continued from p. 532.) 

" In Lombard buildings the whole of the strength requisite for support and 
resistance is sought in the general thickness of the wall, or in the facings that 
slightly project from it, or in columns leaning against it ; seldom we see even 
solid buttresses very prominent, and I believe the flying buttress to exist no- 
where in this style. The Lombard, or what we call Saxon, buttresses are 
shallow, broad, shelving upward in regular breaks, and quite unornamented, 
except by some billet or other moulding that runs from the intervening panels 
uninterruptedly across them; from their shallowness they seem intended rather 
for mere ornament than for strength and support. 

" The arch is in general round-headed. Sometimes, however, we see in 
buildings, which, from their general style, we must call Lombard, intermixed 
with the round-headed arch, and evidently of the same era, but, as a mere 
variety from it, arches flattened : as in the exterior of the dome at Modena j 
the side altars of St. Apollinaire in Classe, at Ravenna ; the chapel of Barba- 
rossa's palace at Gelnhausen ; and Barfreston church in Kent : or arches with 
two straight sloping sides, meeting at an angle, as at Rome, on the south side 
of Santa Maria in Trastavere." 

" The Lombard churches, in general, present neither the simple oblong 
square of the basilica, nor the cross, with four short and equal ends, of the 



172 Hope's Historical Essay on Architecture. 

Greek church : but, as an improvement upon either — a compound of botli — 
a long nave preceding the shorter transept, and east end, so as to cause them 
to offer, in their ground plan, the real form of the cross ; and it should be re- 
marked, that the centre of the transepts generally presents a pier instead of an 
opening with a door or window on either side : this we even see in England, 
in the transepts of Winchester, the south transept of Ely, and the south tran- 
sept of the choir of Canterbury." 

Chap. xxin. Progress of the Art of constructing Arches and 
Vaults. As early as the time of paganism, groined vaults existed, 
and their use became extensive both in Greek and Lombard 
buildings, in proportion to the frequency of the erection of 
churches. 

Chap. xxiv. Forms of the Absis, Entrance, Cupola, Spire, and 
Steeple, usually seen in Lombard Architecture. The centre of the 
east end or sanctuary generally ended in a semicircular absis 
or, at times, also the ailes were made to end in absides. In 
some of the cathedrals in Germany, there is no entrance at the 
west end, but only at the side. In Lombardy, the crossing of 
the nave and transepts generally rises into an octagonal cupola 
In Germany, in the cathedral of Worms and others, the cupola 
becomes a pyramidal mass or a spire. 

" As the species of architecture here described arose in a country where 
snow lies little on the roofs, these were generally low and flat, and under them 
frequently runs a gallery of small arches and pillars, which, along the sides, 
forms a frieze ; round the absides and cupola, a belt ; and up the gable end of 
the front, a slanting line of steps, exceedingly elegant, singular, and, by the 
smallness of its parts, increasing the apparent magnitude of the whole ; witness 
San Giovanni and Paolo at Rome ; the domes at Parma, Piacenza, Modena, 
Vercelli, and Arezzo ; the Certosa near, and San Michele at, Pavia ; San 
Fidale at the town, and Gravedone on the lake, of Como. 

" The small galleries, however, running up the pediment, are a very remark- 
able feature, entirely confined to Lombardy. Instances of these galleries 
under the roof and round the absides, &c, may be seen on this side of the 
Alps. In the cathedrals of Vienne in Dauphine, of Spire, Worms, Mayence, 
and Aix-la-Chapelle ; in the Apostles, and St. Gereon, at Cologne ; St. Cas- 
tor, at Coblentz ; and Sainte Croix, at Liege. 

" As soon as you reach Germany, the roofs become, as they should in a 
country more northern, higher and steeper ; and thence the small gable ends, 
forming pediments, of which I only remember one example in Lombardy — at 
Verona, in the absis of San Fermo — become more frequent." 

" When, from points very distant, the faithful were to be called at some ap- 
pointed hour to some assigned place of common prayer and worship, not only 
the clear and powerful sound of bells was deemed best calculated to convey 
the distant summons, but, in order that their radiating vibrations might be less 
impeded in their diffusion, slender but lofty edifices, called steeples, were built, 
for the sole purpose of lifting high in air the receptacles of these bells. It is 
difficult to ascertain where, and when, bell-towers first arose — probably at 
Constantinople. Anastatius Bibliothecarius mentions Pope Stephen III. as 
having first added one, containing three bells, to St. Peter's. That of St. 
Mark at Venice was begun in 902 ; though, in 1131, only finished to the bell- 
house; that of San Zeno at Verona, begun in 104-5, was finished in 1178; 
and the great tower in the Piazza at Verona was commenced in 1 172. 

" Neither belfries nor baptisteries were considered as essential parts of, or 
embodied with, the church. On the contrary, like the baptistery, the steeple 
was placed at some distance from the house of worship. 



Jamieson's Mechanics of Fluids. 173 

" The severity of the climate beyond the Alps probably was the original 
motive for immediately connecting the steeple with the church on one side, as 
in the cathedral at Angouleme. The love of symmetry caused them, after- 
wards, to be built in front of these." 

Chap. xxv. Lombard Monastic Architecture. In the early 
ages of Christianity, churches were the only buildings of conse- 
quence erected till Christian communities came into fashion, 
when monasteries were built. 

These, like all private buildings in mild climates, consisted of " a square 
internal court, surrounded by a cloister, open to the air, which served at once 
for exercise, for coolness, and for communication between the different apart- 
ments, all made for the sake of privacy, before glass was invented, to look from 
the road or street to that court within; and if this arrangement differs from 
that of the private houses of the present day, the reason of the variation is, 
that while monasteries have during every age, in ever}' latitude, remained the 
same, the form of private dwellings has experienced considerable changes. . . . 
The earlier cloisters of the Latin church are all in the Lombard style." 

(To be continued.) 



Art. II. Mechanics of Fluids for practical Men, comprising Hydro- 
statics, descriptive and constructive : the whole illustrated by nume- 
rous Examples and appropriate Diagrams. By Alexander Jamieson, 
LL.D., Author of" Elements of Algebra," &c. 

" This volume is not a selection of shreds and patches garbled from con- 
temporary authorities : but a systematic treatise on Hydrostatic Science, con- 
taining a vast mass of valuable and interesting facts, combining indeed almost 
all that needs to be known on the equilibrium of fluids. But for the con- 
venience of reference, these mechanics of fluids are distributed into a series 
of chapters, whose titles indicate the several topics that receive mathematical 
demonstration. The first of these contains, besides a few brief but necessary 
definitions, the fundamental proposition upon which all the problems that are 
drawn up in elementary hydrostatics are in reality founded. 

" The principle established in the general proposition enables the reader to 
proceed in the second chapter with the pressure of incompressible fluids upon 
physical lines, rectangular parallelograms considered as independent planes 
immersed in the fluid, and to determine the position of the centre of gravity 
of the various rectangular figures which the successive problems embrace, to- 
gether with the pressures of fluids upon the sides and bottoms of cubical 
vessels, with the limits which theory assigns to the requisite thickness of 
flood-gates." 

In this manner, a general analysis of the book is given in the 
Introduction, from which, and from the high reputation of the 
author, we should say that the work is one which ought to be 
in the possession of every civil engineer. The subject that we 
were most interested in, in looking through the work, and also 
that on which we were best able to form a judgement in a prac- 
tical point of view, is the chapter " Of the pressure of non-elastic 
Fluids on Dykes and Embankments." See our article Embank- 
ment in the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 6th ed. 
The subject of floatation, and of the centre of gravity of bodies 
floating in water, is also treated in a very satisfactory manner, 
and illustrated by numerous well executed engravings on wood. 



174- Jamieson's Mechanics qf Fluids. 

Chap. xiv. treats of the centre of pressure, and to this are 
appended the following very interesting notes, on the subject of 
Artesian wells. 

" Upon the pressure, cohesion, and capillary attraction of fluids that are 
heavy, depends their transmission through fissures of the earth and between 
its strata, which are pervious to the percolation of water. We can penetrate 
but a small distance, say 500 fathoms, in digging for coal; a less depth suf- 
fices for some ores, and water is found at all depths, from a few feet to three 
hundred, as in the neighbourhood of London. In the great coal area of 
Britain, extending lengthwise 260 miles, and in breadth about 150 miles, in a 
diagonal from Hull to Bristol in England, and from the river Tay to the 
Clyde in Scotland, we find a great variety of rocks of strata, piled up at a 
small angle, with the horizon, though in some instances, like the primitive, 
nearly vertical. These strata consist of sandstone, clayslate, bituminous slate, 
indurated argillaceous earth or fireclay, argillaceous ironstone, and green- 
stone or blue whinstone : and, to possess the valuable treasures concealed 
among these rocks, we employ a vast capital in money, and tax all the ability 
of the human mind in the science of engineering. 

" To bring the subject-matter of capillary attraction, as regards Artesian 
wells, springs, mountainous marsh lands, or bogs, fairly before the reader in a 
very brief manner, we shall avail ourselves of a vertical section of the strata 
in Derbyshire, selecting our materials from the valuable work of Mr. White- 
hurst, ' On the original State and Formation of the Earth.' 

" If the reader conceive the alluvial covering to be removed, the strata will 
at once appear on the upper surface, as in the external contour of the country 
between Grange Mill (s) and Darley Moor over number 1 and 2, in Derby- 
shire. Let now the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, &c, represent the strata in their 
vertical position, basseting towards (s), with the river Derwent running over 
a fissure filled with rubble in the centre. 

" Then the upper stratum, or No. 1., at Darley-Moor, is Milhtone Grit, a 
rough sandstone, 120 yards deep, composed of granulated quartz and quartz 
pebbles, without any trace of the animal or vegetable kingdoms. 

<: The next stratum, called No. 2., which descends to the Derwent, is a bed 
of Shale, or Shiver, 120 yards deep, being a black laminated clay, much in- 
durated, without either animal or vegetable impressions. It contains iron- 
stone in nodules, and the springs issuing from it are chalybeate, as that at 
Buxton Bridge, or that at Quarndon, and another near Matlock Bridge, to- 
wards Chatsworth. 

" Next in succession we have No. 3., Limestone, 50 yards thick, productive 
of lead ore, the ore of zinc, calamine, pyrites, spar, fluor, cauk, and chert. 
This stratum is full of marine debris, as anomince bivalves, not known to exist 
in the British seas ; also coralloids, entrochi or screw stones ; and amphibious 
animals of the saurian, lizard, or crocodile tribe; some of which in a fossil 
state are of enormous size. 

" Following this we have No. 4., a bed of Toadstone, 16 yards thick, but in 
some instances varying in depth from 6 feet to 600 feet. It is a blackish sub- 
stance, resembling lava, very hard, with bladder holes, like the scoria of metals 
or Iceland lava. This stratum is known by different names in different parts 
of Derbyshire. At Matlock and Winster it is toadstone and blackstone ; at 
Moneyash and Tidswell it is called channel; at Castleton, cat-dirt; and at 
Ashovcr, black-clay. This toadstone, channel, cat-dirt, and black-clay, is actually 
lava, and flowed originally from a volcano, whose funnel or shaft did not ap- 
proach the open air, but which disgorged its contents between the (adjacent) 
strata in all directions, at a period when the limestone strata and the in- 
cumbent beds of millstone-grit, shale, argillaceous stone, clay, and coal, had a 
uniform arrangement concentric to the centre of the earth. 

" Beneath all these we have No. 5., a Limestone formation, 50 yards thick, 
and similar to No. 3. ; that is to say, laminated, containing minerals and figured 



Jamieson's Mechanics of Fluids. 175 

stones. It is productive of marble; it abounds with entrochi and marine 
exuviae; it was thence at one time the bed of a primaeval ocean. 

" No. 6., is Toadstone, 40 yards deep, and similar to No. 4-., but yet more 
solid, showing that the fluid metal was more intensely heated and combined 
than No. 4-. 

" No. 7., Limestone, very white, 60 yards deep ; laminated like Nos. 3. and 5., 
and like them it contains minerals and figured stones, and was either a con- 
tinuation of Nos. 3. and 5., the entire mass having been split at different depths 
by the expansive power of the boiling lava. 

" No. 8. is Toadstone, 22 yards deep, similar to No. 6., but yet more solid. 

" No. 9. Limestone, resembling Nos. 3. o. and 7. 

" To this enumeration of the Derbyshire strata we must now add six other 
strata; too minute to be expressed in the same scale, but which are in fact 
the capillary strata, which we may liken to the glass plates referred to in 
Problem 71. Miners call these minute parallel strata, clays, or way-boards ; 
in general they are not more than four, five, or six feet thick, and in some in- 
stances not more than one foot. They are the channels for water, and all the 
springs flowing from them are warm, like those at Buxton and Matlock Bath. 
The first stratum of clay separates Nos. 3. and 4.; the second, Nos. 4. and 5. ; 
the third, Nos. 5. and 6. ; the fourth, Nos. 6. and 7. ; the fifth, Nos. 7. and 8. ; 
the sixth, Nos. 8. and 9. : and what is very remarkable, by these clays the 
thickness of the other strata may be ascertained, which would otherwise be 
difficult, as the limestone beds consist of various laminae. 

" In other districts in Britain, we find that the coal formations sometimes 
repeat, in precisely the same order, and in nearly the same thickness, the fol- 
lowing earths and minerals : sandstone, bituminous shale, slate clay, clay iron, 
stone, coal; or the coal is covered with slate, trap, or limestone, or rests 
upon these rocks. The strata generally follow every irregularity of the 
fundamental rock on which they rest; but in some instances their directions 
appear independent, both of the surface of the rock, and of the cavity or 
hollow in which they are contained, and in general take a waved outline, 
seldom rising greatly above the level of the sea. 

" We have now, however, merely represented the general arrangement of 
the strata ; not all the particular circumstances accompanying them, with 
respect to their several fractures, dislocations, &c. ; but it will enable us to 
reason upon the chemical effects of water upon limestone and gypsum rocks, 
where we meet with caverns, caves, and extensive fissures, that reach some- 
times to the surface, sometimes dip to a greater or less distance, and afford 
channels for great springs and subterranean rivers. These caves in the gypsum 
and chalk formations vary in magnitude from a few yards to many fathoms in 
extent, forming upon the surface of the ground, when their superincumbent 
roofs give way, those funnel-shaped hollows of such frequent occurrence in 
gypsum districts. The limestone strata, besides being * loaded with the 
exuviae of innumerable generations of organic beings,' says Dr. Buckland, 
' afford strong proofs of the lapse of long periods of time, wherein the animals 
from which they have been derived, lived, and multiplied and died, at the 
bottom of seas which once occupied the site of our present continents and 
islands.'* With how much reason then may we not suppose those form- 
ations to have held large beds of rock salt, which the percolation of water, in 
the lapse of ages, removed, and left the chambers empty, or the receptacles of 
meteoric water. The percolation of water through felspar rocks must of ne- 
cessity wash away the alkaline ingredient, which combining with iron will form 
hydrate, or by its decomposition oxidate the metallic substance. Hence result 
chalybeate, acidulous, sulphureous, and saline springs, all the result of ca- 
pillary attraction in the strata of the earth, and the disintegration by water of 
the various ingredients which the universal solvent holds in a state of fluidity. 

" Supposing these cavities, to which we have just referred, to have been 

" * Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise, 1st ed., vol. i. p. 112—116. 



176 Jamiesori's Mechanics of Fluids. 

freed from their original salt deposits, by water percolating the fissures leading 
to and from the masses of salt, we trace the operation of salt springs. For in 
all cases in which water holds any mineral in solution, it acts by combination, 
but where it simply destroys the mineral aggregation, the mineral falls into 
small pieces with an audible noise, as is observed in bole ; or it falls without 
noise into small pieces, which are soon diffused through the fluid, without 
either dissolving in it or becoming plastic, as in fuller's eart/i, and some 
minerals, as unctuous clay; it renders plastic other minerals, absorbs water in 
greater or less quantity, by which their transparency, and also their colour, 
are changed. 

" The toadstone, which intersects mineral veins, totally cuts off all commu- 
nication between the upper and lower fissures, and by the closeness of its 
texture permits not the water in the clay strata, or way-boards, to filtrate. 
Hence toadstone is said to be capable of turning water, as we have shown in 
the shaft and gallery o a g g. Sandstone strata, of an open porous texture, 
becomes a great feeder of water. Several of the sandstones are, however, 
impervious to water, and almost all the beds of light-coloured argillaceous 
schistus, or fine clays, are particularly so, being very close in their texture. 
But the percolation of water at the beds or partings of two strata is an oc- 
currence so general, that our wonder ceases when examining parts of the 
country where the strata basset or shoot to the surface in an acute angle, to 
find the alluvial covering in places swampy, marshy, and overrun with puddles, 
springs, and all that species of soil, which, being damp and cold, subjects its 
inhabitants to rheumatism, agues, and a train of diseases, unknown in regions 
that are not incumbent on the extremities of way-boards and capillary strata. 
The source or feeder of these subterranean capillaries receiving a constant 
supply, keeps up the train of human ills from one generation to another, while 
local interests or associations bind the natives to their hereditary doom. 

" Capillary attraction and cohesion, besides expounding the phenomena of 
fluid ascent in strata of earth, direct us in penetrating those troublesome 
quicksands and beds of mud, which in the winnings of collieries are met with 
in mining, and where cast-iron tubbing is employed to support the sand or 
mud-bed, and carry the water down to the bottom of the pit. 

" Water stands higher in narrow than in wide glass tubes, but quicksilver 
mounts higher if the inside of the tube be lined with bees-wax or tallow. We 
can easily conceive that the lateral action may yet cause the perpendicular 
ascent ; for it is a fundamental property in fluids, that any force impressed in 
one direction may be propagated equally in every other direction. Hence the 
affinity of the fluid to the internal surface producing the vertical ascent. A 
drop of water let fall on a clean plate of glass spreads over the whole surface, 
in as far as there is liquid to cover the glass, the remoter particles extending 
the film, yet adhering with the closest union. The adhesiveness of fluids is 
still more clearly shown in their projection through the pores of minerals, 
plants, animals, gravel, earth, and sand. Water rises through successive strata 
of gravel, coarse sand, fine sanJ, loam, and even clay: and hence, on the sea- 
coast, those quicksands, which have engulfed armies and ships, the pressure 
of the ocean at flood sending its advanced column up in the sand to a level 
with its surface a mile at sea. Gravel divided into spaces of the hundredth 
part of an inch, will allow water to ascend above 4 in.; it would mount up 
through a bed of 16 in. of this material, supposing sea gravel to be the 500th 
part of an inch. Fine sand, in which the interstices are the 2,500th part 
of an inch, allow the humidity to ascend 7 ft. through a new stratum ; and if 
the pores of the loam were only the 10,000th part of an inch, it would gain 
the further height of 25£ ft. through the soft mass. Hence originate marine 
sijrtcs. Clay would retain the moisture at a greater altitude; but the extreme 
subdivisions of the clay, which enable it to carry water to almost any ele- 
vation, yet make it the most efficient material in puddling or choking up the 
interstices of masonry. 

" The ascent of water in a glass tube is due chiefly, we think, to the excess 




Jamieson's Mechanics of Fluids. 177 

of the attractive power of the glass above the cohesive power of the fluid mass 
over itself. Were the attractive and cohesive forces equal, the fluid would re- 
main balanced at a common level. Mercury hence sinks, by reason of the 
strong cohesive power of its own particles. Hence we account for mercury 
closing over a ball of crude platinum, which, nevertheless, being gently laid on 
the mercury, will float, although its specific gravity is above that of mercury. 

" It is, however, the province of chemistry, rather than of mechanics, to 
measure the cohesive power possessed by different fluids, or by the same 
fluid under different degrees of temperature. 

" The suspension of water in any stratum through which it can percolate, 
must depend entirely upon the smallness of the upper orifice, or superficial extent 
of the deflection with which the stratum slopes off horizontally above ground 
and upon the relative elevation of the extremities of the impervious stratum. 
Thus, suppose a and b {Jig. 74.) to be two extremities of a stratum pervious 
to water ; the central column of water at c is pressed with the whole weight 
of the space b c, and this pressure upon c a 
pushes the fluid out at a by the excess of 
force in b c above that in c a ; and therefore, 
while the ground or land at b is generally 
dry, that at a is perhaps boggy ; at all events 
it will exhibit springs at its surface, be cold, 
damp, and its inhabitants subject to rheu- 
matism or agues. A column of water of 
this description may occupy a space of many 
miles extent between b and a ; and c may 
be many hundred feet deep below the horizontal level of a. In digging for 
water at d, we should find it at c. 

" The cohesion of the particles of water, and its extreme facility to obey 
any impression, fit it admirably for percolating through fissures of the earth, 
when in the tenderest filaments it is detached from the general fluid mass, and 
penetrates only by the laws of capillary attraction from one point to another 
in an extensive stratum cf clay, precisely as if it flowed through a pipe in 
passing from one hill to another. Hence the certainty with which we meet 
with water in boring to a proper depth in the earth, and hence also the origin 
of Artesian wells, which finely expound the varied phenomena of a retreating 
an J subsiding column towards the body of the fluid, as if an equal and op- 
posite pressure from the sides of a capillary tube had come into action. We 
may hence infer that, in strata pervious to water, the capillary ascension, how- 
ever much it may be accelerated or retarded by the parallel sides of the 
stratum and the material of which it is composed, is governed by these three 
principles which we have fully discussed, pressure from above, cohesion sub- 
sisting among the particles of the liquid, and attraction of the parallel sides of 
the stratum. Were this attraction equal to the antagonist cohesion, the fluid 
would remain at rest, balanced at a common level, till overcome by the weight 
of the contents in the longer branch of the fluid column forcing the contents 
of the shorter column out at the discharging orifice. All the springs which 
are below the London clay, at the depth of 150, 200, 250, or 300 feet, are fed 
by sources considerably elevated above the Hampstead level. With what 
ease then might the metropolis be provided in every street with fine spring 
water. 

" ' In the year 1791, the vicar of Northall (Mr. Archdeacon Eaton) agreed 
with Mr. White of Putney, to sink a well in the court adjoining to the vicarage. 

" ' The workmen first dug through a bed of solid blue cla>%60 ft. in depth ; 
under which was a stratum of rough porous stone, about a foot thick. 

" ' To this succeeded a second stratum of clay (differing a little from the 
former in colour), 29 ft. in depth ; then a stratum of fine grey sand, intermixed 
with extraneous fossils, as oyster shells, bivalves, Sec. 

" * This stratum continued for 23 ft., and was succeeded by another of clay 
of a red or ferruginous colour, less firm in its consistence than that which 

Vol. V. — No. 50. n 



175 Domestic Notices. 

occurred before, and intermixed now and then with gravel and stones of a 
considerable size. 

" ' After digging through this stratum for 51 ft. (at the depth of IG4- ft. 
from the surface), water was found, which, on the removal of the stone which 
lay immediately over the spring, burst up with such force, and in such abun- 
dance, that time was scarcely given for the signal to be drawn up. Within 
the first four hours of its discovery the water rose to the height of 80 ft. ; and 
in the next twenty-four hours about 40ft. more; after which it continued to 
rise gradually for the next fortnight, till it reached its present level, which is 
only 4 ft. from the surface of the earth, the depth of the water being now 
160 ft. 

" ' The inhabitants of Northall have (ree access to this well.' 

" ' At Munday's brewery, Chelsea, a well was dug, in the year 1793, to the 
depth of 394 ft., within 20 or 30 feet of the edge of the river, mostly through 
a blue clay or marl. 

" ' At the depth of about 50 ft., a quantity of loose coal, about 12 in. in 
thickness, was discovered ; and a little stratified sand and gravel was found 
about the same depth. The well-digger usually bored about 10, 15, or 20 feet 
at a time lower than his work, as he went on ; and on the last boring when the 
rod was about 15 ft. below the bottom of the well, the man felt at the first 
signal of water a rolling motion, something like the gentle motion of a coach 
passing over a pavement; and upon this he continued to bore; the water 
presently pushed its way by the side of the auger with great force, scarcely 
allowing him time to withdraw the borer, put that and his own tools into the 
bucket, and be drawn up to the top of the well. The water soon rose to the 
height of 200 feet.' (Middletons Middlesex.) 

" ' On the west of a small brook which runs by Kilburn and Bayswater, in 
the parish of Paddington, where the soil is deep clay, the springs lie very far 
beneath the surface. On the sinking of a well here some few years ago, by 
Mr. Colson, the workmen dug nearly 300 ft. before they found water. In 
sinking this well, the workmen dug through a bed of bluish clay to the depth 
of about 100 ft., when after passing a thin stratum of stone, they came to 
another bed of clay of the same quality and colour, through which they dug 
•without further interruption till water was found, at a depth of about 300 ft. 
from the surface. In digging another well in the same neighbourhood, water 
was found at the depth of 250 ft., which rose with great rapidity till it came 
■within 70 ft. of the surface , after which it continued to rise very gradually a 
few feet higher, at which height it stopped.'" (p. 4G3.) 



MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

Art. I. Domestic Notices. 

ENGLAND. 

House-Paixtixg. — A very simple method has lately been adopted to render 
the surface of paint perfectly smooth, and eradicate the brush marks. It is 
done by a small roller covered with cloth or felt, 8 in. long and 2 in. in diame- 
ter, worked in an iron frame on pivots, similar to the common garden-roller. 
The flatting coat by this method is made beautifully even, and looks ex- 
ceedingly well. (Athenteum, Nov. 4. 1837.) 

Two Medals for the Encouragement ofCml Architecture. — A gift for this of 
500/. has been made to the Society of Arts, by a lady whose name has not 
transpired. (Morning Chronicle, Nov. 15.) 

Formation of a School of Design in. Manchester. — A short time ago, a number 
of gentlemen of this town, sensible of the importance of a school of design in 
this great emporium of art and manufactures, assembled and formed a pro- 
visional committee for the purpose of taking the steps necessary to originate 



Domestic Notices : — England. 179 



B 



such an institution. At first it was contemplated that it should be a branch 
of the recently founded school of design jn the metropolis ; but much dis- 
appointment was experienced on finding that there the mechanics were de- 
barred from an equal share in the privileges and studies of the school, and it 
was ultimately determined that the Manchester School of Design should be 
a wholly separate and independent institution. At a general meeting of gen- 
tlemen favourable to the establishment of a school of design in Manchester, 
convened by the provisional committee, an animated debate took place. 
James Heywood, Esq., chairman of the provisional committee, presided, and 
opened the proceedings. In the course of an excellent speech, he stated that 
from time to time many efforts had been made by individuals to improve the 
fine arts in Manchester by their own exertions, and he thought great praise 
was due to those persons ; but very little had hitherto been done by any 
public body, for the improvement of the arts of design. The Mechanics' In- 
stitution hail come forward more directly than any other body, having formed 
classes in several departments of design ; as mechanical, architectural, flower, 
figure, and landscape drawing ; and in 1835 the class for mechanical and archi- 
tectural drawing had an average attendance of 33 pupils ; and that for land- 
scape, flower, and figures, of 64 pupils. He hoped these classes would continue 
to prosper ; but what was now wished to be effected was, the formation of a 
society having for its sole and peculiar object to improve the arts of design, 
an object sufficient to occupy the whole time and attention of a society with 
reference to the improvement of those manufactures in which design is re- 
quired ; and also in the education of persons to direct the mechanical powers 
of this^great community. Elsewhere such objects were thought of great im- 
portance. Lyons, which rivalled Manchester in many respects, and exceeded 
it in the taste of its inhabitants in design, had regular schools of design, in 
which particular attention was paid to the departments of flower and orna- 
mental drawing. When at Lyons some years ago, he had obtained an account 
of the subjects proposed for prizes in an exhibition, where prizes to the 
amount of 20/. or 30/. were given for drawings and paintings. Those subjects 
were: — coloured drawing, including ornaments, figures, and flowers, in the 
same composition ; groups of coloured flowers ; selections of plants, drawn 
after nature, slightly shaded, of the natural size; the plants separated, so as 
to exhibit the principal details of flower and foliage under different points of 
view, not as botany would require them to be exhibited, but as they would be 
considered most beautiful in art. 

Mr. T. W. Winstanley read the following report of the provisional com- 
mittee: — 

" The diffusion of knowledge, in whatever department of science it takes 
place, is a subject of great interest to every lover of public improvement ; 
and the formation of a school of design, in the town of Manchester must 
tend to its commercial, as well as classical, prosperit}-, and must also prove 
beneficial to the inhabitants of the surrounding towns. 

" Manchester, as the great emporium of human industry and production, 
creates within herself a considerable demand for the decorative and ornamen- 
tal departments of design, in the operations of calico printing, fancy weaving, 
and embroidering. Individuals employed in these branches of art require an 
institution for the improvement of taste, and for the encouragement of har- 
monious conceptions of beauty in form. Such an institution is equally requi- 
site for students in civil engineering, to whom precision of design, and the 
skilful use of instruments, in surveying, planning, &c, are essentially necessary 
in their professional pursuits. 

" It has been well remarked, by the Baron Charles Dupin, in his advice to 
manufacturers, and to the foremen of workshops, that the only efficient means 
to encounter competition is to manufacture goods really better than all our 
competitors. 

" Superiority in manufacture depends, in a great measure, on the fortunate 
exercise of taste, economv, industrv, and invention. The establishment of a 

N 2 



ISO Domestic Notices : — England, 



o 



school of design, in Manchester, is recommended, in order to enhance the 
value of the manufactures of this district, to improve the taste of the rising 
generation; to infuse into the public mind a desire for symmetry of form, and 
elegance of design ; and to educate, for the public service, a highly intelligent 
class of artists and civil engineers. 

" Impressed with these views of affording encouragement to the cultivation 
of the arts of design in Manchester, the present meeting has been called, in 
the confident expectation, that a society will now be formed for that object, 
and that the patronage of this influential and wealthy community will not be 
wanting to the successful execution of a plan which promises so much advan- 
tage, both to individuals and to the public." 

Mr. J. W. Frazer, in proposing the first resolution, expressed his belief, that 
not only here, but in other parts of the country, art had for some time made 
no progress, and that the works of art produced a century ago in England 
were of a higher grade than those of the present day. Why was this ? Be- 
cause we were more in the habit of copying than inventing. — (Hear, and 
applause.) Sir Joshua Reynolds had said, that the more conversant we were 
with the works and compositions of others, the more original would be our 
own ideas; and that it was only by seeing so little of others, we did so little 
ourselves. Again, we were fond of any thing by which we could escape that 
labour of thought — invention ; as, for instance, getting hold of one pattern, 
endless changes were rung upon it ; and, out of the thousands of patterns en- 
graved in Manchester for calico-printers, or produced in the loom, there were 
very few original ideas to be found ; for the moment one was started, others 
caught it up. It should be borne in mind, that the object of this institution 
would not be to draw patterns, but to qualify persons for inventing them. To 
give them the power of developing their ideas in drawing, care must be taken as 
to the mode of instruction. Mr. Fairbairn had told him that young men in his 
workshop, who could draw very well with line and compass, could not sketch, 
could not develope an idea. The instruction to mechanics must be of a kind to 
enable them to sketch with facility, and so to develope their own ideas, or to 
catch and carry off others when committed to them. Mr. Frazer dwelt on the 
importance of a study of the human figure, as giving power, and an appreci- 
ation of beauty of form, to every branch of design. It was desirable, that this 
school should be upon an economical principle, and within the reach of almost 
every one. It was thought unadvisable to make the admission so expensive 
as that at the school of design in London ; and, though nothing had been 
adopted, 5s. a quarter, or 1/. a year had been proposed. 

Mr. Richard Birley, in moving the fourth resolution, was disposed to ques- 
tion the propriety of having the admission very low ; for it was of more im- 
portance, in his opinion, to secure the very best masters, and then they 
would easily get students to pay more. He knew a case of a young man, who, 
because he could not get sufficiently instructed at the Mechanics' Institution, 
had private masters, at a cost which he could not well afford, that he might 
secure for himself the best instruction. If the admission were low, then a 
large subscription c«f members would be required, in order to have the best 
masters. 

Mr. Louis Schawbe,in moving the fifth resolution, said that he had recently 
been engaged in fancy weaving, and he believed he had produced as good 
work, in his particular branch, as any house in England. He was the more 
friendly to this institution, and the more ready to support it, as he must con- 
fess that, were it not for the little instruction he had received in the art of 
drawing, he should never have been able to attain to that eminence in his ma- 
nufacture. He hoped the admission would be as low as possible. The town 
in Germany in which he had been educated was a small one, containing not 
more than 8000 or 9000 inhabitants; and, though it had no school of design, 
it had a general school, in which drawing formed a part of the institution ; and 
at this school all attended, whatever their profession or trade. The admis- 
sion was very low ; and, the master's salary being defrayed by government, the 



Domestic Notices : — Scotland. 181 

payments of the pupils were applied to prodding things in the school for their 
use. It might be amusing to hear the price paid by the scholars. He had 
two lessons weekly in drawing, for which he paid \0d. a month; and he had 
some extra lessons from the master, who was considered a very clever man ; 
and for four extra lessons weekly, he paid 6s. a month. He hoped that the 
masters in this school of design would be paid by government, so that the ad- 
mission might be a low one ; as the importance of a knowledge of drawing to 
every one engaged in manufactures was so very great, that he had no doubt 
the country would be repaid, by the beauty and value of our future manufac- 
tures. He had no doubt, that the study of the figure would be very important ; 
at the school at which he had been educated, it was left to the choice of the 
pupils ; and, though not insensible to the advantages of figure drawing, he 
hoped the choice of studies would be left in the hands of the pupils 
themselves. 

Mr. Joseph Adshead, in seconding the resolution, said that great praise was 
due to Mr. Hance and Mr. G. Jackson, for their indefatigable exertions in 
calling public attention to this subject. He thought the cheaper the institu- 
tion offered, the more likely it would be to be generally diffused. He had no 
doubt, that, in a few years, the institution would be second in utility to none 
in the town. 

It was also observed, that when a new design for weaving was wanted, it 
was generally obtained from a French silk, or from some German weavers 
settled in England; and it was proposed that a memorial should be signed 
praying government to assist the institution with casts from the British 
Museum. 

Mr. Bostock moved the ninth resolution, " That classes for the instruction 
of females in the fine arts be established, under suitable teachers; " and said 
he thought this an extremely desirable object, especially in connexion with 
manufactures ; as females of fine taste, and well instructed in art, might be 
employed in producing various elegant and beautiful designs, highly acceptable 
to calico-printers and to manufacturers. (Manchester Guardian, Feb. 21. 
1838.) 

SCOTLAND. 

Edinburgh. — Effects of the Lightning on the Melville Monument, struck on 
the Hth of July, 1837. (See Vol. I. p. 200.) — The following particulars are 
curious: — The door which leads to the outer plinth at the top of the 
monument, immediately below the statue, fell to the bottom the instant the 
monument was struck ; but, upon being inspected about threequarters of an 
hour afterwards, there did not appear any of the usual effects of the electric 
fluid upon the ironwork or otherwise. The key of the door below, which leads 
to the top of the monument, was obtained, and upon entering it no appearance 
of damage could be discovered. On reaching the top of the stair, how ever, it 
was found that the stones which form the apex of the central part of the 
monument, upon which the stair rests, and whLh are perforated from the 
cupola to the bottom, on purpose to admit the conductor, were dislodged. 
The conductor was a chain, part of which was discovered still hanging at the 
top of the cupola, immediately underneath the statue. The rest of the chain 
was not to be seen, but upon descending to the bottom, and looking underneath 
the centre, upon which the stair is fixed, the chain was found in a heap, quite 
hot, and having a white calcined appearance. It would appear, therefore, that 
the door had not been struck by the lightning, but had been forced out by the 
concussion, arising from the aperture, which leads down through the centre 
of the stair from the top of the monument, being too small to admit the shock ; 
which circumstance causing a momentary interruption, had had the effect of 
dislodging the stones at that place for a couple of yards, wresting the door 
from the hinges, and breaking the chain. From all these circumstances it 
would appear that the conductor saved the monument. (Caledonian Mercury.) 

N 3 



182 M. Bernhardfs Reply to Dr. Ure's Report 



Art. II. Reply of M. F. A. Bernhardt, Architect, to the official Re- 
port of Dr. Ure, F.R.S., on his new System of IV arming and Ventilat- 
ing, published in the " Architectural Magazine " for January, 1838. 

In replying to the attack made by Dr. Ure in the Architectural Magazine 
of January (p. 31.), upon my new system of warming and ventilating, and 
myself, I can only be sorry that a gentleman of his high standing and medical 
reputation should have so far forgot himself as to use language which, I am 
sure, none of the readers of the Architectural Magazine will have approved of, 
and which Dr. Ure himself, on reflection, must find blameable and unjust. 
Far be it from me to impute any bad motive to Dr. Ure's late publication of 
his report to the Hon. Board of Customs ; and, taking it only in a scientific 
point of view, I will as briefly as possible confine myself to the exposition of 
its fallacies ; and, against any future attack, simply refer to my actions, and the 
various works I have executed. 

In the publication of his report, Dr. Ure acted very unfairly not to inform 
the readers of the Architectural Magazine of the time when he examined Lord 
King's house ; for, though the said report is dated November 23. 1837, the ex- 
amination took place as early as July ; and every architect and scientific man 
will allow that neither that month, nor when the walls of a new house have 
just been covered with plaster, is the fit time for judging of the effects of a 
warming apparatus, except its effects of drying. The air-flues, &c, necessary 
in my system of warming and ventilating, were finished in Lord Kind's house 
on the same day on which the last coat of plaster was put on the walls of the 
servants' hall (basement story) ; and on the same day (July 15.), likewise, the 
fires in my apparatuses were lighted for the first time. Lord King wishing 
to move into his mansion at the beginning of September, and there being still 
much to be done by Mr. Cubitt, the builder, I was obliged to satisfy both, and 
to dry the house in as short a time as possible. I therefore ordered the fires 
to be forced (for I did every thing in my power to oblige His Lordship, whose 
house, but for my regulations, would not have been dry and inhabitable, 
perhaps, for six months to come), and requested Mr. Cubitt to withdraw his 
workmen from the house ; assuring him that they would risk their lives if they 
dared to work in the same whilst the overheated air, charged with moisture 
and the lime vapours extracted from the walls and plaster, was in circulation. 
The temperature of the atmosphere at that time was 72°; and, therefore, no 
wonder, when, in consequence of the large fires which were kept up day and 
night, the air in the apartments was raised as high as 95°. It would not other- 
wise have been possible perfectly to dry Lord King's house in three weeks, a 
thing without parallel ; ami I challenge Dr. Ure to point out to me any other 
system of warming and ventilating capable of producing the same effect in the 
time specified. Many of the leading architects, doctors of medicine, and other 
scientific men, passed the highest eulogium on my plan as exhibited at the 
said mansion; and a nobleman of Scotland, happening to be present on such 
an occasion, took me with him to Scotland in order to apply it to his resi- 
dence, where Mr. Silvester's regulations had totally failed. Returning to 
town, I heard of Dr. Ure's examination of my plan, which had taken place 
during my absence ; and that he had spoken very unfavourably of it. The 
workmen who told me this, not having, previously to Dr. Ure's visit, heard any- 
thing but what was favourable, and that, too, from really competent men, were 
rather amused by his exposition. Among other things, they told me he had 
put his thermometer into the smoke-pipe! He himself says, in his report, that, 
having put solder into the lower pipes ( which, as I learn, remained there all the 
iri^lii;, tlie fires in the same being always up), he found it not only melted, but 
oxidised. Dr. Ure wonders at this, though it is quite natural; for, not only 
solder, but even metal, will melt in my fires, and for very obvious reasons. It 
dees, however, not follow that the air outside must be bad because the fire 



on his System of Warming and Ventilating. 183 

inside bums so well, except when the latter is expressly kept up for drying; in 
which case even, the air is better than that of any other apparatus, on account 
of the incessant circulation and continual supply of fresh air. Every gentle- 
man will certainly agree with me that, before publishing such an important 
document as the report in question, Dr. Ure should have as minutely as pos- 
sible enquired into the subject ; which he, however, omitted. He saw my 
apparatus, in the first instance, when heated to the highest possible pitch ; from 
which point his judgment emanates. He saw my regulations, in the second 
place, w hen no fires at all were lighted ; when he would, however, by paying any- 
thing like attention to the subject, have perceived that, notwithstanding the 
icy coldness of the stoves, the ventilation iuas going on as well as ever. He, in 
the third place, declined an examination of my system in my presence, at svhich 
I would have given every explanation required, by pleading " want of time." 
Did Dr. Ure, after this, act nobly towards a foreigner, who never interferes 
willingly with any one, and least of all with medical science, and who almost 
shrinks from defending himself? If my svstem of warminc and ventilating strikes 
at the root of every other, can I help it when I interfere with the interests of 
many, against my will ? At p. 34. of the Architectural ^Magazine, Dr. Ure 
says, that " in one of the stoves there were 16 pipes," whilst there are only 12, 
and the other three apparatuses are much smaller. Ts\o of the fireplaces 
are each 18 in. long, 8 in. wide, and 8 in. high. Can in such little space much 
fuel be consumed ? Had Dr. Ure postponed his examination till Januarv last, 
he would have found that the apparatuses are not a foot too large ; that the 
air is most delightful, and that it can be regulated at pleasure ; and Lord Kind's 
house is, moreover, not so small as represented : it contains more than 200,000 
cubic feet of air. Dr. Ure evidently shows, by his writings and the said report, 
that he has never practically had anything to do with warming and ven- 
tilating; his theoretical opinions must therefore, through that very want of 
practice, be erroneous. (If he has ever warmed and ventilated any building, 
I must beg his pardon for being ignorant of it.) Without practical knowledge 
of warming and ventilating, no one can be surprised when he, in his own 
words, " acknowledges himself incapable of discovering either the novelty or 
the worth of my scheme," having seen so many similar ones on paper. For 
more than twenty years, I have made the science of warming and ventilating 
my exclusive study, and, through my persevering exertions and unremitting 
labours, have been crowned with the most happy and wished for results ; yet 
have I never flattered myself with the hope of quickly establishing the truth 
and infallibility of my plans, because I know how difficult it is to introduce 
am thing new. I hold it wrong imself rashly to adopt, but more so rashly 
to condemn, a new doctrine ; but, first to examine it carefully, shows much 
prudence; and to support it when found worthy, is evidence of genius and 
a truly great mind ; and I am happy to say that I have met with many of the 
latter." 

Dr. Lre says that I am but very slenderly acquainted with the principles of 
warming and ventilating ; to which I cannot better reply, than bv referring to 
the various works I have executed. If Dr. Ure had any practical knowledge 
of warming and ventilating apartments, he would have known beforehand 
what effects would be produced by the stove he put up in his bed-room, and 
which might have caused his premature death. I am sure, many of the readers 
of the present paper would have told him the consequences if he had consulted 
them beforehand. Can it be healthy where there is no ventilation ? and is 
there any kind of stove to be put in a room that produces effective ventilation ? 

With regard to the accumulation of soot in my apparatuses, Dr. Ure, as in 
all his statements, is equally wrong ; for it is not necessary to clean the ap- 
paratuses in Lord King's house more than twice or thrice a year; and, if my 
apparatuses, according to circumstances, need cleaning oftener than the chim- 
neys at present in use, it is much more easily done, in the basement story 
only, and without the necessity of climbing boys. The soot which is thus 
deposited in, and so easily removed from, my apparatuses, would otherwise 

N i 



1 8 M. Bernhardt' s Reply to Dr. lire's Report 

impregnate the atmosphere; and, consequently, an additional advantage is 
derived. Were my plan generally adopted, thousands of fires would be un- 
necessary, danger of fire so many thousand times diminished, and the atmo- 
sphere, now so injurious, and productive of consumptions, would be rendered 
clear and healthy. 

Security against fire is one of the chief recommendations of my plan ; and I 
beg to observe that many of the buildings which have recently been destroyed 
by fire would not have become a prey to the flames if they had been provided 
with my plan of warming, ventilating, and lighting. I can adduce an instance 
where it has been tried to set fire to a house with my stove, adapted to single 
or several rooms; but, though the wooden handle of the door, 4 in. distant 
from the iron, was totally burned, and the back of the stove cracked, yet it was 
found impossible. Any gentleman who has the opportunity of examining my 
regulations in Lord King's house will find my assertion borne out, and that 
with mv plan no fires can happen. As to the expense of the flues in Lord 
King's house, I must observe that I usually order them to be made of brick, 
which is ten times cheaper than the use of slates. Lord King, however, who 
is well acquainted with architecture, knew beforehand that the slates were 
more expensive than bricks, and adopted Mr. Cubitt's suggestion to use the 
former, on account of their not taking up so much room. 

To speak of the inevitable failures, immense expense, danger, trouble, and 
waste of fuel, of the warm-water and steam apparatuses, which Dr. Ure finds 
so highly commendable, is quite unnecessary, the subject is too well known 
to require any further exposition. 

The, as it were, living witnesses which I am going to point out to the 
readers of the Architectural Magazine, will fully prove, though my plans may 
be apparently similar to others, its entire novelty and never failing efficacy ; 
and will render it superfluous to analyse further Dr. Ure's hasty report. I can 
only add, that I regret very much not having been honoured with the 
examination of my regulations by the members of the Hon. Board of 
Customs, who, I am sure, would have been fully satisfied with my plan, as well 
as the many who have adopted it ; and I am proud to say that, in recom- 
mending my system, I have invariably referred to works of mine already in 
existence. Had these works been wanting, I should not have received the 
certificates annexed. 

In concluding this very unpleasant duty of defending myself, I hope that 
every impartial gentleman will see how unjust and ungentlemanly are the 
observations of Dr. Ure at the end of his letter. 

I beg finally to refer all friends of science to the following particulars of 
what I have done in warming and ventilating, and of which I shall speak more 
amply in a pamphlet now preparing for that purpose ; hoping that, after care- 
ful examination, they will lend their assistance in the diffusion of a most 
beneficial discovery. 

92. York Road, Lambeth, Feb., 1838. F. A. Bernhardt. 

P. S. As to what passed between Dr. Ure and the friend who introduced 
me to him, I am ignorant of it ; but, if the gentleman (Thomas Griffin, Esq., 
of Cheltenham) advised him not to publish an unfavourable report on my 
system of wanning and ventilating, it could only be well meant, and given in a 
friendly spirit, 

Description of Buildings warmed and ventilated by my Plan, and a few Circum- 
stances connected with the same, 

From an advertisement which appeared in the newspapers in the autumn of 
1836, I received a letter from Lady Webster, at Battle Abbey, near Hastings, 
with an invitation to come down, in order to examine several apartments of 
the Abbey, and to warm and ventilate them according to my plan. On in- 
spection, my attention was particularly directed to an arched room, 58 ft, long 



on his System of Warming and Ventilating. 185 

and 21 ft. wide, which, according to the report of Lady Webster's builder, an 
elderly gentleman, and other persons acquainted with the place, had always 
been so wet and damp as to render it uninhabitable, and only fit for the ex- 
hibition of antiquities, &c. ; and, to judge from its appearance, I should say 
that it had been in that state ever since it was built, about 800 years ago. 
The said room had, in the year before (1835), been newly painted ; the paint 
was, however, soon, by the water penetrating through the walls, changed into a 
mass of bladders, which, bursting, let the water out. The first question which 
Lady Webster addressed to me was, whether I thought myself capable of 
drying this room; assuring me that several attempts had been made for this 
purpose, but all in vain. When, in presence of the builder, I replied that I 
would undertake it, and that I would guarantee to dry the apartment in a very 
short time. He said quite candidly he did not believe it, for it was impossible 
to dry a building, the foundation of which was so swampy. Lady Webster, 
however, observing that she had already read in the public journals of what I 
had done in the Royal Palaces of Berlin, ordered, on my assurance not to 
demand payment if I failed, an apparatus to be put up. The apparatus having 
been erected, and the fire lighted, the water, in a few hours, poured down the 
walls and arches in such quantities, that it was taken out by pailfuls. Lady 
Webster was afraid this would continue, as the builder maintained that the 
water proceeded from the foundation. Being, however, assured by me that it 
would last only a few days, she was satisfied, and I returned. A couple of 
days after this, I had the pleasure of receiving the following letter from Lady 
Webster : — 

" M. Bernhardt, 

" The arched room, I am glad to say, is perfectly dry, and the two rooms 
above sufficiently warm. ,You have there accomplished what you undertook 
to do, and I am quite satisfied. Yours, &a, 

" Battle Abbey, February 28. 1837. C. Webster." 

At the recommendation of an architect of the first rank, I substituted for 
an ineffective steam apparatus one of my stoves in the library of Sir George 
Smart, for the purpose of drying his valuable musical books, which by the former 
plan had become damp ; as also to warm the room pleasantly, and which 
could not be obtained by the old plan. The usual success attended my opera- 
tions; and I may be allowed to ask if a system of warming and ventilating 
can be unwholesome and bad, if such results are obtained ; and when by it 
a healthy, pleasant, and ever-changing air is introduced into the room ? 

The same nuisance as above, dampness and nauseous smell, I have re- 
moved in other places ; but, having given two instances, I do not think it 
necessary to enumerate more. 

At the house of Mr. A. Black, No. 8. Xew Wellington Street North, my 
plan has been in operation for more than two years, to the perfect satisfaction 
of Mr. Black, who wishes no other fires in its stead. I may here be allowed 
to refute Dr. Ure's charge, that my apparatuses consume more fuel than 
any other at present known. Ah*. Black has in his large kitchen an apparatus 
upon which meals of all kinds can be prepared, with which the warm water ne- 
cessary for the wants of the family is supplied, and with which the kitchen, the 
shop, the warehouse, the drawingroom, and two bedrooms are wanned and 
ventilated, and all this at the expense of one shilling per day. Is there any 
cheaper plan ? In the smaller kitchen of Mr. Black's house, one of my 
patent stoves, with an open fire, is put up, and used for the following purposes ; 
namely, the roasting of meat, and the warming of the kitchen, the passage, 
and staircase from the bottom to the top of the house, the back drawingroom, 
and two rooms above it. The whole of Mr. Black's house is thus, with the 
exception of two small rooms, in which there ase common fire-grates, 
thoroughly warmed and ventilated by these two apparatuses. 

Dr. Ure will find these stoves with open fires quite different from the one 



186 M. Bernhardt' s Reply to Dr. Urc's Report 

he put up in his room, and which acted so very injuriously on his health. 
They, for instance, never smoke, simply because they are constructed on uner- 
ring scientific principles. 

The house of Mr. P. J. Meyer, Laurel Lodge, Hammersmith, has been 
provided with my warming appararus ; and, besides its efficiency for kitchen 
purposes, it warms the two passages, two staircases, two drawing anil two bed- 
rooms. It has been in operation these two years, and is now in as active 
operation as ever, to the entire satisfaction of Mr. Meyer, who, as well as 
Mr. Black, will be glad to show my regulations to any gentleman who will 
let him know his intention to inspect the same. 

Slaving warmed and ventilated the private residence of Mr. Currie, the 
eminent banker, I had the pleasure to receive the following letter from 

Mr. Barry : — 

" Foley Place, Wednesday Morning. 

" Sir, I am happy to inform you that Mr. Currie is satisfied that nothing 
can answer better than the means you have applied for warming his house 
at East Horsley. Yours faithfully, 

" Charles Barry." 

About three years ago, my system of warming and ventilating was ex- 
amined by some of the first architects of this country ; and I was honoured 
with the inspection of my plan by several noblemen, and some of Her 
Majesty's ministers, who all highly approved of it. The architect, Mr. Hiort, 
who had dedicated many years' study to the subject of warming and ventilat- 
ing, and the draught of smoke, was very much pleased with the regulations I 
had adopted in my house; and, in a lecture delivered in the Institute of British 
Architects, acknowledged his satisfaction with my plan. I had at that time 
the pleasure of receiving several orders from the leading architects, which I 
value VC17 highly, inasmuch as it will be evident to every one that practical 
architects are more capable of judging of the merits of any plan, than a person 
who has collected his knowledge from books only. When, last year, I was 
enabled to show my system on a larger scale in Lord King's house, I bad 
again the pleasure of seeing there many architects, and other scientific gentle- 
men, who all, as before mentioned, expressed their entire satisfaction with if. My 
regulations having also gained to me the confidence of Mr. Charles Barry, 
I had the pleasure of seeing myself honoured, at his recommendation, through 
Sir Benjamin Stephenson, with the'order to apply my system of warming and 
ventilating to the new committee-rooms of the late Speaker's house. 

The perfection, or imperfection, of any system can be determined and 
judged of by feeling or sensation only; and a minute description of my plan, 
as applied to the Speaker's house, is therefore unnecessary. But I beg to invite 
the readers of this Magazine to its inspection, in order to judge by their 
feelings of its efficacy. Whoever has seen the cloister before, will know how 
cold and damp it was; whereas he will at present, though my regulations are 
not totally finished, and the doors and windows are left open, find it dry, 
sufficiently warm, and habitable in all parts ; and, like the many who daily sit 
and walk in its passages, not refuse his share of approbation. 

Those who have formerly been in the late Speaker's dining-room will 
know that a very unpleasant smell was constantly diffused in it last year. In 
order to get rid of this nauseous smell, an immense fire was kept up day and 
night, but to no purpose; at present the room is dry, warm, and filled with 
pure air. When asked by Sir Benjamin Stephenson whether I could do away 
with the said bad smell, L assured him that I could, and that, in case of failure, 
I would claim no payment for my regulations. If I was not sure of the 
efficacy of my plan, would I undertake guarantees like this? 

In tiie Speaker's house, every one may convince himself that my regulations 

for warming and ventilating are without danger of fire; that it is even im- 

ible to set fire to a building by the same, if it were attempted. As a proof 

of the truth of this assertion, it will be found, in the committee-room No. IS., 



on his System of Wanning and Ventilating. 187 

that the ventilators, quite near to the hot pipes by which the air is warmed, 
are fixed in wooden frames. In order to dry the committee-rooms Nos. 11. 
and 12. quickly, the fire in the stove was, like that in Lord King's house, and 
witheut any further security against destruction, kept up to the highest pos- 
sible pitch day and night; so that the temperature of the air was raised to 
112° and more, and the walls of the rooms became pretty much heated. 

1 he air which passed through the wooden frame was above 1 70° ; notwith- 
standing which, not the least appearance of inflammability was observable, 
and it remained unmoved in its place. The only disadvantage which arose 
to me from this forced drying was, that the upper part of the stove, cast iron, 

2 in. thick, was cracked, and that a new stove had to be supplied. The same 
case happened with a second stove, for the same reasons. This second stove 
warms the five rooms above the crypt (or late Speaker's dining-room) and 
passage, containing about 55,000 cubic feet of air; a mass of about 1,500,000 
cubic feet of air is therefore warmed in twenty-four hours by one of my 
apparatuses, and passes through the rooms day and night, constantly renewing 
the atmosphere in the same. That such a change of air must exercise a 
wholesome influence on the health of the gentlemen who assemble in the said 
rooms, will be obvious. The said mass of air requires, during twelve hours, 
Iff bushels of coals in the coldest winter time, to be warmed in such a manner 
as to keep the temperature constantly up to 65°. 

The temperature of the air in the committee-rooms can be regulated and 
kept up at pleasure; and, for the information of the honourable members of 
parliament, notices have been put up on the doors of the said, rooms, by 
which they are desired to order any temperature between 48° and £5° which 
they like best. This will prove to Dr. Ure that there must be a good venti- 
lation ; and I ask him to show any building, warmed by steam or hot water, 
in which there is the same command over the temperature; or in which it is 
in the power of the fire-keeper to produce and keep up the desired temper- 
ature without creating a perceptible draught, as is done in the committee- 
rooms. Would such a ventilation be possible if there were no change of air, 
and if the foul air remained at the bottom iike filth and mud in water ? I 
beg every one, who would convince himself of what I have said here, to go to 
the late Speaker's house, and visit a committee- room with an open fire when 
crowded; then to visit one of the rooms warmed and ventilated on my plan; 
and to make a comparison. If the trouble were taken to put an equal number 
of persons in two rooms containing equal masses of air, I am convinced that 
every impartial man would acknowledge my ventilation to be more perfect 
than any other. For this purpose, I would propose one of the dining-rooms 
ventilated on my plan ; for the ventilation of the other rooms is partly 
unfinished, and partly disordered by the alteration of several of the rooms. 
Thus, for instance, one room has been made use of as a smoking-room for 
the honourable members ; and it will be obvious that a ventilation adapted to 
a room for about thirty or forty persons cannot possibly answer the purpose 
of leading ofFthe smoke, as it is necessary : carbonic acid gas and smoke are 
two totally different matters. It would therefore be wrong to judge of my 
ventilation, destined to supply for respiration the purer and consequently 
lighter air (in this respect, very near the property of smoke) from above, so 
that nothing but pure, light, and pleasant air is breathed, and passes to the 
lungs, by producing smoke in a room ventilated according to my system for 
respiration only, either by tobacco, gunpowder, or any other substance. 
Every one will agree with me, that a room, to be used as a smoking-room 
requires a totally different ventilation from all those at present known. By 
means of my discoveries, I am enabled to satisfy every wish with regard to 
ventilation, and, consequently, also to ventilate a smoking-room in a perfect 
manner. The following, however, shows at the same time how strictly my 
directions must be executed, if a perfect ventilation is to be obtained; as, also, 
that there must be some theory, of which Dr. Ure thinks me so devoid, to 
give such positive, infallible, and experimental directions for ventilation. 



188 M. Bernhardt y s System of Warming and Ventilating. 

The openings of the air-fines to one of the lamps in the dining-room were, 
against my order, instead of being to east and west, made to north and south ; 
most likely with the belief that it was quite the same to have the openings the 
one way as the other : the consequence, however, was, that the lamp was blown 
out in this one flue, and not in the three others in the same room, which were 
made according to my directions. After the reversion of the openings of the 
said flue, it acted as well as the others. 

The many experiments, for years and years, have shown, how difficult it is, 
without the knowledge of the true laws of nature, to effect an agreeable 
ventilation, and to know that the least alteration in a building, or its neigh- 
bourhood, can render faulty the best ventilation. Of all this Dr. Ure is 
innocent, else he would not have judged and condemned my ventilation so 
hastily. 

The warming and ventilating of M. Scheibler's large silk manufactory 
and residence at Crefeld, on the Rhine, T reckon amongst the most important 
of my works : the system has been there in operation for more than four 
years, to the satisfaction of all inmates. Mr. A. Black of New Wellington 
Street, as well as M. T. A. Wortmann of 9. Cirencester Place, Portland 
Road, who are familiarly acquainted with it, will confirm my statement if 
applied to. 

The invariable success which, for the last ten years, attended my ope- 
rations, procured, me among a number of others, the following certificates: — 

From His Majesty the King of Prussia. 

" By His Majesty's command, this testimonial is given to the architect, M. 
F. A. Bernhardt, that he has remedied the inconvenience of smoky chimneys 
in the Royal Palace, as well as in private houses, although all former attempts 
to do so have proved ineffectual. 

" (Signed) V. Schuciimann, 

" Berlin, April 22. 1831. Minister for Commercial Affairs." 

From the first Architect in Germany. 

"M.Bernhardt has, by his process, removed the inconvenience of smoky 
fireplaces, both in rooms and kitchens, wherever it was troublesome, to the 
greatest satisfaction of the occupiers. In proof of which I send him this 
testimonial. 

" SCHINKEL, 

" Berlin, SejA. 6. 1832. Chief Director of Buidlings." 

" That the architect M. F. A. Bernhardt, one of the founders and 
members of the Leipzic Polytechnic Society, in grateful acknowledgment of 
his strenuous exertions lo forward trade and industry with all his powers, 
has, by the members of the said Society, unanimously been named deputy of 
the same; and, also, that in this capacity he has rendered himself highly 
meritorious, by his advice and assistance, is hereby certified, with thankful 
acknowledgment, and in full truth. 

" Leipzic, in the Month of May, 1829. « 0tto k Erdmann, Director. 
" The Directors of the Leipzic " G. Wolbreciit, Secretary. 

Polytechnic Society." 

This certificate will convince Dr. Ure that I was in Saxony. 

Testimonial. 

" I hereby certify that M. F. A. Bernhardt of Diisselilorf, architect, has 
been particularly recommended to me, from the most respectable quarter, as a 
person who may be strictly relied upon, and possessing undoubted skill in his 
profession; and, also, that it especially appears, by the testimonials which he 
laid before me, and which are granted by unquestionable authorities, that he 



Retrospective Criticism. 189 

has succeeded, at several places in Prussia, in bringing into practice his inven- 
tion for the conducting of smoke, with the most successful results. 
" London, December 30. 1833. 

" (Signed) Bulow, 
Ambassador of the King of Prussia. 
" Certificate for the Architect M. F. A. Bernhardt of Diisseldorf." 

" Friday, March 2. 1838. 

" Dear Sir, I was much gratified, on Saturday last, in witnessing your mode 
of warming and ventilating rooms at the Speaker's house. The feeling of 
warmth and dryness of the rooms is particularly agreeable ; and, from your 
simple but excellent plan of keeping a constant renewal of the air without 
producing draughts, must be greatly conducive to its purity and wholesome- 
ness. Your plan of regulating the supply of warm and cold air seems to be 
excellent ; and, as one of the chief causes of foulness of the air in crowded 
rooms is the quantity of carbonic acid gas thrown off from the lungs of those 
breathing in the room, your method of causing this (which, being heavier than 
air, falls to the bottom) to be carried off by holes at the bottom of the room, 
is good, and certainly more likely than any other I have seen to produce the 
effect of keeping the air in the room wholesome. 

" I shall be very glad to hear of the general adoption of your plan, and, 
in mean time, remain, &c. 

"(Signed) Nath. Grant, M.D. 

" 21. Thayer Street, Manchester Square. 

" To M. F. A. Bernhardt." 



Art. III. Retrospective Criticism. 

Mr. HUMPHREY' 's Suggestions as to Models of Style, Sfc, (p. 49.) — I shall 
not attempt to follow Mr. Humphreys through all the reasonings of his " Sug- 
gestions," &c, contained in your last Number. If architects have been so 
much led astray from the mark, and are so wide in their attempts at Gothic, 
it is not by writing that the evil is to be corrected, but by example; and an 
executed design will have a far more powerful influence than whole volumes 
of essays. In fact there is not an amateur traveller, or a writer with some 
facility of composition, who does not mistake a partiality for architecture for 
an innate purity of taste, and a power to discriminate and apply, and he then 
begins to lecture the architects, as men who do not know what they are about. 

Never was critic more mistaken than is Mr. Humphreys, in thinking that he 
has been the first to suggest that Mr. Barry should have consulted the Hotels 
de Ville of Germany and the Low Countries, as models for his Houses of Par- 
liament. Mr. Barry did study these monuments, and spent a fortnight in 
those countries for the purpose of preparing his mind by the contemplation of 
those fine works, before he made out the drawings of his magnificent con- 
ception. That Mr. Barry's design is not a mere copy, that he has combined, 
and admirably too, the peculiarities of the styles of these countries with that 
of England, and thus produced a new combination of the excellencies of 
both, has misled Mr. Humphreys, who did not see in the imposing general 
mass of Mr. Barry's design the main feature of the Hotels de Ville, and in 
the details such a reference to English models as produced an amalgamation 
at once novel and effective. 

Never did man better deserve by the efforts of his genius the selection made 
by the Commissioners ; never did man gain a prize in a more honourable 
manner as regards his own conduct. But the various attacks which have 
been made upon him, whether in reference to his judgement, his taste, his 
honour, his integrity and good faith, have been unceasing and unsparing. I 
trust he sees few of them, for they are enough to quench the ardour and per- 
severance of any man. To carry out into execution so vast and complicated 



190 Retrospective Criticism. 

a work, is surely a sufficient tax upon the noblest and firmest spirit, and, in- 
stead of our discouraging him, we should do all in our power to brace his 
energies, to excite his ambition, to confirm in him a confidence of his own 
powers. This alone can enable him, with all his energies, to complete a work 
which shall render this age illustrious for its taste in architecture, reflect credit 
on our national character, and stamp himself as worthy the high task, which 
has been confided to h>m. In spite of every adverse circumstance, he must 
and will realise the best anticipations of those who know, and who, knowing, 
esteem and admire him. — M. I. B. A. Feb. 1838. 

Mr, Parley and his Critics. — Perpendiculars. It is amusing to read the dif- 
ferent ideas of different individuals on the convergence of perpendiculars. I 
will even risk the presumption of asserting that there is a mixture of truth and 
error in all I have yet read on the subject. All that Parsey, Edmonds, Can- 
didus, Kata Phusin, and Pocock have said or sung on the matter, may be 
finally settled by the following questions and answers, in the plain " why and 
because" style, which even those who know nothing of the subject cannot 
misunderstand : — 

1. Do perpendiculars converge ? — Yes. 

2. Why do they do so ? — Because it is a law in optical mathematics, that 
all objects diminish in proportion to their distance from the eye; and every 
object we look at establishes its truth. 

3. This being the case, should not perpendiculars be represented in per- 
spective as converging? — Certainly not. 

4. Indeed! would you then represent a tower 100ft. in height, equally as 
wide at the top as at the bottom, while you might be 103 ft. from the former 
and only 10 ft. from the latter; and would not this be inconsistent with your 
second answer? — Now, I shall solve the difficulty. No one can represent a 
tower of that height, while standing at a distance of 10 ft. from the base ; be- 
cause, the eye cannot, without moving, take in objects at a greater angle than 
60°; therefore, before a tower of 100 ft. in height can be represented, I must 
be nearly 100 ft. from it ; then, the difference of the distance from my eye to 
the top, and to the base, of the tower is so small, that the convergence is im- 
perceptible. 

5. So far good. But why must you be just "nearly" 100 ft. from the 
building? — Because, if my eye were level with the base, I must be wholly 
100 ft. Now, my eye is supposed to be 6 ft. above that level, and that is the 
reason ; and if my eye were at a point exactly 50 ft. above the level of the 
base, then, to represent the tower, I must at least be at that distance from it 
which will bear the same proportion to its height that the side of a square 
does to the hypotenuse. Of course, I may be at any greater distance I please. 

6. Why " at least" at that distance ? — Because then the ray from the eye 
to the top, and the ray to the base, would both be exactly of the same length 
as the height of the tower (forming an angle of 60°); and the eye would be 
at the apex of a cone, the diameter of the base of which would be 100 ft., while 
the length of each ray forming the same would also be 100 ft. 

7. Is there any other reason why perpendiculars should not converge? — 
Yes, technically speaking ; because they are perpendicular to the imaginary 
horizon of the picture, and parallel to its sides. 

8. Why then are parallel horizontal lines in angular perspective represented 
converging, while parallel perpendiculars are not? — Because the surfa 
which they bound or circumscribe, arc obliquely presented to the plane of 
projection, that is, the plane of the picture. 

•J. Then do parallel lines, when they present themselves parallel to the 
p'-nc, converge ? — Yes. 

iO. Should they be so represented ? — No ; for exactly the same reasons as 
given for the tower: for we must consider the eye a point, without reference 
to where our head or feet are ; as, if we were to lie on our side while looking 
at a range of buildings parallel to the plane, we would then have a figure 
similar to the tower, winch would, of course, be subject to the same laws. 



Retrospective Criticism. 191 

1 1. It would then appear that Candidas is wrong ? — Yes ; because the laws 
of optics, and, indeed, ail the objects we see, contradict his theory. 

li. Parsey then of course is right ? — No. In this particular, he is only 
right so far as he contends for the convergence : he is wrong in his repre- 
sentation of perpendiculars for the reasons given to Question 4. 

13. Is Edmonds then, who opposed him in some points, right? — No. He 
has followed the errors of Mr. Pocock, together with some new ones of his 
own, respecting the appearance of pictures, and the hanging of them, which 
are not in accordance with the foregoing reasons. 

14. Is Kata Phusin right? — Yes, in the chief points : but not strictly so 
in the minor ones : and the same remarks may apply to Mr. Pocock. 

1 J. How far do the minor points of the latter two gentlemen vary from 
truth ? — In my opinion, so far as they differ from the substance of the fore- 
going answers ; which, to my mind, are as plain as it is that two and two 
make four. 

16. Has Candidus acquitted himself from the charge of error, by Parsey 
and others, in his rejoinder to them ? — No ; he is equally inconsistent 
throughout. In his first paper, he distinctly denies the convergence of per- 
pendiculars ; in his rejoinder, p. 140., he says he never disputed that the 
system was theoretically correct; and in p. 141., he actually admits that he 
did deny the convergence of perpendiculars, but "meant" something — some- 
thing, in fact, which he did not state. 

17. Is Candidus right in his remarks (though, of course, ironical) respecting 
the representation of the Tower of Babel? — No; he is positively wrong; 
because, in proportion to the height of the object, so must be the distance 
between the object and the eye that views it; consequently, the vertical lines 
of this great Tower ought to be as free from convergence in the representation, 
as those of a two-story house, the same principle governing both. (See An- 
swer to Query 4.) 

18. Is Candidus's remarks with regard to the cut at p. 91., of the Glvp- 
totheca at Munich, correct ? — No ; the position of the horizon in that 
z-epresentation may not be in the most happy, or best selected, situation ; but it 
is not " erroneous." His position would hold good if we could only view 
objects when we stood on a level with their base. — Q. March, 1838. 

Candidus on Mr. Parsey' s Principles, Sfc. — Candidus is indignant at being 
accused of disputing Parsey's principles theoretically, and complains that he 
has been misunderstood. He has just cause of complaint, if he did not mean 
to say that perpendiculars appeared non- convergent to the eye. I believe him to 
be suffering under a calamity, to which men of talent are peculiarly exposed, 
that of not knowing exactly what he did, or does, mean. If he first " denies 
the convergence of vertical lines," and then tells me that " all he meant was, 
that it was not perceptible," he should not be surprised at my replying to what 
he said, before he had told me what he meant : ard his meaning is no meaning, 
even now, for the convergence of verticals is as much perceptible as that of 
any other lines. He ought to mean, and, I believe, does, if he could find it 
out, that, where such convergence can be represented, it is imperceptible, and 
where it is perceptible, cannot be represented. And, if Candidus is anything 
of a draughtsman, he ought to know that the theory is not unimportant 
because impracticable. None can be daring or dexterous in practice who are 
not thoroughly acquainted with the most speculative principles of theory; and 
I believe I could give him several problems, which all his knowledge of per- 
spective could not solve, without the assistance of the principle which he 
spurns. Here let the subject rest, since it seems we all agree now that we 
understand each other; and it has occupied several pages of this Magazine 
already, having itself nothing to do with architecture. Parsey will not turn 
the world upside down, as Candidus dreads; every true artist being about as 
well aware of what is right, as that revolutionising gentleman. And now let 
Candidus alow (unless he requires to be put in mind of Corydon's warning, 
" Quamvis tu Candidus esses, O formose puer, nimium ne crede colori"), 



192 Retrospective Criticism. 

that he expressed himself obscurely ; and Kata Plnisin will beg to be permitted 
to advance his name, as an apology for his eagerness in the support of .. 
theory which, he is willing to allow, is not so much kata techncn, as it is — 
Kata I'/iiisiii. Oxford, March 5. 

The Chancel of Stratford Church, (p. 139.) — Considering that the opinion of 
an architect upon a subject of taste connected with his own works is one to 
which little weight can be attached, I offer no further observation on the 
criticism of B., than that the defect of the omission of a straight tie at the foot 
of the principal rafters; and "the principle being more like that of an arch 
depending on the side walls for abutments*," if a defect, is equally chargeable 
on the majority of good specimens of timber roofs erected at the same period, 
as that of the chancel of Stratford Church ; and, to any one who will at- 
tentively examine the building, it will be evident that such was the case with 
the original roof of this chancel. Of roofs constructed upon similar principles, 
several exist in the halls and ecclesiastical edifices of this country; which, in 
the case of Stratford Church, is considerably strengthened by the introduction 
of iron ties and stays, concealed in the carved spandril, and by queen-bolts in 
the mouldings, forming the tracery of the roof without resorting to so ob- 
jectionable a proceeding as introducing a tie-beam across the window, or de- 
stroying the external character and picturesque effect of the building by 
raising the walls. Of its full sufficiency for the purposes of strength, I had an 
opportunity of satisfying myself by a careful examination of the work a few 
weeks since, it having now been finished more than twelve months. — Harvey 
Eginton. Worcester, March 8. 1838. 

G/i/ptotheca. — I am glad that my reference to Dr. Granville's account of 
this building has called forth H. N. H.'s remarks, although I cannot help 
thinking him rather premature in terming it " florid," when by his own ad- 
mission he has not seen the work. lie appears to misunderstand the cause 
of my admiration, which was not produced by the mere circumstance of its 
being built entirely of marble, but by the purity of its style, the excellence of 
its arrangements, and the grandeur of the whole design. Nor do I rest solely 
on Dr. Granville's account, for his statements have been fully confirmed by 
descriptions I have had of the Glyptothcca, from friends on whose judgement 
I can rely ; and who, having seen it, speak with equal enthusiasm of its merits. 

The following extract, which Dr. Granville gives at the end of his own de- 
scription, from a recent English writer (whose name he does not mention ) will 
show that others differ from the opinion which H. N. H. has formed of this 
edifice. " The contrast between this building and the appearance of the vast 
hall at the British Museum, built for the reception of the Elgin Marbles, nay, 
even of the galleries of the Vatican and the Louvre, is most striking, and 
tends to prove that the Baron Klenzc has been successful in his bold and 
arduous undertaking." — G. B. W. London, Feb. 23. 1838. 

Errata. — P. 107. line 5. from the top, for "about one mile and a half," 
read "half a mile." P. 109. line 27. from the top, for " loft.," read 
" 18ft. fin." 

Institute of British Architects deferred for want of room. 



*" The timber roofs of our ancestors, in the style called Norman or Gothic, 
were generally made without horizontal ties at the feet of the principal rafters, 
and were intended to be supported by the walls, as an arch is supported by its 
abutments; the heavy walls, they were in the habit of erecting in the 
Norman style, and the skilful disposition of buttresses in the Gothic, rendering 
ties unnecessary. Besides, a tie-beam would have been wholly incompatible 
with their mode of finishing the interior of a building." (Tree/gold on the Con- 
struction of Hoofs, p. 86.) 



THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE. 



MAY, 1838. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

Art. I. The Poetry of Architecture. By Kata Phusin. 
No. 2. The Cottage. — Concluding Remarks. 
" Nunquam aliud Natura, aliud Sapientia, dixit." Juv. 

It now only remains for us to conclude the subject of the Cot- 
tage, by a few general remarks on the just application of modern 
buildings to adorn or vivify natural scenery. 

There are, we think, only three cases in which the cottage is 
considered as an element of architectural, or any other kind of 
beauty, since it is ordinarily raised by the peasant where he likes, 
and how he likes ; and, therefore, as we have seen, frequently 
in good taste. 

1. When a nobleman, or man of fortune, amuses himself 
with superintending the erection of the domiciles of his domes- 
tics. 2. When ornamental summer-houses, or mimicries of 
wigwams, are to be erected as ornamental adjuncts to a prospect 
which the owner has done all he can to spoil, that it may be 
worthy of the honour of having him to look at it. 3. When 
the landlord exercises a certain degree of influence over the 
cottages of his tenants, or the improvements of the neighbour- 
ing village, so as to induce such a tone of feeling in the new 
erections as he may think suitable to their situation. 

In the first of these cases, there is little to be said ; for the 
habitation of the domestic is generally a dependent feature of 
his master's, and, therefore, to be considered as a part of it. 
Porters' lodges are also dependent upon, and to be regulated by, 
the style of the architecture to which they are attached ; and 
they are generally well managed in England, properly united 
with the gate, and adding to the effect of the entrance. 

In the second case, as the act is in itself a barbarism, it would 
be useless to consider what would be the best mode of perpe- 
trating it. 

In the third case, we think it will be useful to apply a few 
general principles, deduced from positions formerly advanced. 

All buildings are, of course, to be considered in connexion 
Vol. V. — No. 51. o 



194 Poetry of Architecture. 

with the country in which they are to be raised. Now, all 
landscape must possess one out of four distinct characters. 

It must be either woody, the green country; cultivated, 
the blue country; wild, the grey country ; or hilly, the brown 
country. 

1. The Woody, or green, Country. By this is to be understood 
the mixture of park, pasture, and variegated forest, which is only 
to be seen in temperate climates, and in those parts of a king- 
dom which have not often changed proprietors, but have re- 
mained in unproductive beauty (or, at least, furnishing timber 
only), the garden of the wealthier population. It is to be seen 
in no other country, perhaps, so well as in England. In other 
districts, we find extensive masses of black forest, but not the 
mixture of sunny glade, and various foliage, and dewy sward, 
which we meet with in the richer park districts of England. 
This kind of country is always surgy, oceanic, and massy, in its 
outline : it never affords blue distances, unless seen from a 
height; and, even then, the nearer groups are large, and draw 
away the attention from the background.' The under soil is 
kept cool by the shade, and its vegetation rich ; so that the pre- 
vailing colour, except for a few days at the fall of the leaf, is a 
fresh green. A good example of this kind of country is the 
view from Richmond Hill. 

Now, first, let us consider what sort of feeling this green 
country excites ; and, in order to do so, be it observed, that 
anything which is apparently enduring and unchangeable gives 
us an impression rather of future, than of past, duration of ex- 
istence; but anything which being perishable, and from its 
nature subject to change, has yet existed to a great age, gives 
us an impression of antiquity, though, of course, none of stability. 
A mountain, for instance (not geologically speaking, for then 
the furrows on its brow give it age as visible as was ever 
wrinkled on human forehead, but considering it as it appears to 
ordinary eyes), appears to be beyond the influence of change : 
it does not put us in mind of its past existence, by showing us 
any of the effect of time upon itself; we do not feel that it is old, 
because it is not approaching any kind of death : it is a mass of 
unsentient undecaying matter, which, if we think about it, we 
discover must have existed for some time, but which does not 
tell this fact to our feelings, or, rather, which tells us of no time 
at which it came into existence; and, therefore, gives us no 
standard by which to measure its age, which, unless measured, 
cannot be distinctly felt. But a very old forest tree is a thing 
subject to the same laws of nature as ourselves : it is an energetic 
being, liable to and approaching death ; its age is written on 
every spray ; and, because we see it is susceptible of life and 
annihilation, like our own, we imagine it must be capable of the 



The Cottage. 195 

same feelings, and possess the same faculties, and, above all others, 
memory : it is always telling us about the past, never pointing 
to the future ; we appeal to it, as to a thing which has seen and 
felt during a life similar to our own, though of ten times its 
duration, and therefore receive from it a perpetual impression of 
antiquity. So, again, a ruined tower gives us an impression of 
antiquity: the stones of which it is built, none; for their age is 
not written upon them. 

This being the case, it is evident that the chief feeling induced 
by woody country is one of reverence for its antiquity. There is 
a quiet melancholy about the decay of the patriarchal trunks, 
which is enhanced bv the green and elastic vigour of the vouno- 
saplings ; the noble form of the forest ailes, and the subdued 
light which penetrates their entangled boughs, combine to add 
to the impression ; and the whole character of the scene is cal- 
culated to excite conservative feeling. The man who could 
remain a radical in a wood country is a disgrace to his species. 

Now, this feeling of mixed melancholy and veneration is the 
one of all others which the modern cottage must not be allowed 
to violate. It may be fantastic or rich in detail ; for the one 
character will make it look old-fashioned, and the other will 
assimilate with the intertwining of leaf and bough around it : 
but it must not be spruce, or natty, or very bright in colour; 
and the older it looks the better. 

A little grotesqueness in form is the more allowable, because 
the imagination is naturally active in the obscure and indefinite 
daylight of wood scenery; conjures up innumerable beings, of 
every size and shape, to people its alleys and smile through its 
thickets ; and is by no means displeased to find some of its in- 
ventions half-realised, in a decorated panel or grinning ex- 
tremity of a rafter. 

These characters being kept in view, as objects to be attained, 
the remaining considerations are technical. 

For the form. Select any well-grown group of the tree which 
prevails most near the proposed site of the cottage. Its summit 
will be a rounded mass. Take the three principal points of its 
curve ; namely, its apex (c), and the two points where it unites 

c 75 




y 



^■>h 




itself with neighbouring masses {a and b, Jig. 75.). Strike a circle 
through these three points ; and the angle contained in the 
segment cut off bv a line joining a and b is to be the angle of 

o 2 



196 Poetry of Architecture. 

the cottage roof. (Of course we are not thinking of interior 
convenience : the architect must establish his model of beauty 
first, and then approach it as nearly as he can.) This angle 
will generally be very obtuse; and this is one reason why the 
Swiss cottage is always beautiful when it is set among walnut or 
chestnut trees. Its obtuse roof is just about the true angle. 
With pines or larches, the angle should not be regulated by 
the form of the tree, but by the slope of the branches. The 
building itself should be low and long, so that, if possible, it 
may not be seen all at once, but may be partially concealed by 
trunks or leafage at various distances. 

For the colour, that of wood is always beautiful. If the wood 
of the near trees be used, so much the better; but the timber 
should be rough-hewn, and allowed to get weather-stained. Cold 
colours will not suit with green; and, therefore, slated roofs are 
disagreeable, unless, as in the Westmoreland cottage, the grey 
roof is warmed with lichenous vegetation, when it will do well 
with anything ; but thatch is better. , If the building be not of 
wood, the walls may be built of anything which will give them a 
quiet and unobtruding warmth of tone. White, if in shade, is 
sometimes allowable ; but, if visible at any point more than 
200 yards off, it will spoil the whole landscape. In general, as 
we saw before, the building will bear some fantastic finishing, 
that is, if it be entangled in forest ; but, if among massive 
groups of trees, separated by smooth sward, it must be kept 
simple. 

2. The Cultivated, or blue, Country. This is the rich cham- 
paign land, in which large trees are more sparingly scattered, and 
which is chiefly devoted to the purposes of agriculture. In this 
we are perpetually getting blue distances from the slightest 
elevation, which are rendered more decidedly so by their con- 
trast with warm corn or ploughed fields in the foreground. 
Such is the greater part of England. The view from the hills 
of Malvern is a good example. In districts of this kind, all is 
change; one year's crop has no memory of its predecessor; all 
is activity, prosperity, and usefulness : nothing is left to the 
imagination ; there is no obscurity, no poetry, no nonsense : the 
colours of the landscape are bright and varied ; it is thickly 
populated, and glowing with animal life. Here, then, the cha- 
racter of the cottage must be cheerfulness; its colours may be 
vivid: white is always beautiful; even red tiles are allowable, 
and red bricks endurable. Neatness will not spoil it : the angle 
of its roof may be acute, its windows sparkling, and its roses red 
and abundant; but it must not be ornamented nor fantastic, it 
must be evidently built for the uses of common life, and have a 
matter-of-fact business-like air about it. Its outhouses, and 
pigsties, and dunghills should, therefore, be kept in sight: the 



The Cottage. 197 



latter may be made very pretty objects by twisting them with 
the pitchfork, and plaiting them into braids, as the Swiss do. 

3. The Wild, or grey, Country. " Wild " is not exactly a 
correct epithet; we mean wide, unenclosed, treeless undulations 
of land, whether cultivated or not. The greater part of northern 
France, though well brought under the plough, would come 
under the denomination of grey country. Occasional masses of 
monotonous forest do not destroy this character. Here, size is 
desirable, and massiness of form; but we must have no bright- 
ness of colour in the cottage, otherwise it would draw the eye 
to it at three miles off, and the whole landscape would be 
covered with conspicuous dots. White is agreeable, if sobered 
down; slate allowable on the roof, as well as thatch. For the 
rest, we need only refer to the remarks formerly made on the 
propriety of the French cottage. 

Lastly, Hill, or brown, Country. And here, if we look to 
England alone, as peculiarly a cottage country, the remarks 
formerly advanced, in the consideration of the Westmoreland 
cottage, are sufficient; but, if we go into mountain districts of 
more varied character, we shall find a difference existing be- 
tween every range of hills, which will demand a corresponding 
difference in the style of their cottages. The principles, how- 
ever, are the same in all situations, and it would be a hopeless 
task to endeavour to give more than general principles. In hill 
country, however, another question is introduced, whose inves- 
tigation is peculiarly necessary in cases in which the ground has 
inequality of surface, that of position. And the difficulty here 
is, not so much to ascertain where the building ought to be, as 
to put it there, without suggesting any enquiry as to the mode 
in which it got there; to prevent its just application from ap- 
pearing artificial. But we cannot enter into this enquiry, before 
laying down a number of principles of composition, which are 
applicable, not only to cottages, but generally, and which we 
cannot deduce until we come to the consideration of buildings 
in groups. 

Such are the great divisions under which country and 
rural buildings may be comprehended ; but there are inter- 
mediate conditions, in which modified forms of the cot- 
tage are applicable ; and it frequently happens that country 
which, considered in the abstract, would fall under one of these 
classes, possesses, owing to its peculiar climate or associations, 
a very different character. Italy, for instance, is blue country ; 
yet it has not the least resemblance to English blue country. 
We have paid particular attention to wood ; first, because we 
had not, in any previous paper, considered what was beautiful in 
a forest cottage; and, secondly, because in such districts there 
is generally much more influence exercised by proprietors over 

o 3 



1 98 System and Principles of Colouring pursued 

their tenantry, than in populous and cultivated districts ; and 
our English park scenery, though exquisitely beautiful, is some- 
times, we think, a little monotonous, from the want of this very 
feature. 

And now, farewell to the cottage, and, with it, to the humility 
of natural scenery. We are sorry to leave it ; not that we have 
anv idea of living in a cottage, as a comfortable thing ; not that 
we prefer mud to marble, or deal to mahogany ; but that, with 
it, we leave much of what is most beautiful of earth, the low and 
bee-inhabited scenery, which is full of quiet and prideless 
emotion, of such calmness as we can imagine prevailing over 
our earth when it was new in heaven. We are going into 
higher walks of architecture, where we shall find a less close 
connexion established between the building and the soil on 
which it stands, or the air with which it is surrounded, but a 
closer connexion with the character of its inhabitant. We shall 
have less to do with natural feeling, and more with human 
passion ; we are coming out of stillness into turbulence, out of 
seclusion into the multitude, out of the wilderness into the 
world. 

Art. II. On the System and Principles pursued by the Gothic 
Architects, from the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries inclusive, in 
the Embellishment by Colour of the Architectural Members and 
other Parts of their Religious and Civil Edifices. By Frederick 
Lush. 

" Colour and form alike their powers engage 
In trophies of the proud baronial age ; 
Azure and crimson, green and gold unite, 
Friezes and chapiters, in glory dight, 
Blaze with imposing splendour o'er the sight. 
Enamell'd flowers their graceful foliage twine, 
And pictured mouldings thread the golden vine : 
Fair in'their form, and glorious in their hue, 
They blend harmonious, and the mind subdue." 

J. Edmeston. 

One of the strongest feelings that are common to our nature 
is curiosity ; and anything that is new, or grand, or beautiful, is 
apt to raise this appetite, which will be satisfied only by inves- 
tigation. We cannot fail to be struck with that power and 
oreatness of talent which are displayed in our cathedrals ; but 
it is when overawed by the solemnity imparted to these piles by 
the brilliancy of colour, and the effect produced by their painted 
windows, that we would fain know the principles which guided 
the artists of these noble conceptions. 

Without loitering at the threshold of this essay by enquiring 
into that which is foreign from my design (namely, the extent 
to which the art of colouring their buildings obtained among the 
ancients, or whence it was derived), I will proceed at once to 



in the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. ] 99 

enter it ; the subject being one that is worthy of the architect, 
and not devoid of interest to the antiquary. 

Although the monastic life may justly be blamed, and the 
learning of the monk is often deemed useless, yet it is to the 
former we owe almost every thing connected with literature and 
the fine arts ; and on the latter rest our after acquirements in 
knowledge. Long before the time when the venerable Bede 
lived and wrote, the light that now shines with such brightness 
in our own days shed her influence over the land ; but its force 
was not enough to dispel the gloom of superstition, which then 
overshadowed the cloister. There were, however, in his age, 
schools where architecture, sculpture, and painting grew and 
were fostered with care ; and, censure, as we may have cause to 
do, the conduct of the monks, it was, in truth, this set of men 
who were good architects ; and they were not only the authors 
of many valuable treatises on science, but the chief artists who 
painted ecclesiastical buildings in fresco. 

Contemporary with Bede was Benedict Biscop, a monk, 
founder of the monastery at Weremouth, and one of the first 
who introduced the arts into England. Biscop was wont to 
repair to Rome, and thence brought over several artists, who, as 
Bede tells us, constructed his church after the Roman fashion. 
He also sent to France for those skilled in making and stain- 
ing glass, with which he ornamented the church of St. Peter, 
belonging to the Abbey of Weremouth ; but before that period, 
at which the manufacture of glass was unknown in Great 
Britain, the windows of the most costly buildings had been 
filled with fine linen cloth or latticed woodwork. (Stuart's Diet, 
of Arch itecture. ) 

Archbishop Wilfrid, in the year 674, built the abbey church 
of St. Mary, at Hexham, which is a fine instance of Anglo- 
Saxon architecture. (A view is given by Mackenzie in his Hist, 
of Northumberland, 4to, 1825; and in the New Monasticon.) 
It is thus described by Richard de Hexham, a historian who 
flourished a. d. 1180, when it was still remaining (I quote only 
so much as is proper to my object) : — " The walls themselves, with 
the capitals of those columns which supported them, as also 
the coved ceilings of the sanctuary, were decorated with his- 
tories, statues, and various figures projecting in sculpture from 
the stone, with the grateful variety of pictures, and with the 
wonderful beauty of colours." (Stuart' 's Dictionary.) In this and 
later periods, the inside of the churches was one mass of splen- 
dour ; but the sanctuary was the centre of attraction : the shrines, 
the statuary, the lofty screen before the high altar, the painted 
ceiling, all form a scene, which, whilst it is quite consonant 
with the imposing rites of the fane, kindles awe and begets high 
emotions. As in the churches erected by Constantine in By- 

i 



200 System and Principles of Colouring ■pursued 

znntium, Asia Minor, and Syria, the roof was ornamented with 
tiles of gilt brass, and the walls, the columns, and pavements 
incrusted with variegated marbles ; so, in these early churches, 
built on the plan of the basilicas,'; large stone and marble 
columns, or columns faced with thin laminae of marble, sus- 
tained the roof, which was covered with lead or gilt tiles. 
The church of St. Germain des Pres, one of the oldest in Paris, 
begun by Childebert in 557, was in the shape of a cross; and, 
if we may rely upon the description by Gislemer, a monk of the 
abbey, its ceiling was gilt, the walls set off" with colours on a 
gold ground, the pavement composed of rich mosaic, and the 
roof covered with gold. (Whittington's Historical Survey of the 
Ecclesiastical Antiquities of France, &c. : 4to, 1809.) 

The era of Charlemagne gave rise, it is true, to many edi- 
fices; but they may, perhaps, be regarded great as to their size 
alone. His palace and church at Aix-la-Chapelle present a 
debased style, similar to that which prevailed in Italy and Rome 
itself. The most costly and beautiful columns were placed 
beneath diminutive arches, and high masses of wall were dis- 
figured with rude painting, or had glittering, but gaudy, mosaic 
work. The intellect of the architect seems to have been 
clouded: at any rate, it did not shine with that lustre which 
broke forth in the eleventh century, when the various cities and 
provinces, especially of France, strove to outvie each other in 
works of architecture. 

There was one, born about 925, whom I would notice by the 
way : his name was Dunstan. He was a good scholar, and 
master of all the mathematical science then known ; besides 
which, he used to practise painting and engraving, and took im- 
pressions from metals. " Praeterea nam aptus ad omnia, facere 
potuit picturam, litteras formare, scalpello imprimere ex auro, 
argento, aere, et ferro." — Gervasius de St. Dunstano. (Poxv- 
nalVs Essay on Ancient Painting in England, vol. ix., in the 
Archceologia.) This same man, St. Dunstan, designed a pattern 
for a sacerdotal vestment, which a religious lady worked in 
threads of gold. In the same century, a drapery on which were 
delineated the actions of Brithnod, duke of Northumberland, 
was presented by his widow, Edelfleda, to the church of 
Ely ; and before this, Witlafj King of Mercia, in a charter 
to the Abbey of Croyland, gave, among other things, a golden 
veil, embroidered with the siege of Troy, to be hung up 
in the church on his birthday.* Thus we learn that the 

* Pictorial History of England, p. 320. 1. 1 1. — The exterior vestibule of the 
church of St. Sophia at Constantinople, built by Justinian, was hung with 
aurea vela, vela auro contexta et variegata. Gregory of Tours, describing 
the baptism of Clovis at Rheims, writes : — " Velis depictis aclumbrantur plateas 
ecelesise. Curtinis albentibus adornantur." — Hist. Franc, 11,3]. {JV/iit- 
tington, as above.) 



in the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. 201 

arts of embroidery were employed for adorning religious houses ; 
and, since their wall hangings were often very gorgeous, we 
may infer that they heightened the character of those buildings. 
Amongst females of the higher ranks, embroidery was con- 
sidered an accomplishment: nor was the other sex behindhand 
in the art of painting ; and to those who excelled in it much 
respect was paid. 

Pardon, reader, the foregoing digression ; but by it a chasm 
is filled up in this history, or rather sketch, which serves only 
to usher in that which more immediately concerns us. I think 
not it is in nowise related to what has gone before and follows, 
since, in the middle ages, tapestry sometimes supplied the place 
of painting on the walls; though, perhaps, there are materials 
of a more pertinent kind, which have not crossed my path. 

In the eleventh century, the walls and ceilings of the castellated 
palaces and churches were of wainscot, ornamented with gilding 
and painting. In these cathedrals, where the Norman style pre- 
vailed, the roofs were composed of wood in rafters only ; but, as 
architecture improved, they were connected by panels, which 
were plastered or painted blue, with gold stars, as we find in 
ancient crypts ; and sometimes painted in a kind of mosaic of 
several colours. (Warton's Hist, of Poetry.) Stubbs, in his 
Actus Pontificum Eboracensium, when speaking of the works per- 
formed under Archbishop Aldred, shortly before the Conquest, 
says : " Totam ecclesiam a presbyterio usque ad turrim ab ante- 
cessore suo kinsio constructam, superius opere pictorio quod 
ccelum vocant auro multiformiter intermixto, mirabile arte con- 
struxit." (Poivnatt, as above.) The old Canterbury Cathedral par- 
tially rebuilt by Lanfranc,and completed by Anselm, who evinced 
equal, if not more taste and ability than his predecessor, is 
recorded as having been so glorious, that no building in England 
could vie with it, whether as regarded the transparency of the 
glass windows, the brightness of the marble pavement, or the 
elegance of the paintings, which drew the eyes of all beholders 
to the roof above. (William de Mabnsbury.) 

The two celebrated abbeys at Caen, that of St. Stephen built 
by William the Conqueror, about the year 1068 ; and that of the 
Holy Trinity, by his queen, Matilda ; were fine examples of the 
Norman style. On the outside of the wall of a chapel, built 
before the Abbey of St. Stephen, were painted in fresco the 
figures of King William, his queen, and their two sons, Robert 
and William, supposed to have been coeval with its foundation. 
Matilda, in the year 1082, endowed the Abbey of the Holy 
Trinity, called V Abb aye aux Da?nes, founded for Benedictine 
nuns, with so much munificence, that William de Poictiers, 
Aixhdeacon of Lisieux, said she enriched it more than any 
emperor had done in the preceding time. (DucarcVs Anglo- 
Norman Antiquities.) 



202 System and Principles of Colouring pursued 

Not before the latter part of the twelfth century (that is, be- 
tween the years 1177 and 1 199, when the nave of Peterborough 
Cathedral was erecting), have I lighted upon any record of 
colour, either in religious or civil edifices. The ceiling of 
Peterborough Cathedral was at the same time painted, and was 
of wainscot, formed into three main compartments; each being 
again separated by lozenges and half lozenges. The fillets, 
mouldings, and rosettes were gilt ; a fret antique ran round 
the panels as a border ; and on the wood within this were the 
painted figures, which were, in the opinion of the individual who 
repaired the ceiling, 'oil, as the colours became clear to the 
eye upon a sponge being applied. Gov. Pownall, however, 
asserts that oil was not the vehicle in this case, as both size and 
other varnishes were known in the twelfth century ; but adds, 
" The discovery of an oil varnish, or the drying oils used in 
limning, was not, I believe, yet brought forward. " * 

The very old painting in Westminster Abbey, over the tomb 
in which are deposited the wooden images of our ancestral 
kings, most unjustifiably ycleped the Ragged Regiment, and 
among them Sebert, who originally founded Westminster Abbey, 
is acknowledged to be coeval with the refoundation of the abbey 
by Henry III., in the fifth year of his reign. It was painted on 
a piece of wainscot, paneled in different compartments, and 
bore a rather strong rubbing with a wet handkerchief. Under- 
neath the plaster, which crumbled betwixt the fingers like 
chalk, a coat of parchment was glued upon the paneling. 
(Pole nail, as above.) 

Availing ourselves now of the passages which refer to colour- 
ing edifices, among the documents in the Pipe and Close Rolls of 
the reign of Henry III., inserted in Walpole's Anecdotes of 
Painting, we read, in the twelfth year of Henry III., that his 
treasurers and chamberlains are commissioned to pay to a certain 
painter 20s. for painting the great Exchequer Chamber. The 
next record intimates the kind of painting to be undertaken: — 

" Anno 1233, 17 Henry III., Mandatum est Vicecomiti 
Southton, quod Cameram regis lambruscatam de castro Winton, 
depingi faciat eisdem historiis et picturis quibus fuerat prius de- 
picta, &c. 

" 1233. Payments, anno 17 Henry III. Precept to the Sheriff 
of Southampton, that he shall cause the king's chamber wain- 
scot, in Winchester Castle, to be painted with the same pictures 
as formerly," &c. From this precept, it is very plain that the 
wainscot in the apartments of royal dwellings was painted with 
historical subjects, sacred or profane ; and, as such histories are 

* Pownall, as above. — There existed, Le Noir informs us, at Paris, in several 
religious houses, paintings in fresco, and with white of eggs, which had been 
executed in the twelfth century. 



in the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. 203 

desired to be renewed, it leads us to conclude that the custom 
was known some time before this period : and in the 35th of 
Henry III. a mandate is given for painting the history of An- 
tioch : but of this anon, llaspe, On the Discovery of Oil-Paint- 
ing, p. 52., says, on the authority of the Domesday Book, that 
" the history of the royal household, of the board of the king's 
works, of the English painters, sculptors, architects, and other 
artists, may be traced backward far beyond the time of King 
Henry III., nay, even beyond the period of the Norman con- 
quest, in the eleventh century ; and that there is no occasion for 
looking upon the first painters and other such artists as foreign- 
ers to this kingdom." 

An order dated 1236 bids the treasurer to have the great 
chamber at Weston painted with a good green colour, after the 
manner of a curtain, against the king's arrival; and on the 
gable of the same chamber, near the door, these words to be 
painted : — " Ke ne dune kene tine, ne pret ke desir ; " i. e. 

" He who has and does not give, 
Will not, when he wants, receive." 

The following record alludes to a star-chamber, and is the 
first mention we have of the walls and ceilings being set, as they 
were, with golden stars upon a ground of green or blue, an 
imitation of the visible heaven : but space afforded full scope for 
invention, and it was not confined merely to this resemblance of 
nature. 

" Liberat. Anno 1238, 22 Henry III. Mandatum est vice. 
Southampt. quod cameram apud Winton colorari faciat viridi 
colore, et stellari auro, in quibus depingatur historise veteris et 
novi testamenti." The next extract from the Rotuli, respecting 
the palatial decoration, was issued in his twenty-third year, 1239, 
and implies a part of the history of colouring in oil, the date and 
discovery of which have by some been determined in John Van 
Eyck. It runs thus : — " Rex thesaurio et camerariis suis sa- 
lutem. Liberate de thesauro nostro Odoni aurifabro et Edvvardo 
filio suo centum et septemdecem solidos et decern denarios pro 
oleo, vernici, et coloribus emptis, et picturis factis in camera re- 
ginae nostras, apud Westm. ab octavis sanctae trinitatis anno regni 
nostri xxiii. usque ad festum sancti Barnabe apostoli eodem anno, 
scilicet per xv dies." 

" The king to his treasurer and chamberlains. Pay from our 
treasury to Odo the goldsmith, and Edward his son, one hun- 
dred and seventeen shillings and tenpence, for oil, varnish, and 
colours bought by them, and for pictures made in the queen's 
room," &c. 

Before the time of the brothers Hubert and John Van Eyck, 
by whom oil-painting may be said to have been restored, the 



204- System and Principles of Colouring }mr sued 

colours for painting were mixed with a preparation of glue or 
the white of eggs, which, we are told, was used by Cimabue, in 
Walpole's Anecdotes of Painting ; " wherein is an account of the 
process employed in painting on walls, from Sandrart, which I 
here transcribe : — " When they painted on walls, lest their work 
should crack, they proceeded in this manner : they glued a linen 
cloth upon the wall, and covered that with plaster, on which they 
painted in distemper. This was thus prepared : they dropped 
into the yolk of an egg the milk that Hows from the leaf of a 
young fig tree ; with which, instead of water, gum, or gum- 
dragant, they mixed their last layer of colours." Walpole 
adds, " It is probable, from the last words of this passage, that 
they laid their first colours with water or gum only." 

There is here, and elsewhere, sufficient evidence to show that, 
whilst " Henry, son of John," sat on the throne, painting was 
pursued with much diligence ; but not in one branch alone : the 
curious, as well as useful, art of illuminating MSS. had been 
brought to great perfection. This monarch was an exemplary 
patron of the arts, and kept certain painters about him, among 
whom William, a monk of Westminster, William of Florence, 
and William of Colchester were the most eminent ; and these, 
with others under them, he employed to adorn his palaces with 
historical pictures, illustrative of subjects in the Old and New 
Testaments, or with particular occurrences in the lives of his pre- 
decessors. Thus, the valiant exploits of Richard I. in the third 

crusade, 

" Against whose fury and unmatch'd force, 
The aweless lion could not wage the fight," Shaks. 

afforded a favourite theme both to the artist and the poet, and 
were among the earliest historical pieces which were portrayed 
by the former. " Claus. 35 Hen. III. Mandatum est Ed- 
wardo de Westm. quod depingi facit historiam Antioch. in ca- 
mera regis turris London, sicut ei dicet T. Espernir, et custum 
quod ad hoc posuerit, rex ei faciet allocari. Teste rege apud 
Winton. v. die Junii." 

" Close Roll. 35 Hen. III. Precept to Edward of West- 
minster, that he cause to be painted the history of Antioch in the 
king's chamber in the Tower of London, as T. Espernir shall 
direct him ; and the cost which he shall incur to be allowed by 
the king," &c. It is said that this history of the Crusade was 
also painted in a small room in a garden at Westminster, pro- 
bably a summer or banqueting-house ; and that, from Antioch 
having been the scene in which Richard Cceur de Lion signalised 
himself in arms, the place was thence called the Antioch Cham- 
ber. It was likewise commemorated at the Palace of Clarendon, 
in Wiltshire, with the single combat of King Richard about 
fourteen years previous. (JValj)ole's Anecdotes.) 



ill the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. 205 

Painting on, or staining, glass is first mentioned in the Close 
Rolls of the 20th Henry III. 1236. An order, dated 1241, 
noticed by Stowe, for the repairs of the White Tower (so called 
from an early practice of whitening externally its walls), states 
that in the chapel of St. John three glass windows were to be 
made, representing a little Virgin Mary with her child, the 
Trinity, and St. John the Evangelist. (Bayleifs History and 
Antiquities of the Tower of London, p. 107.) Painted glass is 
generally considered as having been first connected with archi- 
tecture in Henry III.'s reign; though Lord Orford, on the au- 
thority of Dugdale, refers the first painted glass in England to 
King John's time; from which statement, Fosbrooke {Encyclo- 
pedia of Antiquities, and Elements of Archeology, Classical and 
Mediaeval: 2 vols. 4to, London, 1825.) is inclined to differ; and 
Dallaway remarks, in that work, to which he added many valu- 
able notes, that there was no known introduction of stained 
glass into England prior to the reign of Henry III.* 

Terminating the reign of Henry III., the longest that occurs 
in the annals of England, save that of George III., we gather, 
upon a review of the life of Edward I., that, although the prince 
and the people were alike prone to battle, yet the fine arts were 
still cherished by some. Painting did not lie dormant ; and then 
it was that Gothic architecture arose in all her stateliness.f It 

* Note, p. 38., by Dallaway, in Anecdotes of Painting. In the abbey of St. 
Denis, in France, are some painted windows, which Abbot Suggerius placed 
there abont 1150. Engravings of these are to be found in Le Noir's JMusi'e 
des Moruuteres Francois, Histoire de la Pasture sur Verre, p. 63. The most 
ancient painted glass now existing in England is in Canterbury Cathedral. 

•j- The following are the materials for the emendation of the pictures in the 
king's Great Chamber, as the Painted Chamber was then called, from the Roll 
bearing the same date as the foundation of St. Stephen's Chapel ; viz. April 
28. 20th Edward I. : — " White lead, at 2d. per lb. ; three quarts of oil at 9d. ; 
a measure of green (verdegris), at \\d.; another of vermilion, at 2Jrf. ; sinople 
varnish, ochre, plaster, thread, and skin." (Britton and Brayley^s History of the 
ancient Palace and late Houses of Parliament at Westminster.) 

On the removal of some old tapestry, in 1800, in the Painted Chamber, the 
paintings on the walls were numerous large figures, and the battles of the 
Maccabees. They were as old as 1322; as one Symeon, a friar minor, and 
doctor in theolosy, in that year wrote an Itinerary, now in the library of Ben- 
net College, Cambridge, in which occurs the subjoined passage, quoted by 
Grav, in a letter to Horace VValpole, in 1768, and first published by Warton 
in his History of Poetry : — " Eidem monasterio quasi immediate conjungitur 
illud famosissimum palatium regium Anglorum, in quo ilia vulsata camera in 
cujus parietibus sunt omneshistoriae bellicae totius Bibliae ineftabiliter depictae, 
atque in Gallico completissime et perfectissime constanter conscriptae in non 
modica interentium admiratione et maxima regali magnificentia." " Near this 
monastery stands the most famous royal palace of England, in which is that 
celebrated chamber, on whose walls all the warlike histories of the whole Bible 
are painted with inexpressible skill, and explained by a regular and complete 
series of texts, beautifully written in French, over each battle, to the no small 
admiration of the beholder, and the increase of royal magnificence." 



206 System and. Principles of Colouring pursued 

was the spirit of enthusiasm, and the zeal of enterprise, the 
daring ingenuity of man, which called forth those mighty cre- 
ations that excite such wonder within us. But can we assign 
the cause of that pleasure which we experience in contemplating 
them ? There was a system upon which they acted, but of that 
we know very little. Of this, however, I am sure, that, as in 
colouring the parts of their edifices, so in form, proportion, 
intricacy, and arrangement of ornament, in every thing which 
made up the grand design, they were guided by principles ; they 
studied effect; they aimed at producing a whole which would 
work upon the mind of the beholder ; their desire was to fix his 
thoughts, and lead him to feel the force which such works exert 
upon the sense. Thus, upon the brotherhood, upon a band of 
men so active and zealous in the cause, were engrafted motives 
which prompted them to undertakings far beyond our utmost 
endeavours. 

I may refer to the use of one thing not lost sight of, nay, 
much adopted, by the architects of the middle ages in ornament- 
ing their edifices ; and that is allegory, whereby life is given 
not only to all those arts which are direct imitations of nature, 
but may be happily applied to architecture, through the medium 
of sculpture. It is to be regretted that allegory is now so un- 
heeded, since it is the means of conveying ideas, and opens a 
field for pictorial embellishment, which did not lie uncultivated 
in former times. King Edward the First's Council Chamber at 
Westminster was adorned with allegorical representations of the 
divine Law, and the Gospel, the true Vine, and the Day of 
Judgment. So are the Cathedral of Rochester, and the Lieb 
Frauen Kirche at Treves, the Cloisters of Norwich, the Chapter- 
House at York, and the Stadt-House at Nimeguen.* 

To come to another portion of the far-famed palace at West- 
minster; the Prince's Chamber, or old Robing Room, exhibited 
on the jambs of the windows figures which were painted ; and 
round the upper part of the chamber there had been oil-paint- 
ings of angels holding crowns. Several capitals were also found 
which had been richly gilt and painted (blue and red) in oil 
colours : on two of them were the busts of Edward I. and Eleanor, 
his queen, carved in Reigate stone, and coloured to resemble 
life : the hair and crowns were gilt. (Britton and Brayley, 
as above.) To the varnish which protected the surface of the 
gilding we may attribute its preservation ; and, with respect to 
the colours, the oil with which they were tempered defended 
them from the access of air, &c. ; but their permanency depends 

* See Palgrave's Truths and Fictions of the Middle . [ges. A series of an- 
cient allegorical, historical, and legendary paintings in fresco were, not long 
since, discovered on the walls of the Chapel of the Holy Cross, at Stratford on 
Avon. These Mill shortly be published. 



in the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. 207 

likewise upon the quality of the various animal, vegetable, and 
fossil substances out of which they are made. 

Oil was the vehicle in the painting on the monument of Ed- 
mund Crouchback, in Westminster Abbey, as a letter inserted 
in Carter's Ancient Sculpture and Painting clearly proved. It 
is ascribed to Pietro Cavallini, an Italian painter, and the in- 
ventor of mosaic ; but this is a question which can be answered 
only with hesitation : the fact has not, I believe, been truly de- 
cided. To this monument we will annex an account from 
Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, which describes in what manner 
the several parts were painted. * " The canopy of stone over 
this tomb consists of three trefoil pointed arches, one in the 
centre, and one lesser on each side of it. Each of these arches 
is surmounted by a double pediment, separated from the arches 
by a pilaster, which slopes back in three several stories, and is 
painted white, checquered with double red lines, in every other 
square of which is a red cinquefoil (the two uppermost slopes 
serving as a base to a painted flowered niche), and terminates in 
a rich purfled finial. The mouldings at the four angles, or 
weatherings, of the lesser pediment, as well as the two of the 
greater, are decorated with bunches of oak leaves ; and from 
among those of the centre pediment project four brackets, which 
originally supported as many angels, whole length, in a standing 
posture, as expressed in Sandford's print. Each pediment 
terminates in a bouquet of oak leaves. The ground of the 
large pediment is painted of a dark blue, sprinkled with golden 
fleurs-de-lis. The spandrils and interstices have also been 
painted with plain grounds, or foliage, and the arch-work of 
the pilasters inlaid with pieces of blue and red stained glass, set 
in so firm a cement, that it is not easv to dislodge the smallest 
piece without cracking it. Within the points of the lesser 
pediments are carved, in high relief, a bunch of oak leaves 
issuing from a stalk, and a head of an animal surrounded by 
foliage, bearing some distant resemblance to a modern cherub 
with six wings. The inside, or ceiling of the canopy, was a 
sky with stars of gold, on a blue ground, by time changed into 
a dull red ; and within the leaves of the trefoil of the arch were 
painted the vine tendrils, and elegant foliage, as on Aveline's 
monument. The inside of the weatherings of all the six pedi- 
ments is painted and gilt in distemper, with coats of arms in 
oblong squares ; those on the centre or large pediment, which 
has nineteen on each side, being divided by a red square charged 
with a six-foil." (Vol. i. pt. 1. p. 70.) 

It is reported in the MS. of the Lives of the Abbots of Glou- 

* See the coloured plates in Stothard's Monumental Effigies of Great Bri- 
tain, in which literary treasure the figures are restored as they were originally 
painted and decorated. 



208 System and Principles of Colouring pursued 

cester, from Serlo, the first abbot, to the death of Walter Pro- 
cester in 1412, that John Wygmore, a person of much culti- 
vated taste, desired that his great dining-room should be painted 
with portraits of all the English sovereigns who preceded 
Edward II., by the time a sumptuous feast should be given 
there, at which he would be present. {Walpoles Anecdotes of 
Painting) with notes by Dallaway, p. 40.) It was customary to 
hano- up in the ancient halls the portraits and arms of distinguished 
persons, with their names painted on a tablet. The same was 
observed upon the occasion of grand entertainments, when each 
knight suspended his shield behind him ; a practice which led 
to the introduction of sculptured works ; and, as these were 
decked with gorgeous colouring, they must have been an internal 
embellishment which added considerably to the splendour of 
castle halls and other edifices which contained them.* 

In that style of architecture which followed the Early English, 
called the Enriched English, or the Decorated Gothic, and which 
flourished to the end of Edward III.'s reign, heraldic orna- 
ments were abundantly used by architects ; and at that time it 
was usual for warriors to dedicate trophies to a propitiatory 
saint, over whose shrine they were suspended. Subsequently, 
the bearings of the knights, and the proceedings of jousts or 
tournaments, were painted in fresco on the walls, or stained on 
glass, whereon was sometimes seen the shadow of the departed 
knight, with his hands clasped in prayer, and, as it was then ex- 
pressed, revetit de son blazon. {Donaldson on Heraldry, and its 
Connexion with Gothic Architecture.) 

St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, rebuilt by Edward III., 
surpassed in its construction, and the profuse show of internal 
decoration, every other in England, and rivalled La Sainte 
Chapelle at Paris, f The ornamental painting and glazing of 
this chapel were commenced about 1350, and the works were 
carried on for several years afterwards. The account of ex- 
penses in the Fabric Rolls supply us with very satisfactory inform- 
ation respecting the artists and master- work men, chiefly our 
own countrymen, who were employed, and also include some 
notices connected with the history of oil-painting. Hugh de 
St. Albans appears to have been the foreman ; as he is styled, in 
the Patent Rolls, " the disposer of the works of the painters, and 
orderer of the drawings." To the chief artists were intrusted 

* Dallaway on Heraldry. Distemper painting applied to the emblazoning 
of arms, either upon wood or stone, was with colours prepared with oil and 
resinous gums. (p. 37.) 

f La Sainte Chapelle, at Paris, was built by St. Louis ; begun in 1248, and 
finished in 1274, from the designs of Pierre de Montreuil, an eminent French 
architect, in 1275. The interior was so excellently carved and painted, under 
the inspection of Raoul, the famous goldsmith, that it had, previously to the 
erection of St. Stephen's Chapel by our Edward III., no rival in point of 
splendid embellishment. (Dal/awai/'s Discourses on Architecture.) 



in the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. 209 

the power of choosing their assistants, and making them serve 
under the king's wages. 

I will now lay before the reader some scraps from ancient 
memoranda, thinking they tend to throw much light upon the 
subject in hand.* 

"1351. June 18. To John Tynbetre (i. e. the tin- 
beater), for h, lb. of teynt, for the painting of the angels, Is. &d." 
After the fire which consumed the Houses of Parliament, almost 
the only vestige of the once magnificent paintings indicated 
figures of angels, carrying before them fine tapestry hangings. 
There are several items of payment to J. Tynbetre for " leaves of 
tin, to make the pryntes for the painting of the chapel. " Ano- 
ther item is for one pair of sheers to cut the leaves of tin. The 
prints were placed on the marble columns in the chapel ; and a 
writer in the Gentleman' s Magazine (vol. v. new series, p. 35.) 
says that, "since the fire of October, 1834, on one of those 
marble columns he saw one of them which had indeed entirely 
lost all its colours by the action of the flames ; but its substance 
was still considerable, and raised in high relief upon the marble. 
It is pretty clear that they were produced by what is now called 
stencil-work. Perforations were made in the leaves of the tin, 
according to the parts required to be covered with a certain 
pattern ; and thus a thick coat of paint was worked into the 
cavity, and left on the surface in high relief, having almost the 
same effect as modern mouldings in putty, composition, or 
papier mac/ie, and, at the same time, of a variety of brilliant 
colours. " 

"1351. June 20. To John Elham and Gilbert Pakering, 
painters working on the chapel, as well on the tablements as 
on the printing of the east end of the king's chapel, six days at 
lOrf. per day, each 10s." On the same (for, as appears from the 
entries on the Rolls, the windows of St. Stephen's Chapel were 
painted, whilst the other embellishments were made in the 
interior of the building), " Master John de Chester, glazier, for 
working on the drawing of several images for the glass windows 

f" T 1 A 1 

of the king's chapel," had the weekly wages of 7s. John Athe- 
lard, John Lincoln, Simon Lenne, John Lenton, and Godman 
de Lenton, five master-glaziers, for working there on similar 
drawings, the lower wages of 6s. per week. 

" June 20. To William Eus, and fourteen other glaziers, 
working at the chapel, on the cutting and joining of the glass 
for the windows, &c. " Hence, we may suppose that the painted 

* See Smith's Antiquities of Westminster Abbey, which gives several coloured 
engravings of specimens of painting and painted glass from St. Stephen's Cha- 
pef; exhibiting, as the author states, every colour known in the practice of 
staining glass. Those of sculpture show with what colours the architectural 
members were painted. 

Vol. V. — No. 51. p 



210 System and Principles of Colouring pursued 

windows were, for the most part, executed by glaziers. There 
were some whose business it was to shape, lay, and join the 
glass after the process of annealing. The tables on which the 
designs for the painted windows were drawn were whitened and 
washed with beer; and the glass was cooled with it when 
vitrified. 

" June 26. To John Lightgrave, for 600 leaves of gold for 
embellishing the tablements of the chapel, at 5s. per 100, 
1/. 105. " The quantity of gold leaf used was very great, and 
of great purity: it was thicker than what is ordinarily obtained. 
For the gilding, the surface of the stone was first made smooth, 
to receive some coat of colour with oil, over which the gold leaf 
was placed, and which was afterwards covered with white, or 
transparent, varnish. 

" July 16. To Edward Paynell, and three others, laying on 
gold and pryntes in the chapel, at 5d. per day each, 1 2s. 

" July 24. To the same, and five others, for making pryntes, 
and placing them in the chapel, five days as before, 155. 

" To Master Hugh de St. Albans, for 4 flagons of painter's 
oil, 16s. 

" To the same, for two flagons of cole, 2d* 

" To the same, for a pound and a half of oker, 3d. ; and for 
half a pound of cynople, for painting the upper chapel, 17s. 3d. 

" August 13. To John Lightgrave, for 300 leaves of silver, 
for the painting of a certain window to counterfeit glass, at Sd. 
per 100. 

" To the same, for 2 lbs. of vert-de-grece for the same, Is. Sd. 

" To the same, for 3 lbs. of vermilion, for .the same, 6s." 

Vermilion was one of the most prevalent colours in the archi- 
tectural members. Vermilion or red lead, with oil, was found 
by Mr. Haslam, who made a chemical analysis of all the pig- 
ments, to be immediately painted on the stone, as a priming. 

" August 15. To Lonyn de Bruges, for 6^ lbs. of white 
varnish, at 9d., 4s. I0^d. 

" For thirty peacocks' and swans' feathers, and squirrels' tails, 
for the painters' pencils, 2\d. 

" August 27. To Nicholas Chaunser, for fifteen ells of 
canvass, to cover the images of the kings to be painted, 6s. 8d. 

" September 3. To George Cosyn, for one quartern of 
royal paper, to make the painters' patrons [patterns], lOd. 

" September 19. For 1 lb. of hog's hair, for the painters' 
pencils, Is. 

" October 3. To John Lightgrave, for 51 lbs. of white lead, 
for painting the chapel, at 2\d. per pound, 10s. 1\d. 

* Among the prices of colours and materials for the painting at Ely, are 
" four bushels of scrowes, or shreds of leather, to make size called cole, 18</." 
(Stevenson's Supplement to Sentham's Eli/, folio, 1817, p 05.) 



in the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. 211 

" October 10. To Thomas de Dadyngton and Robert Yer- 
desle, grinding different colours for painting the glass, five days, 
at 4i<£, 3s. 9£d." Silver filings, geet (or jet), and ornement (or 
orpiment) are enumerated among the articles required for paint- 
ing on glass.* 

Closing the account of St. Stephen's Chapel with these ex- 
tracts, let us now turn our attention to the painted and stained 
glass in this century. 

Great, sublime, and beautiful was the accession to architecture 
by the glass of many colours, which intercepted not only the 
light of heaven, as it pierced through the windows, but cast upon 
the painted surface of the walls a rich variety of tints, so admir- 
ably in unison with the glazed floor and high uplifted roof. 

Gothic tracery had, about the reign of Edward TIL, reached 
its zenith of excellence ; and at this period the architects be- 
stowed much care, as well in designing their windows as in de- 
picting subjects on them. They were divided by mullions, and 
finished in their heads by segments of circles and rosettes ; in 
which there were elegance of form and graceful flow of outline. 
In the divisions produced by its ramifications, escutcheons, or 
coats of arms, were diapered in their proper colours, and mo- 
saics, foliage, and grotesques, on a ruby or other ground. The 
vertical compartments were generally filled with the figure of a 
prophet, patriarch, king, or ecclesiastic of the higher orders, 
shrouded in a niche, beneath a canopy ; while a pedestal, or the 
armorial bearings of each, occupied the space below ; the whole 
being bordered by roses, fleurs-de-lis, oak or vine leaves. f 

A singular specimen of design on painted glass at this 
period, is the window on the north side of the chancel of Dor- 
chester Church, Oxfordshire, which represents the patriarch Jesse 
lying on his back on the window-sill, with a stem growing out of 
his body, and spreading itself into five branches on each side. 
These branches constitute the mullions and tracery of the win- 
dow, and support in all twenty-five statues, the progeny of the 
patriarch, which was predicted in chap. xi. of Isaiah, v. 1. : — 
" And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and 
a branch shall grow out of his roots." This was a favourite 

* On the Fabric Rolls of Exeter Cathedral, dated 1318-19, is charged \2d. 
for an iron plate to grind colours on; and in that of 1320-21, considerable 
quantities of verdigris and vermilion are mentioned. The decorative finishing 
of the interior of the cathedral, by gilding and painting, was executed under 
Bishop Lacy. In the Roll of 1437-38, John Budde, " peyntor " of Exeter, 
is paid 101s. for painting fifty-seven nodi (keystones, or bosses,) in the south 
ambulatory. (Brit ton's Exeter Cathedral.') For some curious documents on 
the painting of walls and windows, see Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire, 
p. 355, 35G. 

f Such as these are etched and coloured in Carter's Ancient Painting and 
Sculpture, vol. ii. 

p 2 



212 System and Principles of Colouring pursued 

subject for glass-painting or tapestry; and Fosbrooke weaves 

it into his poem, the Economy of the Monastic Life, in this 

couplet : — 

" And windows erst, where, robed, a gorgeous show 
Of Jesse's honour'd race were ranged, a tinted row." 

The exact period when stained glass was first introduced into 
the houses of kings and nobles is uncertain. Our morning star, 
Chaucer, in his Drime, v. 312., describes the story of the siege 
of Troy, as painted on the windows of his own house ; and from 
this we may infer that such embellishments were not confined to 
ecclesiastical edifices of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
But we have an authority which removes all doubt, if any exists, 
on this point. Le Noir informs us that Charles V. of France, 
who lived in the time of Chaucer, ornamented not only his 
chapels, but the apartments in his castles, with stained glass. 

In the year 1405, the great east window in York Minster was 
executed by Thornton of Coventry, which he was to finish in 
less than three years. For his own work he received 4s. a week ; 
and the glass, which he supplied, cost Is. a square superficial 
foot, before it was formed into figures and put up.* In the de- 
signs for large windows, and in the disposing of tints, an evident 
improvement took place, as was the case with a variety of en- 
richments admitted by our Gothic architects into church archi- 
tecture in all its ornamental parts. The glaziers furnished the 
stained glass, which was cut into various shapes, and enclosed 
with lead, as the colours were required. A pattern sheet, or de- 
sign, called a " vidimus," from which the windows were wrought, 
was prepared by the same artists who painted the walls in fresco. 
In the founderies, the glass was made of different colours : it was 
a practice, therefore, with the ancient artists to arrange such 
pieces in some sort of symmetry, like mosaic-work ; and this, 
which was very simple, gave the first idea of painting on glass. 
This assemblage of pieces, or panes, was in time dispensed with, 
and more regular designs attempted. Figures and entire histo- 
ries were represented, which were drawn upon white glass, and 
the colours tempered with size, as in distemper painting. As 
our early artists knew not the principles of chiaro scuro, they 
compensated in some degree for the want of them by drawing 
the contours of the figures in strong outline, hatching the dra- 
peries in black. A bright transparent red was chosen for the 
flesh-colours, upon which they drew with black the features of 
the face and other parts of the body. When this kind of paint- 
ing was much improved, and was used by the Gothic architects 

* This window is engraved in Drake's Eboracum ; or, the History and Ant* 
(jui/ic.i of the City of York : folio, 1736. The upper part is a piece of elaborate 
tracery, filled with whole-length figures and portraits ; the rest is divided into 
squares, which take in almost the whole history of the Bible. 



in the Embellishment of Gothic Buildings. 213 

for adorning- churches, basilicas, &c, the colours became incor- 
porated with the glass itself, by exposing them to the fire after 
they had been laid on. (Ilees's Cyclopaedia: and Hawkins's 
History of the Origin and Establishment of Gothic Architecture, 
with an Inquiry into the Mode of painting upon and staining 
Glass, as practised in the Ecclesiastical Structures of the Middle 
Ages; 8vo, London, 1813.) 

All the cathedral, conventual, or larger parish churches of 
the fifteenth century, had many spacious windows of stained glass, 
exhibiting figures individually placed, sometimes accompanied 
by angels, clothed in peacock's feathers, who held the escut- 
cheons. Windows * at Cirencester, in Gloucestershire, show, 
from being recom posed from the fragments of many others, — 

" Shapes that with one broad glare the gazer strike, 
Kings, bishops, nuns, apostles, all alike." T. Warton. 

Stained f, or painted, glass was more generally to be seen in castles 
and private houses of the nobility, during this century. (Hist, of 
Stained Glass in England; Gent. Mag., vol. Ixxxvii. part 1., 
1817.) 

Of that finished style of pointed architecture, in the time of 
Henry VII., is the Priory Church at Malvern, which has been 
designated " another Westminster Abbey. " Henry VII. em> 
bellished this church with stained glass windows, of unrivalled 
execution, and possessing great boldness of design, not inferior 
to the masterpieces of M. Angelo. % The two circular ends of 
the church, at the approach to the nave, are partly faced with 
glazed tiles, covered with writings, and various ornaments 
common to heraldry. The pavement of the church, which has 
been despoiled of many of its tesserse, is inlaid with similar 
tiles ; but much conjecture has arisen respecting their origin. 

* Coloured in Lyson's Magna Britannia, Gloucestershire. 

■j- The ancient method of glass-painting still remains the same; and it is a 
false notion that the art has ever been lost ; under patronage, and with the 
advance of chemistry, we can achieve even more than the ancients ; but the 
past will blind us to the advantages which we possess in our own times. I 
may notice a window now executing for Upwell Church, near Wisbeach, by 
Messrs. Hoadley and Oldfield, which shows that England can boast of artists 
in this way equal in talent to any in the world. At Huddersfield, Yorkshire, 
there has recently been put up an east window by Messrs. Ward and Nixon, 
which bears me out in my assertion as to the fallacy of the opinion so much 
entertained. In this performance there are some splendid ruby tints, which 
would vie with those of old. 

What is literally called stained glass is not so expensive as the public ima- 
gine. The pigments made use of by the artist in the present day are nearly all 
derived from metals ; but Mr. Nixon informed me that silver alone stains glass, 
and by it we may get every shade of colour, from the palest yellow, going on 
to orange, up to a deep red ; and it leaves no visible alteration on the surface, 
differing, in this particular, from all our other colours. 

X See Brayley's Historical Illustrator, from which the subjoined account is 
deduced. 

p 3 



21 4 Colow iii« pursued in Gothic Architecture. 

The size of these tiles, mostly of a red or brown colour, is 
about \\ in. square, and \\ in. thick. The arms and letters 
were impressed upon them whilst soft, and the parts that were 
sunk filled up with differently coloured clays, as orange, &c. ; 
the whole being partially vitrified. But there were other tiles 
that our forefathers used, which were of a more perishable 
nature, from having the devices merely painted on the surface, 
and baked in. On the greater number of the tiles is an inscrip- 
tion in old English characters, which would read as follows, 
when divested of its quaint and obsolete orthography : — 
" Think, man ! thy life will not endure for ever. What thou 
dost thyself, of that thou art sure; but that which thou leavest 
unto thv director's care, it is but a chance that it will ever avail 
thee." (Braylcg, as above, p. 181.) 

The conventual and the parochial churches were supplied 
with tiles from the greater abbeys, that were provided with 
kilns, for the purpose of preparing them after the manner of 
porcelain; and the monks, who manifested so much ingenuity in 
these things, having acquired a knowledge of this branch of 
encaustic painting, amused their leisure time by designing and 
finishing them. (Dallaxvai/'s Inquiries into the Origin and Pro- 
gress of the Science of Heraldry in Englcmd. 4to. Gloucester, 
1793.) 

Often was the great expense at which the regular clergy 
adorned the sumptuous architecture of their monasteries made 
the theme of scorn and satire by the poets of these times ; 
assisted as they were in their productions by the usages which 
then prevailed : and there was no object for which the Domi- 
nicans, in particular, so eagerly solicited money as for stained 
glass for their chapels. 

Towards the close of the fifteenth century, as Dallaway acquaints 
us, John Fane, a wealthy merchant of London, embarked in a 
Spanish vessel, bound from a Flemish port for South America, 
laden with stained glass ; and made known his liking to the 
storied windows, by building a church in the Gothic style fol- 
ks reception. [Anecdotes of' the Arts.) Thus, in those days 
were sown the seeds of perverted religion. Gaudy and mys- 
tical pictures pampered the pride of the people, and misled the 
ignorant poor. But can we wonder that the founders of churches 
evinced their partiality for those blazoned windows, which 
teemed with such beautiful imagery ? for, at mid-day, when the 
sun's rays poured forth their flood of dazzling light; or at 
night, when the moon shed her beams across the chancel, illu- 
mined by large waxen lights placed about the altar; the effect 
must have been truly captivating and sublime. 

March, 1838. 



Notes on modern Architecture. 215 

Art. III. Notes on modem Architecture. By Amicus. 

No. 4. 
Much display is frequently seen in street architecture, but it 
is not always governed by good taste. In Store Street, Bed- 
ford Square, there is a row of unpretending houses, which, for 
simplicity and harmony, deserve to be noticed, although they 
cannot boast of any great stretch of imagination or originality. 
The ground stories are occupied by shops, which have a con- 
tinued cornice, unbroken, and supporting the balconies of the 
one-pair floors ; thus forming a line of connexion which gives 
an agreeable unity to the design. The shops project some little 
distance from the wall of the houses ; and the balconies, forming 
part of the projection, give the appearance of an additional 
decoration, rather than a necessary adjunct to them ; and, as 
the shop fronts are of a less substantial material, the idea of 
weakness is not so apparent as when they are placed within the 
walls of each house ; and, had the occupants been content that 
the same colour should be carried through the whole building, 
more particularly in this story, the harmony would have been 
nearly complete. More substantial pilasters would have added 
to the consequence, as well as the consistency, of the design. 
Thus much for the shop fronts, which are always difficult things 
to manage. The houses are decorated, on the one pair, with 
architraved windows, having segmental pediments over them ; 
the second and third floor windows have also architraves; 
between these floors is a modillioned cornice, just sufficiently 
rich to produce a somewhat sparkling effect of light and shade, 
and not too rich for this description of houses. The windows 
are coupled ; but, as the vertical channel, slightly sunk at the 
party walls, marks distinctly the separation of the houses, I 
do not so much object to this arrangement, as necessity, in a 
great measure, may be the cause of it. Three windows would 
have crowded the exterior, and one would not have been suffi- 
cient, without making it too wide for the interior, and thereby 
injuring the effect of the exterior simplicity of the design. One, 
or three, windows is best, in point of design, for the interior of a 
room ; as the centre is then defined, and the eye is not dis- 
turbed by the division of light. I hold it a material part of 
composition, that prominent effects should not be divided. A 
centre window produces a body of light forming a main and 
leading feature ; and it gradually becomes less important as it 
recedes to the farthest parts of the room. Three windows 
produce the same effect; but two divide the light, and a 
shadow is thrown by the central pier where light is required. 
In these houses, as my intention is merely to speak of external 
effect, this objection is pointed out in this place only as a 

general hint. 

5 p 4 



216 Notes on modern Architecture. 

The vertical channel marking the boundary of each ho:, e 
leaves nothing for deception : the imagination will never recog- 
nise one building by this row; they are what they appear to be, 
distinct and separate ; yet they are united in point of compo- 
sition, and produce, collectively, harmony of design, and, indi- 
vidually, fitness and propriety, equally satisfactory to the mind. 
The segmental pediments over the windows may be objected to 
by some ; but I do not myself see so much objection to this form 
as even that of the two inclined planes, which always conveys 
the idea of the end of a roof. I look upon pediments over 
windows, generally, as an additional ornament, serving to give 
consequence as well as shelter ; but, as they abut against the 
wall, the segment is, perhaps, as little objectionable as the angular 
one, and it conveys less idea of the termination of a roof. 
Horizontal cornices are decidedly the most correct in this situ- 
ation ; but I may be called over-fastidious, if I say other forms 
should be totally rejected. Although there is little in these 
houses that can be said to be removed from the every-day style, 
they present a far better study for reasonable architecture than 
all the affected " crankums " of would-be originality, which 
mark many of the productions of our streets. In these houses, 
the necessary wants of the occupants appear to have been 
studied ; the shops, to display their articles of trade advanta- 
geously ; and the windows of the upper stories, to admit suffi- 
cient light for the comforts of private life. These are the mere 
necessary requisites : holes in the wall are absolutely enough for 
this purpose; but, in a country of high civilisation, something 
more is sought for. The necessary vanity created by our station 
in society must needs be satisfied, and this is to be done only 
by outward show, which, when governed by reason, assumes a 
high mental character. Now, as architecture first supplies our 
wants, then our wishes, and ultimately satisfies our minds, let us 
take these standards for our precedents, and note some of the 
buildings we are constantly seeing. 

First, let us once more refer to the houses in Store Street ; 
the continued line of the ground floor, and balconies over ; the 
similarity of the windows of the first floor, marking a less 
degree of decoration than the shops, where all importance is 
centred ; the rows of equal-sized windows in the two-pair and 
three-pair floors, each assuming its proper degree of ornament; 
the enriched cornice, which apparently marks the place of a 
floor, or tie to strengthen and give solidity to the design, and, 
from its consequence and situation, properly enriched ; and the 
upper cornice simple and unimportant : these, together, form a 
reasonable design, equally satisfactory to our physical and mental 
senses. It has been said that these simple rules, if strictly 
adhered to, would be the means of limiting our designs, and 



Notes on modern Architecture. 217 

fettering genius, which should not be restrained in its flights of 
imagination ; it would also strip architecture of its entire deco- 
rations ; the Doric triglyph, the Ionic dentil, and Corinthian 
modillion, with their different grades of enrichments, would be 
banished at one fell swoop. Not so ; for, whatever style of archi- 
tecture we. may wish to imitate, its characteristics may be carried 
out perfectly in accordance with these rules. If we only com- 
mence, in designing a building, by divesting ourselves as much 
as possible of all the known architectural forms we have been 
so constantly imitating, to the exclusion of all original art, 
decoration suited to the subject will necessarily arise out of the 
bare materials. The uses of the building, the station of the 
occupants, and the materials of construction, are alone sufficient 
to form our design upon ; and it is quite impossible to conceive 
to how great an extent of dignity, grandeur, and ornament this 
might lead. 

The houses now erecting opposite the Victoria Gate, Hyde 
Park, except the centre, form a very good general design, in 
what I may call the imitative style of architecture ; but an 
attempt to give a higher degree of decoration to the " hole in 
the wall " of the centre houses completely disunites the design. 
The simplicity of the architraved windows, in an uninterrupted 
line, is more agreeable and satisfactory, from their appropriate 
decoration, as well as their necessary form and situation, than 
the highly decorated windows of the centre compartments. A 
row of houses of such extent as this row is to be, and where 
the object is to produce uniformity of design in one great mass, 
unless some decree of variation be introduced, in form or 
detail, frequently becomes monotonous : but the great difficulty 
is to produce that variety, and, at the same time, to preserve the 
unity of the composition. The centre may be considered the 
point from which every thing should emanate, and to which 
every thing should tend and be linked : a decided alteration of 
forms will always be fatal to the composition, and, I think, these 
houses illustrate the fact. The cornices are the only connecting 
lines in the building; the windows of the centre are totally 
opposite, in design, to those of the sides : this is enough of 
itself to destroy the unity which it was intended to convey. 
But the windows of the centre assume a decoration which 
appears to have no connexion with any other feature in the 
buildings. I presume the style of architecture which it was 
intended to imitate is Palladian. With regard to the sides, the 
imitation can scarcely be complained of; but the three-quarter 
columns, with pedestals, entablature, and, I believe, pediments 
over them, merely forming a decoration to the windows, are 
completely out of place. This arrangement is applied to the 
ground and one-pair floors, with only the variation of the order 



218 Notes on modem Architecture. 

of architecture. The lines of the entablature are not continued 
on the face of the wall (which, had this been the case, would 
have improved them in some degree), but abruptly return against 
it; and, to add to these incongruities, the entablatures are 
broken into three parts, and the one in the centre into five parts. 
The effect of this great mass of centre buildings is now com- 
pletely destroyed. Here might have been shown some bold and 
vigorous imagination, that would have combined with the sides, 
and produced a design worthy of the size of the houses, and the 
situation in which they are placed. By the introduction of the 
orders on such an insignificant scale, the windows actually 
appear of shorter proportions than those of the sides, in conse- 
quence of their being encumbered by their dressings. In every 
respect, in this part of the buildings, the orders are injudiciously 
applied; for we generally consider the style of architecture com- 
pletely marked by the order employed. For instance, White- 
hall Chapel is in the Italian style, with two orders, Ionic and 
Composite : these are proper characteristics of the decoration of 
this building, as the whole of each story is occupied by its 
order, and the plinths and cornices are presumed to mark the 
different floors, and to form the connecting ties and bearers ; but 
this is not the case in the buildings at Bayswater. Here the 
style may be called Italian ; but the orders are placed in such 
situations, that they cannot mark the distinction between floors, 
nor can they convey to us the idea of strengthening ties by the 
entablatures, or of efficient supports by the columns. I have, 
in a former paper, observed that columns should stand out from 
the wall, and in such situations as would give to them import- 
ance; and, as we always associate them in our minds as the 
main props of a building, when they depend upon that build- 
ing for support, their utility is violated, their dignity humbled, 
and they can no longer be considered as essential supports to 
the fabric. 

The Royal Institution, in Albemarle Street, presents a formi- 
dable appearance in street architecture, for it must come under 
that title. I know many persons have called it a strictly clas- 
sical design, and say it is perfectly beautiful ; but these opinions 
arise from the want of a strict reasoning knowledge of architecture. 
What I have endeavoured to point out, as some of the leading 
rules of composition, are very easily attained by non-professional 
persons, and, with little observation, would serve as a basis upon 
which to found their criticism. 

When you do not see the windows ; when you are unac- 
quainted with the fact that the columns are little more than 
halves ; in short, when you are in such a situation in the street 
as to get a distant view of the columns alone, gradually dimi- 
nishing in perspective, you are rather struck with the richness of 



Candidas Note-Book. 219 

the building ; but every step you approach towards it, by as 
many steps it recedes in your estimation : you are first certain 
that the columns are not what they appeared to be ; they do not ' 
stand alone; the deeply recessed portico vanishes from your 
mind ; and the magnificent portal, which you had instinctively 
conjured up as the mighty entrance to this gorgeous fabric, is 
for ever erased. However you might feel inclined to treasure in 
your mind the unbidden vision, you are soon forced to de- 
scend to facts, stubborn facts : no less than three floors are 
crowded within the space of one ; or what ought to appear one, 
for there is no line between them, and no connexion of string 
course, that in the least indicates the fact that the three are 
distinct floors ; the little windows are squeezed up within their 
confined spaces, like mere peep-holes ; and the doors (for 
there are three of these openings, to bring our lofty visions to 
realities) are small and mean, and without the least decoration 
to distinguish them from the windows. Had the building been 
only decorated in the windows and doors, without an}* ostenta- 
tion of Corinthian columns, a substantial design might have 
been produced : even enrichments might have been carried 
to a great extent; and the very difficulties which the subject 
presented, by a little stretch of imagination, might have 
been the means of triumphant success. But, alas, for architec- 
ture ! Is she never to shake off her trammels ? Would we had 
never known the great works of antiquity, if our knowledge is 
only to be used in their misapplication ! 

As soon as an opportunity occurs for the erection of a mag- 
nificent building, the memorv of the architect is strained for 
precedent. Visions of all the gorgeous palaces of ancient Rome, 
and the simple grandeur of the Athenian Acropolis, flit before 
his eyes ; temples on temples crowd on his imagination, and 
he flies to the traveller's stores. Greece and Rome are at 
once reproduced upon his paper ; and, surveying his work with 
gratification, he points out to his admiring friends the temples 
and columns he has scrupulously copied in his design ! A few 
high-sounding names, judiciously applied, complete his success, 
and his hearers lift up their hands in amazement, and cry, 
" Beautiful ! " " Classical !" " Wonderful genius ! " &c. 

London, March, 1838. 



Art. IV. Candiduss Note-Book. 

Fasciculus XI. 

" Sicut meus est raos, 
Nescio quid meditans nugarum • et totus in illis." 

I. Blank panels are no better than gratuitous solecisms in 
architecture; inasmuch as, while they are introduced forthe nonce, 



220 Candidas? s Note-Book. 

and without the slightest plea of utility, they are worse than un- 
meaning, because they only point out what is omitted. No one, 
as far as I know, ever yet took it into his head to decorate an 
apartment by hanging up empty picture-frames in it ; yet the 
absurdity in the one case would be no greater than in the other : 
for what is a panel sunk in the face of a wall, except a frame for 
a subject in relief, or sculptured ornament of some sort. Nay, 
more frequently than not, so far from contributing in any degree 
to embellishment, they give an air of penury and poverty to a 
building, being left quite bare in themselves, without mouldings 
of any kind to serve as a finishing. Nevertheless, we must sup- 
pose some architects have considered them highlj' tasteful and or- 
namental, from their making such frequent use of them: besides 
which, it must be confessed that they have the recommendation 
of being wonderously cheap ; for, while they cost nothing to 
execute, neither do they put the architect to the expense of a 
single idea. 

II. I have just been looking over, for the first time, Dubut's 
Architecture Chile { Paris, 1803), in which I have been greatly dis- 
appointed, even in the execution of its outline plates, they being, 
with the exception of the frontispiece, which is nearly the only 
good thing in the work, very tame and spiritless. In regard to 
thedesigns themselves, they exhibit a most wearisome monotony, 
whether taken collectively or individually, and much extrava- 
gance in their general idea, attended with no less frigidity in the 
working it out; affected pomposity without any approach to 
richness, and no variety in detail. In fact, there is hardly an 
idea to be derived from them all put together ; although it 
would seem that the main use of such collections of mere designs 
is, to suggest hints that may afterwards be turned to account. 
In regard to internal decoration, which one would imagine to be 
not the least important part in domestic architecture, the work 
is an absolute blank ; for, although there are sections, they are 
allowed to exhibit no more than bare walls, and mere openings 
for doors, without even the most ordinary architectural finish. 
The only novel and really good idea in the book is that of show- 
ing in one plate the relative sizes of all the plans, drawn to the 
same scale. This deserves to be adopted in similar publications, 
and would be particularly interesting and useful, besides serving, 
in some measure, as a table of contents, in Stuart's Athens^ 
Desgodetz's Motne, for instance; one plate being made to contain 
all the plans, a second all the facades of the buildings illustrated 
in the other engravings. 

III. It is somewhat tantalising on the part of Woods, that he 
has not given any sketch of what would, I dare say, have been 
quite a novelty to most of his readers, infinitely more so than the 
subjects of many of his cuts, and an exceedingly welcome one 



Candidus's Notc-BooJc. 221 

also, unless he has greatly overrated the thing itself in his ac- 
count of it. Speaking of the Palazzo Mattei at Rome, he tells 
us that in the lower court are some valuable fragments of archi- 
tectural ornaments, built up in the walls ; " and, in particular, 
two semicircular windows^ where the rich foliage, which occupies 
a part of the opening, shows that the ancients knew how to pro- 
duce an effect somewhat similar to that of the tracery in our 
Gothic windows, and in some respects superior to it, without at 
all departing from the character of their own architecture." So, 
then, it seems there is a genuine classical novelty in store, which 
no one, not even Woods himself, has yet served up to us upon 
paper. 

IV. Greatly is it to be hoped that, whatever may be erected 
in the centre of Trafalgar Square, it will not be another huge 
column. There is already one thing too many of the kind in 
the metropolis ; a single specimen of what excludes all variety or 
design being quite sufficient to satisfy the most voracious curiosity. 
What reason can be argued in favourof having a column on that 
site, I know not : certainly, there are several reasons against it, 
independently of the one included in the above remark. In the 
first place, there is the York Column just by ; in the second, a 
lofty column would hardly serve as a foil either to the National 
Gallery, or any of the other buildings ; in the third, it would 
itself suffer by comparison with the steeple of St. Martin's 
Church, which is nearly 200 ft. high. Let it be the proposed 
monument to Nelson, or anything else, which is to embellish 
that site, I should say it ought to be designed with reference to 
the existing buildings, so as to ?et them off to as much advantage 
as possible, instead of in any degree overpowering them. If it 
must, at all events, be a column, at least let it not be such a one 
as belongs to an entablature, but something of a rostral pillar, a 
professedly ornamental, and certainly most picturesque, object. 
Then, if a statue of Nelson is to be placed on the summit, those 
of other naval commanders might very suitably be put on the 
prows jutting out from the shaft; so as to be attached to the 
shaft itself. In addition to these, there might be zones of bas- 
relief cincturing the shaft at intervals, while other sculpture 
might be introduced in the lower part of the design — namely, 
that which would constitute the base, or platform, supporting 
the pillar itself. 

V. Wei by Pugin has just broken out afresh into a strain of 
invective more furious than ever. His delectable lecture at St. 
Mary's College, Oscott, where it seems he has been appointed 
Professor of Ecclesiastical Antiquities, teems with indiscriminate 
abuse of the whole profession. According to him (for he does 
not qualify his censure by any kind of exception), the architects 
of the present day are, one and all, little better than quacks and 



222 Candidus's Note-Boo/:. 

empirics, dabbling in all styles, and understanding none. Of 
course, Welby considers that he is as infallible as the pope him- 
self; nevertheless, every one is not bound to abide by his opinion, 
particularly as he demands implicit faith in it, taking no trouble 
to bring forward either argument or criticism in support of it; 
though his opinion itself amounts to a declaration that we are all 
completely in the wrong, and, therefore, need most prodigiously to 
be set right. Nevertheless, Welby Pugin may, perhaps, show his 
good sense in abstaining from criticism, being doubtless aware that 
indiscriminate abuse is one thing, and criticism quite another. 

VI. However they may differ in other respects, all books on 
perspective agree in one, which in itself is the reverse of com- 
mendable; namely, in giving for the exemplification of the rules 
the most tasteless objects. No doubt, the simpler the examples 
are, the better; yet it does not therefore follow that there is 
any occasion for their being absolutely uncouth and ugly, not 
to say perfectly hideous, as is very frequently the case. On the 
contrary, it seems desirable that (although such is not the ex- 
press and main purpose), whilst learning perspective, the student 
ought also to acquire a feeling for elegance of form and design ; 
whereas now, supposing him to have any taste at all, he is 
likely to be disgusted with the study itself, merely in con- 
sequence of the deformities it is rendered the vehicle of. If 
not for the sake of the learner, an author ought, for his own cre- 
dit's sake, to show that, besides being acquainted with perspective, 
he is also an dedans formarum spectator. The same number of 
lines that are requisite for describing a clumsy kitchen table 
would suffice to express a piece of furniture of classical design. 
Cccteris paribus, likewise, it takes no more time nor trouble to 
delineate a pleasing well-proportioned building, than it does one 
that is absolutely frightful. Nevertheless, it seems almost to be 
considered a maxim, that the ugliness of the subject tends to set 
off the perspective, and give it an additional value. It is not, 
indeed, to be expected that every teacher of perspective should 
be also an accomplished designer ; yet, although he may not be 
able to invent good illustrations, he can surely select agreeable 
examples for his purpose from among buildings, &c, that really 
exist, or else from drawings. 

VII. It is hardly worth while to say anything further relative 
to Parsey's doctrine, or to notice what has been alleged against 
me by Q., and another correspondent, at page 11)1., further 
than to observe that they are exceedingly precise matter-of-fact 
gentlemen, and somewhat slow of comprehension. No one, I 
conceived, could misapprehend me when I took the liberty of 
recommending the Tower of Babel as a very suitable subject for 
Mr. Parsey; yet Q. very gravely sets me right, by explaining 
what I am just as well aware of as himself, as he might have 



Design for a Church. 



223 



conjectured from what I then said. He further questions the 
correctness of my remark relative to the cut of the Glyptotheca : 
nevertheless, I must still contend that the mode of representation 
there adopted is graphically erroneous, although the perspective 
may be correct according to the point of sight assumed ; for the 
plain reason, that it shows the building as it cannot be seen in 
reality, and shows it, besides, greatly to disadvantage ; therefore 
amounts to taking a licence for the perverse purpose of making 
the object appear very inferior to what it really is ; which may 
very fairly be called a species of falsification, and is erroneous in 
practice, although a drawing so executed may be correct in itself. 
My meaning, I flattered myself, was sufficiently obvious ; yet 
I now find that I was mistaken, and that there are people who 
think it ingenious to show their want of nous. I may take 
this opportunity of remarking that, besides being otherwise 
highly objectionable, the placing the point of sight nearly mid- 
way between the bottom and top of a building occasions a 
most disagreeable and anti-picturesque formality, because the 
lines below will have nearly the same degree of inclination 
upwards as those above have downwards, which, where unavoid- 
able, as in the case of the interior of a room just double the 
height of the eye, is awkward enough ; and, when the same 
effect is produced purposely, quite contrary to the truth of the 
subject, it becomes positively offensive, I might say intolerable. 



Art. V. Design for a Church- By Edward Brigden, Architect, 

Bristol. 

The object principally held in view in this design is the 
attainment of the greatest accommodation for a congregation 
(in point of numbers), with as 
small an expenditure as the 
nature of the case allows. 

It is adapted for the neigh- 
bourhood of a manufacturing 
district. The majority of the 
sittings being free ; and as, of 
course, economy in such cases 
is an object of importance, the 
style is plain and simple, par- 
taking somewhat of the Italian 
character. This edifice may 
be constructed either of brick 
or stone; and, if the stone were 
of that quality that its outward 
appearance might not be pleasing, the walls could be stuccoed. 




224 



Design fur a Church. 





This method, if common wall-work in random or rubble stone 
were introduced, would be the cheapest. 

The arrangement will be seen by the plans of the ground and 
gallery floors. 

Fig. 77. is the ground plan, 
in which // h are vestries, &c. ; 
i i 9 the pulpit and reading-desk ; 
k, entrance under tower ; //, the 
staircases to the gallery. The 
body of the church is 85 ft. by 
60 ft., and it is principally fitted 
up with free sittings. The 
pews (o o) are marked with a 
black line. 

Fig. 78. is the gallery plan. 
In this, m is the belfry, and n n 
the children's seats. 

Fig. 76. shows the west ele- 
vation, and Jig> 80. the south 
elevation. 

Fig. 79. is half the'transverse 
section, showing the seats for 
the children, and the construction of the roof. 

Fig. 81. is the elevation of the gallery front, in which the 
system of arches adopted in the general features of the design 
is kept up. This sweep should be formed of deal, which should 




Improvement to a Cottage Fireplace. 



225 




case the real support, or beam, inside. This beam is to be sup- 
ported on iron pillars, also cased to the form shown in jig. 79., 
and grooved, to give them an appearance of lightness. 

All the figures are drawn to a scale of -14 of an inch to 10 ft. 




This church will contain, on the ground floor, 310 pews and 
520 free seats; on the gallery floor, 672 free seats, and 120 
children's seats: making in all 1622 sittings. 

The expense of building such an edifice, of course, depends 
upon its locality ; but it may be stated, on an average, at from 
5000/. to 6000/.; though, in some situations, it might cost a 
little more. 

Bristol, July, 1836. 



Art. VI. Notice of an Improvement to a Cottage Fireplace. 

By M. Saul. 

I here send you a plan of a cottage fireplace, which 
is found to have several great advantages over the old plan. 
Vol. V. — >*o. 51. q 



226 



Improvement to a Collage Fireplace. 



82 




From inspection of the drawing {.fig- 82.), I presume it will be 
understood that on the grate is fixed a cast-iron plate with a 
circular aperture in the centre at a. It is 8j in. in diameter, 
which just takes a common tea-kettle, and answers well for other- 
sized pans, as I find it is of no moment, the pan being larger 
than the aperture. By this plan the heat is confined in the 
grate ; and, by several experiments, I have proved that anything 
will much sooner boil in this closed grate than in an open one; 
and it also throws out a greater heat in the room, and prevents 
smoke; and, when the fire is not wanted for cooking, there is a 
plate to cover the aperture. It also consumes less fuel, and is a 
sure remedy for a smoky chimney. When an oven is also 
made in the same fireplace, as seen at b, the whole heat is made 
to pass upon the oven by turning the damper in the flue c, 
which is behind the iron plate ; when the smoke is carried up 
the oven flue (d). When the oven is not wanted, the flue d is 
closed with the damper, and then the smoke rises through the 
flue c. A small aperture is made on the top of the iron plate ate, 
to admit any smoke that may arise when putting on the fuel, or 
changing the kettles or pans. 

This plan may be adopted to any grate now in use. It is 
only necessary to get a cast-iron plate the size of the grate. It 
is to rest upon the top bar of the grate, and on the brickwork 
on the back; and a small aperture is to be made for the smoke 
to escape, and an iron plate fixed in front, to prevent the smoke 
from entering the room. 

This closed grate I first adopted in my garden tower, which 
I have lately built on the north road, about one mile from Lan- 
caster ; so that, when I and my friends go to spend an hour or 
two there, I can in a few minutes have it well heated, and hot 
water prepared either for tea, coffee, or punch. 

Sulyard Street, Lancaster, Dec. 1837. 



Domestic Notices : — England. 227 

MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

Art. I. Domestic Notices. 

ENGLAND. 

A Jet d'Eau upwards of SO ft. high. — " On March 9. 1838, the inhabitants 
in the vicinity of the Elephant and Castle, Newington Butts, and the numerous 
passers by at those busy and crowded thoroughfares, were astonished by the 
singular spectacle of a column of water suddenly bursting forth at the corner 
of the New Kent Road, and rising to the surprising height of upwards of 80 ft. 
For about twenty minutes, this magnificent jet (Teau maintained an altitude of 
upwards of 60 or 70 feet. The cause is said to have arisen from the following 
circumstance : — A turncock in the employ of the Vauxhall Water- Works Com- 
pany had been in the habit of leaving the keys, or turning implements, used for 
the main pipe, at a butcher's shop in the Kent Road. A plumber in the 
neighbourhood procured the keys, and turned oft" the main at a time when the 
Company's works, assisted by a new forty-five-horse power steam-engine, were 
in full action, forcing the water to Dockhead, Rotherhithe, and the utmost 
limits of their extensive ramifications in that direction. Such was the re- 
sistance ere the catastrophe, that the action of the steam-engine was impeded 
full two minutes ; until, being taxed to its utmost power, a ferrule on the main 
pipe was forced out, thereby preventing the engine's destruction, and con- 
sequent demolition of the Company's Works, with a loss of life and property 
that might have occurred to a frightful and incalculable extent. The con- 
sequence, however, was, that the whole body of water so forced, exceeding 
five tons per minute, fell on the Rockingham Arms, ami the roofs of 
Messrs. Williams and Sons' extensive premises adjoining thereto, which latter 
were for the time completely submerged, and their valuable stock of mercery 
and drapery greatly damaged, and partially destroyed ; the deluge, in its 
progress, carrying with it the ceilings throughout their buildings." {Morning 
Chronicle, March 16. 1838.) The force of this jet reminds us of our idea of 
forming grand jets in the centre of some of the principal public squares, as 
well as in the canal in St. James's Park. The water might be made to rise in 
a hollow column, which would have as good an effect as if it were one solid 
mass of fluid. The idea readily suggests itself from observing the wick and 
flame of an Argand lamp. There would be very little waste of water in this 
description of fountain; because the same quantity would be continually sent 
up as it fell down. Hence, if the idea should occur, on great occasions, of 
colouring the water in imitation of wine, or of scenting it with essence 
of roses or of oil, or with any other essence that would diffuse an agree- 
able odour in the atmosphere, it might be carried into effect with great ease, 
and at very little expense. — Cond. 

The Art Union. — The Society for the Promotion of the Fine Arts, es- 
tablished under this name at the commencement of last year, is making rapid 
advances in public estimation, and will consequently be able to extend its 
sphere of usefulness. We have already laid before our readers the mode 
pursued by the Society (Vol. IV. p. 262.). Every annual subscriber of one 
guinea is a member; the whole amount of money thus subscribed is ap- 
portioned by the committee into various sums, to be expended in the purchase 
of pictures ; and every member, for each guinea subscribed, has the chance of 
obtaining the right of selecting a picture from one of the public exhibitions, to 
be retained by himself, but paid for by the Society. During the last year, 
although operations were not commenced until late in the season, the sum of 
4S9/. was collected, and thirteen pictures, varying in price from 10/. to 100/., 
were chosen by the holders of the respective prizes. In addition to the 
chance of obtaining a picture of value, and the certainty of aiding in the en- 
couragement of art, which each subscriber of last year possessed, the committee 
have pledged themselves, in their advertisements for the present season, to 

Q 2 



22s Retrospective Criticism. 

cause one of the pictures purchased by the Society to be engraved, and of 
this each subscriber will receive a copy. — G. London, March, 1838. 

Asphaltic Cement. — No fewer than five different companies are advertising 
asphaltic cement. One is called the English Asphalt Company; another, that 
of London, Paris, and Hamburg; a third, Claridge's Patent Asphaltic Com- 
pany, managed by a French gentleman ; a fourth, the British Asphaltum and 
Patent Coal Company, and so on. This last company states that it has 
" been discovered, after various satisfactory experiments, that asphaltum of a 
superior description can be produced in England at a much less rate than that 
imported from the Continent." " It has also been ascertained that, by a com- 
bination of a bituminous material, likewise plentiful in Great Britain, an 
efficient substitute for coal can be produced, at less than half the present 
price." Some good, we trust, will ultimately result to the public from so 
much competition ; but, in the mean time, as all these different asphalts are not 
likely to prove equally good, many persons who make trial of the article will 
probably be sufferers. We understand the British asphalt has been laid 
down in the front garden of the Marquess of Salisbury's house, facing the 
Green Park. The smell is said to be very powerful and disagreeable; but that 
will, of course, be dissipated by time and the weather. — Cond. 

HoweFs Double-action Door Hinges are at present exciting the attention of 
carpenters and builders. They are particularly adapted for folding and swing 
doors, as they admit of the door opening either way, and being folded flat 
back against the wall. As far as we are able to judge, this new hinge deserves 
the patronage of the public. — Cond. 

SCOTLAND. 

The Duke of York 1 's Monument in Edinburgh. — A bronze pedestal for the 
statue of His late Royal Highness the Duke of York arrived at the Castle 
yesterday afternoon, from London. It had come to Leith by sea, and was 
conveyed from that port to the Castle upon a cart, drawn by three horses. 
The statue is to be erected within the precincts of the Castle, and not, as some 
have supposed, in some of the streets of the New Town. The pedestal is about 
8 ft. in height, and the statue 10 ft., making in all about 18 ft. when erected. 
(Scotsman.) 

Art. II. Retrospective Criticism. 

PaBSEY , s Natural Convergence of Perpendiculars, (p. 92.) — Many persons 
are guided by the opinions of others; and, as the observations of Mr. Pocock, 
jun., and Kata Phusin, unhesitatingly announce the impracticability of my 
svstem, they are calculated to arrest enquiry and do me an injury. Permit 
me briefly to answer their leading arguments, which never would have ap- 
peared in print, had I been heard on all I have to say, as Mr. Pocock remarks, 
in " fair discussion." I have only delivered two lectures at any of our 
London institutions, and justice cannot be done to this valuable subject in 
less than six. First, then, Mr. Pocock admits and demonstrates convergence 
and foreshortening of perpendiculars, as well as Kata Phusin, which un- 
questionably falsifies the old system ; and yet he congratulates himself by 
saying, " fortunately for us, then, Mr. Parsey's theory is not correct." This 
he attempts to show by the curves on the retina, and the misplacing of 
pictures; the latter being a distinct question, and an after action to the pro- 
duction of a picture. Mr. Pocock may recollect that in my lectures I demon- 
strated that parallel ordinates project themselves of equal lengths when the 
eye is opposite to the centre line, and that their representation is decided by 
the subtenses, and not by the angles in the eye. As the supposed curvature 
of right lines shown by Mr. Pocock's diagrams, No. 31. and 3k, p. 93., leads 
to many doubts, supposing the retina to he the seat of vision (which it is known 
I question), let a b, fig. 83., represent that concave surface; c d, the side of 
a cube; ef the arc formed in it; then each side will produce a similar plane 
sector of a circle; although the surface of the retina must hold curves, the 



Retr ospecfive Criticism. 



229 




rays must form pyramidal plane triangles, the base at right angles to the axis, 
and, consequently, the image seen a square. The receptive surface being 
spherical, the right-lined base of all images must be at right angles to the axis 
of vision ; and all lines produced from right-lined objects will appear so, on the 
principle of a section of a sphere appearing a right line in its own plane. 
When an object is 
curved ; that is, if d c be J^T"" ~"\ 

a curve, e f will be a 
complex curve,the plane 
sector becoming a curved 
sector; the base or image 
being then similar to 
those shown by Mr. Po- 
cock in his figs. 31. 
and 34., p. 93. Thus, 
it may be seen I do not deviate from mathematical principles, and my prin- 
ciples of vision are not falsified or rendered impracticable. Mr. Pocock's 
next argument is, that pictures, as weil as natural objects, will put themselves 
into perspective: the first put themselves into perspective on the principles of 
solids, the latter on those of surfaces. But remark, it would be ridiculous to 
put a picture into any oblique position to view it ; and any distortion of the 
image it is intended to represent, 
by placing it improperly or unna- 
turally, is a fault in the judgment. 
I cannot see it would be any mis- 
fortune to art or science for my 
theory to be correct. Mr. Pocock, 
in fact, admits my theory, but ques- 
tions its practicability. I am pre- 
pared to submit to any one who 
holds such opinion specimens of 
the effects of the natural system 
with those of the old system, whicli 
never fail to produce a decision in 

my favour. If every one would enter upon the question as fairly and candidly 
as Mr. Pocock expresses himself, subjects of importance might be settled 
agreeably to all parties, and to the benefit of art and science. 

Now, with respect to Kata Phusin's remark, 
that " it appears that perpendiculars do not, in 
general, appear to converge, because they are 
always at right angles to the direction in which 
the spectator is looking ; and they never can be 
represented as converging, because no picture may 
subtend a greater angle than 60° either in breadth 
or height ; " let me say perpendiculars are only 
at right angles to the spectator when the eye is 
midway between their extremes, any more than 
horizontals are. But to answer ail his objections 
to the representation of this unavoidable natural 
effect, let a spectrometer be made as in the diagram, 
Jig. 84. Let a conic front, expanding 60°, be con- 
structed with a square frame (a b c d), attached 
to the base of the cone. On elevating or depress- 
ing the head, the frame or plane of the picture 
will always contain the objects to be represented, 
and what is really seen ; the frame will always be 
truly perpendicular to the vision. Compare then 
the perpendiculars to the horizon with the visual 
perpendiculars, and trifling as well as consider- 

Q 3 





230 Retrospective Criticism. 

able convergence will manifest itself to the eye; which comparative method 
brings the judgment to a conclusion on effect as well as principle. 

I will only add that Kata Phusin errs in saying convergence is trifling, and 
only begins at a distance of 40 yards on viewing an object 200 ft. high. Let 
a b,fig. 85. be 200 ft. ; a c, 40 yards, or 1 20 ft., with the eye at c : then, if the 
object be of the breadth d e throughout, it will appear d e at the bottom, and 
fg at the top, being little more than half its actual width. Thus, it may be 
seen that convergence is more considerable than is anticipated; but, as pro- 
' bably no one has been able to satisfy themselves so fully on all the minutiae of 
the science of vision as I have, I can feel no surprise at meeting with sugges- 
tions from others which have imposed themselves on me in the course of my 
investigation of the subject ; and every one will find me willing to meet any 
objections or opinions in fair and courteous discussion. — Arthur Parset/. 
91. Regent Street, Jan. 2. 1838. 

Mr. Lamb* » brief Hints for the Preservation of the Architectural Remains of 
the Middle Ages. (p. 159.) — It is laudable to treasure up those works of by- 
gone days which are striking memorials of the industry and ability of a people, 
for they tell us their history, and the state of learning to which they had 
arrived, often with far greater truth than written records. It is well to regret 
the decay of those noble buildings which were raised by our forefathers for the 
celebration of Christian worship; they afford such abundant materials to the 
student in producing a design ; but without them he feels unable to the task : 
like the writer, who in vain would sit down to a composition, without the 
help of books, which demands the diligence of enquiry, and the labour of 
research. 

Every man of taste exerts himself in proposing means for the preservation 
of those edifices which show symptoms of ruin : their forms may, perhaps, 
never be lost by the power of the artist's pencil ; but to look upon a time- 
worn pile itself, to see it grey with age, and gradually tottering to ruin, urges 
on us the wish to restore its fallen state ; and, when it has so much suffered 
by time as to render its preservation impossible, then to store up in a proper 
museum (viz. one of architecture) fragments which tend so greatly to eluci- 
date the manners, religion, and capabilities of a nation, is not only useful, 
but most praiseworthy. For these relics of the olden time, and what more 
particularly concerns us, the architectural remains of the middle ages, there 
should be a building raised solely to contain them ; and the architect should 
aim at giving it a character by which we might judge of the end for which 
it was intended. Upon this principle, therefore, I am quite averse to the 
"Hints," or plan, of E. B. Lamb (p. 161.), in having the naves of our ca- 
thedrals used for disposing the fragments, since the uniformity of the ailes 
and nave would at once be destroyed ; in short, I think the " beauty of 
holiness" would be desecrated. Our cathedrals would have the air of a 
museum; and, except when the thundering of the organ burst upon the ear, 
or the feelings of the beholder were aroused whilst he gazed with steadfast eye 
on the awe-inspiring vault above, and the light that streamed through the 
storied windows, the recollection of the sacred place where he was might 
never occur to him, whilst his thoughts were led away b}' dwelling on the 
various stones and pieces of sculpture which cumbered the walls. In edifices, 
I say, raised for far more noble views, the collections of art would be un- 
seemly and highly improper ; but if a portion of the British Museum were 
appropriated for the classification of the remains of our ecclesiastical and 
other buildings, or if a society were formed for this object, much good would 
be done. — Antiqtiarius Londineruis. April 4. 

Arnotfi Stove. — As we strongly recommended this heating apparatus in a 
former Number (p. 120.), we consider it our duty to lose no time in laying 
before our readers some account of the objections which have been raised 
against it. In the Medical Gazette for March 17., there is an article on the 
subject by Julius Jeffreys, Esq., of Kensington, the inventor of that most 
ingenious instrument, the respirator. The article is promised to be con- 



Retrospective Criticism. 231 

tinued through succeeding numbers ; and we have received the permission of 
Mr. Jeffreys, and of the proprietors of the Medical Gazette, to copy the 
articles, or make such extracts from them as we think fit. 

Mr. Jeffreys informs us, in his introduction to his first article, that he is a 
member of the medical profession; and hence his sending his strictures to a 
medical publication. 

" About fifteen years ago, I commenced, in the East Indies, a series of ex- 
periments on the ventilating and cooling of buildings, employing, in some 
instances, an upward, and in others a downward, ventilation. I put to trial a 
variety of mechanical means, and among them a new instrument, which, for 
reasons that will be explained in their proper place, proved to be the most 
effective of any kind of pumping apparatus for ventilation which I have ever 
seen. Subsequently, I was led to introduce several chemical arts into that 
country, which, while they were wholly new to India, had to be conducted in 
a very different manner from similar arts in Europe. My operations were on 
so large a scale as to employ, sometimes, 1000 workmen; and were, for the 
most part, connected with the use of fuel. It became necessary to subject to 
trial most of the furnaces used in the arts, and then to modify them, or to 
devise others suited to the materials, fuel, and climate, of the country. By 
subjecting every operation to a series of unremitted experiments, complete 
success attended all of them in the end ; although the difficulties, in some 
cases, proved such as could scarcely be credited. Indeed, most of my ex- 
periments were directed to the improvement of manufacturing operations, but 
of many of them the object was purely scientific. In all these operations, my 
agents were the rude workmen of the country, to whom every thing they saw 
was new. It became necessary for me to conduct the making not only ot 
large boilers, and other vessels of iron, copper, and lead ; of vats, of wood and 
iron; of pumps, and other hydraulic apparatus; of lathes, presses, and cogged 
machinery; of fire-brick and stoneware of various kinds ; but of furnaces also 
of almost every imaginable form, such as horizontal and dome furnaces ; verti- 
cal, cylindrical, and prismatic kilns ; reverberatory furnaces (one of which, in 
my saltpetre manufactory, was 12 ft. by 10 ft. inside) ; furnaces with the fire in 
the centre; furnaces with side chambers; boiler furnaces of many kinds; 
vaporising kilns ; and a great variety of experimental furnaces and fireplaces, 
much too numerous to detail, In many of these, as is the case in many of the 
arts, the same circulation of hot air obtained, and upon the same principles, as 
in Dr. Arnott's thermometric stove. 

" Having long practised mechanical ventilation, and been extensively en- 
gaged in the use of fuel, my thoughts were, at times, turned to plans for 
warming and ventilating buildings in Europe. In the tropics, the occasion 
for employing any of these did not exist ; but, upon my return to England, three 
years ago, having matured one of them, I had the apparatus necessary made 
in Birmingham. I had not, however, the opportunity of erecting it at the 
time, and I laid my plans aside for a while, and devoted my attention to the 
carrying into effect the principle of an instrument which is now before the 
public, and which was invented shortly after my return to this country. 
About a year after this, I heard that Dr. Arnott had taken up the subject of 
warming apartments ; and, considering that it could not be in better hands, I 
determined to allow my own plans to remain at rest ; but, upon the exami- 
nation of his stove, and the perusal of his work, I have been compelled to 
consider the different kinds of apparatus I have above referred to, of one kind 
of which tha fire is open, and of the other enclosed, to be constructed upon 
principles so superior, that I purpose, ere long, bringing them before the 
public. 

" The revolution which Dr. Arnott would work in the opinions and practice 
of the public on the subject of ventilation, I believe to be, not undesirable 
only, but highly dangerous in its consequence; tending to make the visitations 
of epidemical and pestilential diseases far greater scourges than they are at 
present to our land; and, waiving even the question of ventilation, I am pre* 

n 1 



232 Retrospective Criticism. 

pared, and therefore bound, to show that the instrument which is the chief 
object of his work is by no means the one best suited to the purposes it is 
intended for; and that the modified forms proposed for open fires, to which he 
returns at the close of the work, are singularly defective." (p. 960 — 961.) 

Mr. Jeffreys proposes, in a series of articles, to treat of ventilation. 

" 1. Ventilation in general. 2. Ventilating and warming by recovered 
animal heat. 3. Ventilating and warming by the aid of combustion. 4. Me- 
chanical ventilation." (p. 961.) 

We shall endeavour to give the essence of what Mr. Jeffreys brings forward 
on these subjects ; or, if we find his ideas do not admit of compression, we 
shall avail ourselves of the permission which has been kindly granted us, and 
give them in Ins own words. 

" 1. On Ventilation in general; viz. on the quantity of air desirable for man. 

" In the commencement of Dr. Arnott's book on ventilation, while treating 
of it generally, Dr. Arnott lays down the grand principle of abundance in the 
supply of air, in languaage so forcible and just, that any reader would con- 
sider him the zealous advocate of a system of liberal and copious ventilation. 

" ' There is,' says Dr. Arnott, ' with respect to ventilation, a popular miscon- 
ception and erroneous practice, of a nature the opposite of the total neglect 
described in the former paragraphs : because ventilation is important, there 
are persons, not satisfied with enough, but who demand, at heavy sacrifices, 
what is excess. It would be a similar error, if a man, from knowing that 
water is a necessary of life, should abandon the never-failing well in his garden 
and his convenient home, that he might drink always from the Nile or the 
Ganges. A man needs, per minute, as explained in Art. 10., the oxygen of 
one sixth of a cubical foot of atmospheric air; but, because of the mixture of 
his breath with the air around him, he requires, to be safe, a ventilation supply 
of from two to three cubical feet per minute. Now, the ordinary workman- 
ship of house-builders in England leaves, as crevices round the doors and 
windows, passage for many times three gallons per minute; besides that there 
is the powerful ventilation of the frequent openings of the door when persons 
come and go. Yet there are in England many persons, who, under all cir- 
cumstances, call out for open fires and open windows, and, by the cold currents 
and other concomitants of a ventilation, twenty or a hundred times more than 
necessary, prodigiously waste fuel, and injure or kill their children and friends 
by catarrhs, rheumatism, pleurisies, etc. To these persons it must appear 
wonderful, that in Russia, where, all through the winter, there are only close 
stoves and double windows carefully closed, and no provision made for ven- 
tilation beyond accidental crevices, the people are very healthy, and more 
individuals attain a very advanced age than in almost any other country in 
Europe. In a room of 12 ft. in all its dimensions, and containing, therefore, 
1728 cubical feet of air, there is, without any ventilation whatever, an al- 
lowance of 2 ft. a minute, for one person, for more than fourteen hours.' " 
(Oh Ventilating and Warming, Sec, p. 66.) 

" This paragraph is, perhaps, the most influential in the book, on account of 
which, and of the doctrine it inculcates, it may be considered by far the most 
important. The reader who carefully studies each successive sentence, will 
perceive a gradually progressing departure in the mind of the author from that 
demand for copious ventilation expressed formerly, until he at last closes, by 
giving countenance to the Russian system of what we should call suffocation 
in England. Impressed with a conviction of the prodigious importance of a 
right settlement of the question upon which the author has agitated the public 
mind, I must request my reader's attention to an analysis of each sentence in 
this paragraph. 

" ' There is a popular misconception and erroneous practice, of a nature the 
opposite of the total neglect described in the former paragraphs.' 

" First, let us consider what is the thing here predicated, what is affirmed 
by ' the popular misconception and erroneous practice.' The popular mis- 
conception, and practice, is something which the people in general think, and 



Retrospective Criticism. 235 

do, in regard to ventilation. Now, what they do, in almost every house in the 
land, is to close the doors and windows in cold weather, allowing more or less 
leakage through the crevices; and to employ a fire under an open chimney, 
which, while it warms the apartment, excites such a steady and powerful 
draught in the chimney, as to insure a pressure inwards of fresh air into the 
room at all the crevices ; and what they think is, that this fresh air, if incon- 
venient, is at least highly salubrious to the majority of persons. This, then, is 
' the popular misconception, and erroneous practice.' Again, in the former 
paragraphs, the 'total neglect' of supplying air was not the only thing de- 
scribed ; salutary ventilation was also described, by comparing it to the constant 
flowings of a trout stream ; and a copious supply of fresh air was contended 
for, by show ing how the fishes would perish if deprived of this wonted supply 
of their native element. If illustrations mean anything, if a long line of 
argumentation means anything, the ' misconception, and erroneous practice,' 
of the people of England is a demand for, and a command of, a quantity of 
fresh air in their dwellings, which does, in reality, fall far short of the quantity 
advocated in those former paragraphs. It is next said, ' because ventilation is 
important, there are persons not satisfied with enough, but who demand, at 
heavy sacrifices, what is excess.' It was formerly argued in those paragraphs, 
not that ventilation only was important, but that copious ventilation was so; 
the 'enough' ought, then, to be understood as meaning such copious ven- 
tilation ; but 'the demand, at heavy sacrifices, for what is excess,' means, by 
the whole context, only that demand which is usual in England ; namely, the 
common quantity which enters by the crevices, and passes up our chimneys. 
If the copious ventilation contended for at the beginnii g of the chapter meant 
a less quantity even than this, to what purpose was the strong language there 
employed, and the still more striking illustrations ? Again, as the author is, 
throughout, contending against things which are popular and general, and not 
merely against individual cases of eccentricity, it is a great pity that the 
poignancy of the doctrine now enforced against the usual supply of fresh air 
should be softened down by employing the expression, ' there are persons not 
satisfied with enough;' instead of saying, 'the people in general are not 
satisfied with enough.' By the latter expression, the reader would at once 
perceive that the ordinary quantity of air which it has been considered whole- 
some to let into our houses in the usual way, namely, through the crevices, 
aided by the chimney draught, is the quantity which he is here required to 
consider as excessive; so excessive, indeed, that the following comparison is 
employed to set it forth: — 'It would be a similar error, if a man, from 
knowing that water is a necessary of life, should abandon the never-failing 
well in his garden, that he might drink always from the Nile or the Ganges.' 
The using of this comparison is no other than begging the question. Let it 
first be shown, by right reason and rigid experiment, that the air we are ac- 
customed to let into our rooms bears a proportion to that we need, even as 
large as does the water in a never-failing well to the little that a man can 
drink. The experiment may appear not practicable; but it is, in fact, being 
made every day by thousands ; and it tells wonderfully against the author's 
comparison and argument. A man very soon drinks to satiety, and can take 
no more with benefit: any more water is useless, or injurious to him, at the 
time. The quantity of air a man breathes has also its limit, but there would 
seem no limit to the quantity of fresh air* which is beneficial, as is proved bv 
every comparison between those who occupy themselves within doors, and 
those whose occupation is in the open air. All the air, therefore, we ever 
have at any one time entering our houses falls short of the quantity which 



* The care to have it warmed when it is to be enjoyed within doors, is 
quite another question; and I engage to present the public with apparatus 
which shall effect this thoroughly, and with abunc'ant economy, and no over- 
heating of the air. 



234 Retrospective Criticism. 

can do us good ; but the water entering a never-failing well greatly exceeds 
the quantity which can do a man good at any one time; so that the air en- 
tering our houses falls short in comparison with the water of a never-failing 
well even, and DOW incomparably short of a Uangetic or Nilotic ocean ! Before 
such a comparison bad any reality in it, it would be needful to show that the 
people of England bad left the insides of their houses to live upon the house- 
tops, or in open sheds. The author proceeds : — 'A man needs, per minute, as 
explained in Art. 10., the oxygen of one sixth of a cubical foot of atmospheric 
air; but, because of the mixture of his breath with the air around him, he 
requires, to be safe, a ventilation of from two to three cubic feet per minute. 
Now, the ordinary workmanship of house-builders in England leaves, as 
crevices around doors and windows, passage for many times three gallons per 
minute ; besides that there is the powerful ventilation of the frequent open- 
ings of the door when persons come and go.' 

" I will remark upon the latter part of this sentence first; since cubit feet 
have been, throughout, the term employed by the author to measure the air 
bv, and, as he had just said, ' from two to three cubit feet were needed,' it is 
a pity that the expression 'many times three gallons' should have been used, 
when the actual supply was being spoken of, for the argument would lead a 
reader to suppose that many times three of the first measure were being 
promised him ; and, unless watchful, he would overlook the new term 
' gallons.' It is therefore to be regretted that, having commenced the argu- 
ment in cubic feet, the author should have closed it in gallons. Now, a gallon 
being barely the sixth part of a cubic foot, many times three gallons may still 
be under one time three cubic feet. The quantity must exceed four times 
three gallons, or it will be under two cubic feet even. What the leakage 
really amounts to, in any one case, or whether the author meant cubic feet, 
and not gallons, as the measure of it, it is not possible to form any judgment 
of, without knowing what crevices there are, and what the pressure from 
without is. The quantity of air entering will vary according to the form and 
collective amount of all the crevices by which it is entering the room, and the 
facility by which it can pass out again, and also according to the square root 
of the difference between the external and internal pressure. In how dis- 
advantageous a light this law places Dr. Arnott's stove, when compared with 
open fires, will be shown hereafter. In the former part of the passage just 
quoted, reference is made to Art. 10. of the work, where we find it stated: — 
1 In respiration or breathing a man draws into his chest, at one time, about 
twenty cubic inches of air, and of that a fifth is oxygen, of which again there 
is converted into carbonic acid gas nearly one half.' To suppose that the 
lungs employed so much as one half of the oxygen of the air of ordinary 
respiration, would be to familiarise ourselves with the idea that our lungs are 
tougher-working organs than they really are; and it might be argued by some, 
if they can endure to retain air in their vessels until one half of its oxygen has 
been vitiated, they cannot be very sensitive, very needful of perfectly pure 
air; whereas, if only one sixth or one eighth of the oxygen of the air we 
inhale is employed; if the air vessels, which the air of our ordinary 
respiration traverses, reject anil have done with air, of which, being so delicate, 
they can only make use of this small quantity ; how very pure ought the air 
to be in the first instance! I am aware of the experiments, on record, of able 
chemists, showing that, while in the chest, air loses from a fourth to one half 
of its free oxygen ; and from these, it is to be presumed, the author has drawn 
his information. If he iiad afforded the subject more attention, he must have 
been led to draw a distinction between the two very different conditions in 
which the air in our lungs is. One, and by far the larger, portion is that 
which is deep-seated, occupying the finer ramifications and extremities of the 
air vessels : its quantity varies, probably, from 100 to 200 cubic inches. With 
this air the lungs are more or less distended during life; and it manifestly 
must under!.!;<) but a very gradual renewal; for, since a very little of it only is 
discharged with the air of each respiration, very many acts of ordinary 



Retrospective Criticism. 235 

respiration must be performed before this air can be changed. If this air 
should be breathed out into a vessel, I have no doubt that one half of the 
oxygen it had contained would be found converted into carbonic acid; and I 
imagine that it must have been upon this deeper-seated air, which comes 
forth only by a forced expiration, or sigh, that the experiments referred to have 
been made. Indeed, for the purpose of catching a quantity of the air from the 
lungs, it is highly probable that a long and deep expiration was practised in 
those experiments, which were doubtless very correct, but which cannot 
rightly be applied to the air of our present question : this last air is in a very 
different predicament ; being changed at every ebb and flow of each act of 
respiration, it is but a short time in the chest, and appears to occupy only the 
upper part and the larger vessels. In quantity it may not exceed from 15 to 
25 cubic inches, and it is this air, of course, which, being the air of ordinary 
respiration, is that of which the author is treating. 

" At his low estimate of fifteen respirations in a minute, about 300 cubic 
inches of air would be breathed each minute, or nearly 93 grains in weight ; 
and in 24 hours, 133,920 grains, of which the oxygen would amount to 
31,471 grains: if half of this, or 15,735 grains, were converted into carbonic 
acid, it would require fully three eighths of its weight, or 5900 grains, of 
carbon to combine with it, in order that it should be converted into that acid. 
Now, taking our driest food, bread, even it has so much moisture and other 
elements in it, that we shall find it does not contain, as it comes from the 
oven, more than about one fifth of its weight of pure carbon. A quartern 
loaf, therefore, may contain about the above quantity (5900 grains) of carbon. 
In order, then, to supply the carbonic acid generated in his lungs at the rate 
stated by the author, a man would have to eat a quartern loaf daily for this 
purpose alone, in addition to all the food necessary for his nutrition, and to 
supply the ordinary excretions of the body ; and fearfully rapid would be the 
emaciation of those whose appetites fell short of such voracity ! Had such an 
out-going of carbon been really necessary for our existence, we should 
certainly have been constituted, like the termites, or white ants, of the 
tropics, with appetites to enjoy, and powers to digest, ligneous fibre itself; 
otherwise, a man's whole labour devoted to tillage would barely supply him 
with the primary necessary of life alone. All civilisation and philosophy 
would be sacrificed to a furious and unproductive out -breathing of carbon. 
The author proceeds : — 

" ' Yet there are in England many persons, who, under all circumstances, 
call out for open fires and open windows, and, by the cold currents, and other 
concomitants of a ventilation twenty or a hundred times more than necessary, 
prodigiously waste fuel, and injure, or kill, their children and friends by 
catarrhs, rheumatism, pleurisies, &c.' Open fires are one thing, and open 
windows another. I confess myself to be a warm advocate for open fires 
(though I would have them employed in a different manner) ; but I do not 
know of any persons, who, under any circumstances, excepting, perhaps, to 
sweeten a house of a morning, call out for open windows from the month of 
October, at least, to that of April ; and, under certain circumstances, only in 
the summer. It is, indeed, a pity that the author should connect together so 
very different desires as that for open fires, and that for open windows ; and, 
by the help of an alliteration, by repeating in the reader's ear the sound of 
the epithet open, should endanger in his mind such a connecting of the two, 
as would charge the one with the absurdities of the other. Is it the ordinary 
ventilation excited by open fires through the crevices of closed windows and 
doors, or is it a ventilation unheard of elsewhere, through windows thrown 
open, which is said to be so prodigiously more than necessary, and so de- 
structive to the public health ? It were far better for the subsidence of error 
in the public mind to let the subject rest, than to handle it in such a manner : 
the continuance of any existing error were preferable to that which must arise 
from interweaving two very different categories (a state of things with open 
fires, and that with open windows), in such a manner as that the former shall 



236 Retrospective Criticism. 

have to bear, by the implication, accusations which could with justice be 
applied only to the latter. Of the healthiness of country children, accustomed 
to ill-fitted doors and windows, I shall presently have occasion to speak ; but 
who ever heard of sitting with windows thrown open, excepting in the dog- 
days ? The context throughout, and the whole drift of the argument, clearly 
mean, that the ventilation which prevails universally in England in our houses 
is exorbitantly great, and the cause of all these diseases. The usual method 
of supplying untempered air through crevices only is a practice no one can 
more earnestly desire to see altered than myself, as the public will in due time 
be satisfied ; but, while I would greatly desire a change in our system of ven- 
tilation, I would increase rather than diminish its quantity, convinced that 
these (the diseases of our climate) arise, in the great majority of cases, from 
that occasional and unaccustomed exposure, against which it is almost im- 
possible to be always on our guard, but against the effects of which all our 
experience proves that we are rendered less and less susceptible, in proportion 
as we accustom ourselves to a more and more frequent renewal of the air in 
which we live; and there is no reason why it should not be renewed with tem- 
pered air; but in that case I am prepared to show that the thermometer stove is 
an apparatus by no means well calculated for the purpose." (p. 961 — 967.) 

" I take the liberty of mentioning a case, remarkably illustrative of the fact, 
that freshness of air in a house lessens, instead of increases, the liability of the 
inmates to take cold ; although I am aware, while apparently necessary, it was 
a bold experiment, which could not always be followed, inasmuch as it was 
unmitigated air which was so freely admitted. 

" In her father's house, a lady had been accustomed to rooms in which the 
ventilation was greatly lessened by close fittings and felt. Yet, since open 
fires were used, there could not fail, as will be shown hereafter, to be more 
air admitted than by the use of Dr. Arnott's stove in the common way. In 
her own house, accordingly, she followed up this plan. The house was made 
very secure, and the children, though allowed plenty of exercise, were kept 
as snugly as possible from every draught ; nevertheless, they were always 
catching colds ; and the more she checked draughts, the more they ailed, 
catching also every epidemic that prevailed. Living in the country, she was 
led to contrast with her own the healthy children of the farmers around ; and, 
observing their ill-fitted casements and doors, and open fires, with large- 
mouthed chimneys, resolved boldly to copy what she saw. Having removed 
to an old-fashioned house, with doors and windows fitting as badly as she 
could desire, she allowed them to remain as they were, and the children to run 
constantly, even in cold weather, in and out of the parlour door, which 
opened into the garden. Such has been her course for some years. Her 
children now know not what it is to take cold ; and, although one has a con- 
stitutional tendency to an affection in the head, which grew alarming under a 
svstem of ventilation more liberal even than the thermometer stove alone can 
insure, they are now the pictures of health, 

" I trust I shall be excused for having occupied my reader's time with this 
case, since it appears to me an instructive one ; not because with a profusion 
of fresh air the family grew so healthy, for there are farm-houses in every part 
of the' country presenting the same aspect, but because this, which was the 
extreme of what Doctor Arnott pronounces to be the catarrh and pleurisy- 
exciting system, did actually deliver them from the catarrhs which, under a 
different system, they were constantly suffering from. Once more, I would 
repeat that this extreme course is not held up for general imitation; that it 
would not answer in the case of delicate constitutions ; and that for these the 
air should be rendered mild, but its salutary copiousness should, if possible, 
be retained. 

" Having brought himself and his reader gradually over from the advocacy 
(if strong language and illustrations mean anything) of a system of more 
copious ventilation than is usual* to one of much more confined ventilation, it 
seems necessary, lest there should be any misgivings in the reader's mind, 



Retrospective Criticism. 237 

any wonted longings after fresher air, that his thoughts should be familiar- 
ised with a Russian state of things, where almost no ventilation exists, and in 
such a manner, that penny-a-day ventilation may be associated together in his 
mind with long life and rubicundity. The author, therefore, continues, • To 
these persons' (namely, all the people who are advocates for open fires), 'it 
must appear wonderful, that in Russia, where, all through the winter, there 
are only close stoves, and double windows carefully closed, and no provision 
made for ventilation, beyond accidental crevices, the people are very healthy ; 
and more individuals attain a very advanced age than in almost any other 
country in Europe.' On reading this Russian argument, one is led to ex- 
claim, What has become of the case of the poor Buckinghamshire lace- 
makers, and where is now its contrast, the delicious trout stream of the 
author's imagination ? Alas, he has left it far off upon the opposite side, and 
has taken up his abode in a land of suffocation ! As this argument, however, 
is not without plausibility, and as it may have weight with many readers in 
favour of what I believe would be a dangerous revolution in popular feeling, 
it is necessary to request of my reader an attentive examination of it. 

" The squalid appearance of the inhabitants of very northern regions, after 
their six-months' inhumation, travellers have often noticed. I had supposed 
the appearance of the Russian poor, who were much at home, must have 
partaken to some extent of such effects of close confinement; and that 
although, as in most simpler states of society, individual cases of longevity 
might be more common there than in England, England had greatly the ad- 
vantage over Russia as to the chances, or average duration, of human life. 
The case, however, with which we have to deal is not at all affected by the 
author's argument. The Russian might be able to live for ever without air, 
like a toad in a stone, and it would be no proof that the system would 
answer in England, where all our experience, as formerly shown by the author 
himself, is against it. The Buckinghamshire lace-makers, for instance, have 
been trying the experiment for years, even in a more moderate degree, for 
they have the opening of the chimney, and it has miserably failed, disease and 
early death being the effects of a stifling system, practised in a greater degree 
with impunity, if not with vigour, by the Russian poor. The reason of this 
there will be no difficulty in seeing. 

" The quantity of ventilation necessary for man decreases in some very 
high degree with the temperature of the climate. It may not be easy to 
explain upon what physical cause this depends; how the animal system is so 
modified by climate, as to require the presence of so disproportionate quan- 
tities of air in different climates ; but the fact is an unquestionable one in 
regard to the several climates with which Englishmen are most familiar, and 
our author's very argument establishes it in Russia. In tropical countries 
(in India, for instance), we find it necessary to build houses with gigantic doors 
and windows, to the English eye, at first, out of all proportion large and 
numerous. This is not done for the sake of coolness only; for the mean 
temperature, during the hot seasons, is much lower in houses which have 
massive walls, and few and small doors and windows. It is chiefly for the 
sake of fresh air. And, although these large and numerous doors and windows, 
ill-fitted as they are, allow of a leakage, when closed, manifold greater than 
our similar ventilation in England, it is still necessary to throw them all open 
for several hours every night, even when the outer air, as is oftentimes the 
case, is much hotter than the inner. In the western provinces of India espe- 
cially, from the month of March to the middle of July, during the whole 
twenty-four hours, the air out of doors is hotter than that within. Never- 
theless, although air passes freely through the house all the day, not bv 
crevices only, but through doorways, before which are wetted surfaces, which, 
while they cool the air, give free passage to it, so that it might be supposed 
more ventilation could not possibly be needed, it does still prove necessary to 
throw awide, some time after sunset, every window and door for several 
hours. Any family neglecting this practice, soon declines in health. Here is 



238 Retrospective Criticism. 

a case, where, in an oppressively hot climate, a great sacrifice of coolness has 
to be made to freshness. It will not be said that all this air is wanted merely 
to carry off the increased perspiration in a tropical climate, for the quantity is 
ten thousand times more than would be abundant for that purpose. Com- 
pared with this ventilation, any in England is as nothing. Is it not plain, 
then, that, as a ventilation, to be tolerable in India, must be a hundred-fold 
what will suffice in England, so a ventilation, to be tolerable in England, must 
be manifold greater than what may do in Russia? Hence, the Bucking- 
hamshire women failed deplorably when they experimented with Russian 
ventilation, or rather non-ventilation, here, just as would any family in India 
which should try English ventilation in that country. The author's Russian 
argument, therefore, though a dangerous one, must, if rightly understood, go 
for nothing The closing "sentence of the paragraph remains to be noticed : — 
' In a room of 12 ft. in all its dimensions, and containing, therefore, 1728 
cubical feet of air, there is, without any ventilation whatever, an allowance of 
2 ft. a minute for one person for fourteen hours.' The author, though not 
meaning it, of course, speaks, in this place, as if the air could be used in 
distinct°parcels until the whole was consumed, each parcel being put aside as 
it was done with, like a heap of waste paper, so as not to contaminate the 
rest. Whereas (as he has himself said elsewhere) every breath mixes with all 
the rest : the whole air is soon a little tainted, and ought then, without delay, 
to be renewed. 

" The time has now come for us to notice a grand omission of the author. 
He has, throughout all his arguments, spoken only of the demand of the lungs 
for oxygen, and of the presence of the carbonic acid they give off. He lias 
said nothing of the animal impurities, of a much more pernicious kind, thrown 
off profusely both by the lungs and by the skin. The air of an assembly, of 
which so little has been used by the lungs that the chemist cannot detect any 
diminution in its oxygen, nor any of the carbonic acid they have added to it, 
may in the meantime have become very oppressive on account of animal 
impurities of the other kind so freely discharged into it ; and, if he were to 
lock up the assembly, until he could discover, with all his skill, the presence 
of any considerable" quantity of carbonic acid, he would have sealed the fate 
of most of them, by forcing them to imbibe their own poison ; matter, though 
less offensive, perhaps, yet as truly animal offscourings, as thoroughly ex- 
crementitious, as any that goes forth into the draught. I make no apology 
for using expressions'which, under other circumstances, would be unpardonably 
coarse. It would be a mistaken aflectation which should hesitate to do so 
upon the present, a question of vital importance. The above is a fact, which 
no physiologist will venture to deny : it is one which cannot be too generally 
known by the public. Moreover, the confined habit of body of a large por- 
tion of our city population, especially of the sedentary classes, is such, that 
the skin and the lungs, in addition to these their natural duties, have to throw 
off in vaporous discharges much that ought to pass off in another way. So 
deleterious are all these matters to the health, that, as the author himself has 
shown in his introduction, pestilential diseases have decreased in our land, in 
proportion as our streets and our houses have become wider and more airy. 
What now must be thought of objecting to the bare ventilation which our 
houses, with their open fires, commonly afford us ; nay, to the indulgence in 
any quantity of air which we can severally afford to warm ? 

'" Such is the beneficial influence of fresh air over the body, that, as ex- 
perience proves, with all the trying vicissitudes of weather opposing him, the 
more nearly a person can live in the open air, the better, for the most part, 
will his health be. The ploughman enjoys more vigorous health than the 
equally hard-working mechanic ; and the coachman, seated on his box, than 
the accountant at his desk. It cannot be said that exercise is the chief agent 
in effecting this difference, for a joiner in his workshop, even with much more 
air flowing into it than the quantity the author has set as a maximum, does not, 
in general, present the hearty aspect of a coachman or a guard, although the 






Retrospective Criticism. 239 

work of the former throws all his muscles into the most useful exercise, and 
the occupation of the latter has the defect of being sedentary; showing that 
exercise, even confessedly beneficial as it is, cannot make up the difference 
between the effect, not of a very confined, but of a fairly ventilated, place and 
the open air. With regard to exercise, it is of importance to remark how 
subservient is [ its influence to that of the open air. It loses greatly of its 
beneficial powers, nay, often proves injurious, when deprived of fresh air to 
give effect to it. It is very common to hear warehousemen and mechanics 
complaining that the work is too much for their health ; work less laborious, 
in general, than that with which the hedger and ditcher, or the lighterman, is 
familiar. The effect of the exercise of the former persons appears often to 
fall unequally upon the system, and therefore too heavily upon some one part; 
while upon those who work abroad it would seem to be more equally diffused. 
Determinations to the head, the heart, the lungs, &c, being, I believe, much 
more common effects of labour within doors than of labour without. 

" If the presence of the air of heaven around the body, without measure, is 
unquestionably beneficial, the benefit increasing, if the weather is mild, with 
the speed with which it passes over the body, a windy being more invigorating 
than a calm day, and a seat outside of a coach than one even with the windows 
open inside, are there any properties in brick and mortar which empower them 
to subvert this order of things within doors ? It is true that the body at rest 
cannot endure cold or draughts. These, of course, must be afforded the fullest 
consideration ; and it will then be obvious that the only limit to that quantity 
of fresh air which is desirable, that quantity which is to exercise the most 
salutary influence on the human frame, is to be found at the point where the 
current excited in the air commences to be too strong, or the expense of 
warming it too considerable. What limit is there, then, to the quantity of 
fresh air a person should be allowed within his house, if he can introduce it 
without draughts, and if he can afford to warm it ? Nay, if such a person 
should be philosophical, and should have ascertained that one sixth of a cubic 
foot of air per minute will do for the breath, and should prudently have allowed 
two cubic feet, on account of the constant mixing of the damaged with the 
fresh air, and should liberally, as he thought, have apportioned to himself two 
or three cubic feet of air per minute, and should be satisfying himself that the 
air of his apartment ought therefore to be warmed for less than a penny a day ; 
would it not be the duty of any friend, upon whose mind the previous and a 
multitude of other evidence which might be cited to the same effect, were 
exercising their proper influence, to contend against economy such as this, as 
of a very erroneous kind ? Might he not say, I will not dispute your phi- 
losophy, whether I can admit your measurements or not; but I affirm that, 
unless miserably poor, you ought to be seeking fresh air in quantities com- 
pared with which all that is indispensable for mere existence is but an in- 
definitely small fraction. You have before you irrefragable, irresistible proof, 
that, to air flowing over them in boundless quantities myriads of your fellow 
men do chiefly owe their hale and vigorous health. It is but a small part of 
this which, sedentary and within doors, you can command ; but do not reduce 
this quantity, limited as it must be, five hundred-fold more. Enquire not 
upon how trifling a sum you can manage to warm air for your rooms, carefully 
meted out in cubic feet ; but, of the two, rather enquire what is the utmost 
sum you can afford towards warming and introducing it in unmeasured 
quantities into your house. If you will alter your supply, increase its quantity 
by all means, but on no account think of diminishing it. Behold the hale 
looks of your neighbour, whose occupation keeps him always abroad; and ask 
yourself if any, or if all of your luxuries together, are capable of doing for 
your health what boundless fresh air is doing for his, and be guided by your 
own reply. You will then give your luxuries up, one and all, rather than part 
with any of the little air compared with his, which you already have. 

" To the poor man this argument may with great, if lessened, force be applied. 
To him it may be said, that no person ever yet could prove the habitual use of 



240 Retrospective Criticism. 

any quantity of beer or spirits to be necessary, nay even to be beneficial, to 
the health; that they may be a luxury, but not certainly a necessary; whereas 
no one can deny the very beneficial effects of abundant fresh air. Give up, 
then, your useless beer and pernicious spirits, and devote a part of the saving 
to the warming of more air for your family. Let him be offered every assist- 
ance towards employing his fuel more economically, but never by any plan 
which does not insure to him his former supply of fresh air, at the least. Any 
plan which involves with it a yielding up of a portion of fresh air should be 
considered as applicable only to the cases of the destitute, who have no lesser 
necessaries to part with, rather than to sacrifice any portion of so great a 

one. 

"Defective as the open-cottage fire is in some respects, the ventilation, which 
it not only permits but vigilantly insures, is a redeeming quality of far greater 
importance. If the chimney draught were put an end to by the use of close 
stoves, in the manner recommended by the author, impure and infectious 
effluvia would not, as now, be hurried away up the chimney ere they had time 
to excite disease, but they w r ould circulate for hours about the rooms of the 
poor before they were completely removed through the crevices ; and it is too 
probable that, when an epidemic was lighted up, it would not, as now, com- 
monly attack a few of the inmates only, but would, as in some countries, waste 
itself upon the whole family with aggravated force. I will not here anticipate 
matter belonging to my third division — warming and ventilating by the aid of 
combustion. Under that head, it will be shown that the favourable com- 
parison the author has drawn regarding the ventilating powers of the ther- 
mometer stove will not stand the trial either of careful reasoning or of 
experiment. 

" In concluding this portion of my subject, I have to express a hope that 
my humble endeavour to defend the general opinions of Englishmen in favour 
of the free ventilation insured by open chimneys, against the arguments op- 
posed to them by the author in the treatise before us, especially in Art. 82., 
jpon which I have commented at some length, will not appear to my reader 
either as uncalled for or unsuccessful. It has been rendered especially ne- 
cessary by the promising manner in which the author commences his work as 
the advocate of ventilation, so copious, that any reader must understand by it 
a lanrer, instead of a less, supply than is usual in our dwellings, and may thereby 
be pfaced off' his guard, and be in all the greater danger of lapsing into the 
subsequent bias of the author's mind. The vast importance of the questions 
to the well-being of the community on the one hand, and the weight of the 
author's authority on the other, do also add to the necessity of a commentary 
such as I desire to conduct with right reasoning and candour. 

" Viewing the thermometer stove as consisting of two distinct parts, the 
stove itself, and the thermometric regulator, with regard to the advantages of 
the former I have to observe, that, if my reader has made up Ins mind to close 
up his chimney, he will, I believe, find the stove itself to be superior to any 
other close-air stove at present in ordinary use for domestic purposes ; and that 
the superiority will prove mainly to consist in the surrounding of the fire with 
brick, and the command over the draught by close fittings, and by a regulator 
on the ash-pit door. These points have for centuries been attended to mi- 
nutely by careful chemists and artists, and a perfect command has thereby been 
obtained over the heat of the fire, anil over the consumption of the fuel. 
These provisions have also been imitated in many domestic stoves ; but in so 
rude and inefficient a manner, that, in practice, little command has been ob- 
tained over the draught, and little, therefore, over the consumption of fuel and 
heat, although the subject has not been neglected by former writers. For 
having drawn their attention to these important points again, the publ'C are 
indebted to Dr. Amott." {Med. Gat., April ?'., p. 49.) 



THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE, 



JUNE, 1838. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

Art. I. The Poetry of Architecture. By Kata Phusin. 

No. 3- The Villa. 

I. The Mountain Villa. — Lago di Como. 

In all arts or sciences, before we can determine what is just 
or beautiful in a group, we must ascertain what is desirable in 
the parts which compose it, separately considered ; and there- 
fore it will be most advantageous in the present case, to keep 
out of the village and the citv, until we have searched hill and 
dale for examples of isolated buildings. This mode of consider- 
ing the subject is also agreeable to the feelings, as the transition 
from the higher orders of solitary edifices, to groups of as- 
sociated edifices, is not to sudden or startling, as that from 
nature's most humble peace, to man's most turbulent pride. 

We have contemplated the rural dwelling of the peasant; 
let us next consider the ruralised domicile of the gentleman : 
and here, as before, we shall first determine what is theoreti- 
cally beautiful, and then observe how far our expectations are 
fulfilled in individual buildings. But a few preliminary obser- 
vations are necessary. 

Man, the peasant, is a being of more marked national cha- 
racter, than man, the educated and refined. For nationality is 
founded, in a great degree, on prejudices and feelings incul- 
cated and aroused in youth, which grow inveterate in the mind 
as long as its views are confined to the place of its birth ; its 
ideas moulded by the customs of its country, and its convers- 
ation limited to a circle composed of individuals of habits and 
feelings like its own; but which are gradually softened down, 
and eradicated, when the mind is led into general views of 
things, when it is guided by reflection instead of habit, and has 
begun to lay aside opinions contracted under the influence of 
association and prepossession, substituting in their room philo- 
sophical deductions from the calm contemplation of the various 
tempers, and thoughts, and customs, of mankind. The love 
of its country will remain with undiminished strength in the 

Vol. V.— No. 52. r 



21-2 Poetry of Architecture. 

cultivated mind, but the national modes of thinking will vanish 
from the disciplined intellect. Now as it is only by these man- 
nerisms of thought that architecture is affected, we shall find 
that, the more polished the mind of its designer, the less na- 
tional will be the building ; for its architect will be led away by 
a search after a model of ideal beauty, and will not be involun- 
tarily guided by deep-rooted feelings, governing irresistibly his 
heart and hand. He will therefore be in perpetual danger of 
forgetting the necessary unison of scene and climate, and, fol- 
lowing up the chase of the ideal, will neglect the beauty of the 
natural ; an error which he could not commit, were he less ge- 
neral in his views, for then the prejudices to which he would be 
subject, would be as truly in unison with the objects which created 
them, as answering notes with the chords which awaken them. 
We must not, therefore, be surprised, if buildings bearing 
impress of the exercise of fine thought and high talent in their 
design, should yet offend us by perpetual discords with scene 
and climate ; and if, therefore, we sometimes derive less instruc- 
tion, and less pleasure, from the columnar portico of the Palace, 
than from the latched door of the Cottage. 

Again : man, in his hours of relaxation, when he is engaged in 
the pursuit of mere pleasure, is less national than when he is 
under the influence of any of the more violent feelings which 
agitate every-day life. The reason of this may at first appear 
somewhat obscure, but it will become evident, on a little re- 
flection. Aristotle's definition of pleasure, perhaps the best 
ever given, is, " an agitation, and settling of the spirit into its 
own proper nature ;" similar, by the by, to the giving of liberty 
of motion to the molecules of a mineral, followed by their 
crystallisation, into their own proper form. Now this " pro- 
per nature," v7raf>xou<rw <p6<riv, is not the acquired national 
habit, but the common and universal constitution of the human 
soul. This constitution is kept under by the feelings which 
prompt to action, for those feelings depend upon parts of cha- 
racter, or of prejudice, which are peculiar to individuals or to 
nations ; and the pleasure which all men seek is a kind of par- 
tial casting away of these more active feelings, to return to the 
calm and unchanging constitution of mind which is the same in 
all. We shall, therefore, find that man, in the business of his 
life, in religion, war, or ambition, is national, but in relaxation 
he manifests a nature common to every individual of his race. 
A Turk, for instance, and an English farmer, smoking their 
evening pipes, differ only in so much as the one has a mouth- 
piece of amber, and the other one of sealingwax; the one has a 
turban on his head, and the other a nightcap; they are the same 
in feeling, and to all intents and purposes the same men. But 
a Turkish janissary and an English grenadier differ widely in 



The Mountain Villa. 243 

all their modes of thinking, feeling, and acting, they are strictly 
national. So again, a Tyrolese evening dance, though the cos- 
tume, and the step, and the musicmaybe different, is the same in 
feeling as that of the Parisian guinguette ; but follow the Tvrolese 
into their temples, and their deep devotion and beautiful though 
superstitious reverence will be found very different from any 
feeling exhibited during a mass in Notre-Dame. This being the 
case, it is a direct consequence, that we shall find much nation- 
ality in the Church or the Fortress, or in any building devoted 
to the purposes of active life, but very little in that which is 
dedicated exclusively to relaxation, the Villa. We shall be 
compelled to seek out nations of very strong feeling and ima- 
ginative disposition, or we shall find no correspondence whatever 
between their character, and that of their buildings devoted 
to pleasure. In our own country, for instance, there is not 
the slightest. Beginning at the head of Windermere, and 
running down its border for about six miles, there are six im- 
portant gentlemen's seats, villas they may be called, the first 
of which is a square white mass, decorated with pilasters of no 
order, set in a green avenue, sloping down to the water ; the 
second is an imitation, we suppose, of something possessing 
theoretical existence in Switzerland, with sharp gable ends, and 
wooden flourishes turning the corners, set on a little dumpy 
mound, with a slate wall running all round it, glittering with 
iron pyrites; the third is a blue dark-looking box, squeezed up 
into a group of straggly larches, with a bog in front of it ; the 
fourth is a cream-coloured domicile, in a large park, rather 
quiet and unaffected, the best of the four, though that is not 
saying much ; the fifth is an old-fashioned thing, formal, 
and narrow-windowed, yet grey in its tone, and quiet, and not 
to be maligned ; and the sixth is a nondescript, circular, putty- 
coloured habitation, with a leaden dome on the top of it. If, 
however, instead of taking Windermere, we trace the shore 
of the Lago di Como, we shall find some expression and nation- 
ality, and there, therefore, will we go, to return, however, to 
England, when we have obtained some data by which to judge 
of her more fortunate edifices. We notice the Mountain Villa 
first, for two reasons ; because effect is always more considered 
in its erection, than when it is to be situated in a less interest- 
ing country, and because the effect desired is very rarely given, 
there being far greater difficulties to contend with. But one 
word more, before setting off for the south. Though, as we saw 
before, the gentleman has less national character than the 
boor, his individual character is more marked, especially in its 
finer features, which are clearly and perfectly developed by 
education; consequentlv, when the inhabitant of the villa has 

r 2 



244 Poetry of Architecture. 

had anything to do with its erection, we might expect to find 
indications of individual and peculiar feelings, which it would be 
most interesting to follow out. But this is no part of our 
present task ; at some future period we hope to give a series of 
essays on the habitations of the most distinguished men of 
Europe, showing how the alterations which they directed, and 
the expression which they bestowed, corresponded with the turn 
of their emotions, and leading intellectual faculties : but at 
present we have to deal only with generalities ; we have to 
ascertain, not what will be pleasing to a single mind, but what 
will afford gratification to every eye possessing a certain degree 
of experience, and every mind endowed with a certain degree of 
taste. 

Without further preface, therefore, let us endeavour to 
ascertain what would be theoretically beautiful, on the shore, or 
among the scenery of the Larian Lake, preparatory to a sketch 
of the general features of those villas which exist there, in too 
great a multitude to admit, on our part, of much individual 
detail. 

For the general tone of the scenery, we may refer to the 
paper on the Italian cottage ; for the shores of the Lake of Como 
have generally the character there described, with a little more 
cheerfulness, and a little less elevation, but aided by great 
variety of form. They are not quite so rich in vegetation as 
the plains : both because the soil is scanty, there being, of 
course, no decomposition going on among the rocks of black 
marble which form the greater part of the shore ; and because 
the mountains rise steeply from the water, leaving only a narrow 
zone at their bases in the climate of Italy. In that zone, 
however, the olive grows in great luxuriance, with the cypress, 
orange, aloe, myrtle, and vine, the latter always trellised. 

Now, as the situation of the cottage, we have alreadv seen that 
great humility was necessary, both in the building and its site, to 
prevent it from offending us by an apparent struggle with forces, 
compared with which its strength was dust : but we cannot have 
this extreme humility in the villa, the dwelling of wealth and 
power, and yet we must not, any more, suggest the idea of its 
resisting natural influences under which the Pyramids could not 
abide. The only way of solving the difficulty is, to select such 
sites as shall seem to have been set aside by nature as places of 
rest, as points of calm and enduring beauty, ordained to sit and 
smile in their glory of quietness, while the avalanche brands the 
mountain top, and the torrent desolates the valley ; yet so pre- 
served, not by shelter amidst violence, but by being placed 
wholly out of the influence of violence. For in this they must 
differ from the site of the cottage, that the peasant may seek for 
protection under some low rock or in some narrow del!, but the 



The Mountain Villa. 245 

villa must have a domain to itself, at once conspicuous, beauti- 
ful, and calm. 

As regards the form of the cottage, we have seen how the 
Westmoreland cottage harmonised with the ease of outline so 
conspicuous in hill scenery, by the irregularity of its details ; 
but, here, no such irregularity is allowable or consistent, and is 
not even desirable. For the cottage enhances the wildness of 
the surrounding scene, by sympathising with it ; the villa must 
do the same thing, by contrasting with it. The eye feels, in a 
far greater degree, the terror of the distant and desolate peaks, 
when it passes down their ravined sides to sloping and verdant 
hills, and is guided from these to the rich glow of vegetable 
life in the low zones, and through this glow to the tall front 
of some noble edifice, peaceful even in its pride. But this 
contrast must not be sudden, or it will be startling and harsh ; 
and therefore, as we saw above, the villa must be placed where 
all the severe features of the scene, though not concealed, are 
distant, and where there is a graduation, so to speak, of impres- 
sions, from terror to loveliness, the one softened by distance, the 
other elevated in its style : and the form of the villa must not be 
fantastic or angular, but must be full of variety, so tempered 
by simplicity as to obtain ease of outline united with ele- 
vation of character ; the first being: necessarv for reasons before 
advanced, and the second, that the whole may harmonise with 
the feelings induced by the lofty features of the accompanying 
scenery in any hill country, and yet more, on the Larian 
Lake, by the deep memories and everlasting associations which 
haunt the stillness of its shore. Of the colour required by Italian 
landscape we have spoken before, and we shall see that, parti- 
cularly in this case, white or pale tones are agreeable. 

We shall now proceed to the situation and form of the villa. 
As regards situation; the villas of the Lago di Como are built, par 
■preference^ either on jutting promontories of low crag covered with 
olives, or on those parts of the shore where some mountain stream 
has carried out a bank of alluvium into the lake. One object 
proposed in this choice of situation is, to catch the breeze as it 
comes up the main opening of the hills, and to avoid the re- 
flection of the sun's rays from the rocks of the actual shore ; and 
another is, to obtain a prospect up or down the lake, and of the 
hills on whose projection the villa is built : but the effect of this 
choice, when the building is considered the object, is to carry it 
exactly into the place where it ought to be, far from the steep 
precipice and dark mountain, to the border of the bending bay 
and citron-scented cape, where it stands at once conspicuous 
and in peace. For instance, in Jig. 86. (Bellaggio, Lago di 
Como), although the eye falls suddenly from the crags above to 
the promontory below, yet all the sublime and severe features 

r 3 



2 16 



Poetry of Architecture. 




of the scene are kept in the distance, and the villa itself is 
mingled with graceful lines, and embosomed in rich vegetation. 
The promontory separates the Lake of Lecco from that of 
Como, properly so called, and is three miles from the opposite 
shore, which gives room enough for aerial perspective. So also 
in fig. 87. 

We shall now consider the form of the villa. It is generally 
the apex of a series of artificial terraces, which conduct through 
its gardens to the water. These are formal in their design, but 
extensive, wide, and majestic in their slope, the steps being gene- 
rally about ^ ft. high and 4£ ft. wide (sometimes however much 
deeper). They are generally supported by white wall, strengthened 



The Mountain Villa. 



247 




by unfilled arches, the angles being turned by sculptured pedes- 
tals, surmounted by statues, or urns. Along the terraces are 
carried rows, sometimes of cypress, more frequently of orange or 
lemon trees, with myrtles, sweet bay, and aloes, intei'mingled, 
but always with dark and spiry cypresses occurring in groups ; 
and attached to these terraces, or to the villa itself, are series of 
arched grottoes (seen well \njig. 86. ), built (or sometimes cut in 
the rock) for coolness, frequently overhanging the water, kept 
dark and fresh, and altogether delicious to the feelings. A good 
instance of these united peculiarities is seen in Jig. 87. (Villa 
Somma-Riva, Lago di Como). There are a few slight additions 
made to the details of the approach, that it may be a good 
example of general style. 

The effect of these approaches is disputable. It is displeasing 
to many, from its formality; but we are persuaded that it is 
right, because it is a national style, and therefore has in all 
probability due connexion with scene and character; and 
this connexion we shall endeavour to prove. 

The frequent occurrence of the arch is always delightful in 
distant effect, partly on account of its graceful line, partly be- 
cause the shade it casts is varied in depth, becoming deeper and 
deeper as the grotto retires, and partly because it gives great ap- 
parent elevation to the walls which it supports. The grottoes 
themselves are agreeable objects seen near, because they give 

r 4 



248 Poetry of Architecture. 

an impression of coolness to the eye ; and they echo all sounds 
with great melody ; small streams are often conducted through 
them, occasioning slight breezes by their motion. Then the 
statue and the urn are graceful in their outline, classical in their 
meaning, and correct in their position, for where could they be 
more appropriate than here; the one ministering to memory, 
and the other to mourning. The terraces themselves are dig- 
nified in their character (a necessary effect, as we saw above), 
and even the formal rows of trees are right in this climate, for 
a peculiar reason. Effect is always to be considered, in Italy, as 
if the sun were always to shine, for it does nine days out often. 
Now the shadows of foliage regularly disposed, fall with a grace 
which it is impossible to describe, running up and down across 
the marble steps, and casting alternate statues into darkness; and 
chequering the white walls with a " method in their madness," 
altogether unattainable by loose grouping of trees ; and therefore, 
for the sake of this kind of shade, to which the eye, as well as 
the feeling, is attracted, the long row of cypresses or orange 
trees is allowable. But there is a still more important reason 
for it, of a directly contrary nature to that which its formality 
would seem to require. In all beautiful designs of exterior 
descent, a certain regularity is necessary ; the lines should be 
graceful, but they must balance each other, slope answering to 
slope, statue to statue. Now this mathematical regularity would 
hurt the eye excessively in the midst of scenes of natural grace, 
were it executed in bare stone; but, if we make part of the design 
itself foliage, and put in touches of regular shade, alternating 
with the stone, whose distances and darkness are as mathemati- 
cally limited as the rest of the grouping, but whose nature is 
changeful, and varied in individual forms, we have obtained a 
link between nature and art, a step of transition, leading the 
feelings gradually from the beauty of regularity to that of 
freedom. And this effect would not be obtained, as might at 
first appear, by intermingling trees of different kinds, at irre- 
gular distances, or wherever they chose to grow ; for then the 
design and the foliage would be instantly separated by the eye, 
the symmetry of the one would be interrupted, the grace of the 
other lost ; the nobility of the design would not be seen, but 
its formality would be felt; and the wildness of the trees would 
be injurious, because it would be felt to be out of place. On 
principles of composition, therefore, the regular disposition of 
decorative foliage is right, when such foliage is mixed with archi- 
tecture ; but it requires great taste, and long study, to design 
this disposition properly. Trees of dark leaf and little colour 
should be invariably used, for they are to be considered, it must 
be remembered, rather as free touches of shade than as trees. 
Take, for instance the most simple bit of design, such as the 



The Mountain Villa. 



249 




hollow balustrade,^. 88, and suppose that it is found to look cold 
or raw, when executed, and to want depth. Then put small 
pots, with any dark shrub, the darker the better, at fixed 
places behind them, at the same 
distance as the balustrades, or 
between every two or three, as 
shown \njig. 89., and keep them 
cut down to a certain height, 
and we have immediate depth 
and increased ease, with undi- 
minished symmetry. But the 
great difficulty is to keep the thing within proper limits, since too 
much of it will lead to paltriness, as is the case in 
degree in Isola Bella, on 



Lago 
Maggiore ; and not to let it run 
into small details : for, be it re- 
membered, that it is only in the 
majesty of art, in its large and 
general effects, that this regula- 
rity is allowable ; nothing but 
variety should be studied in 
detail, and therefore there can 
the lozenge borders and beds 




be no barbarism greater than 
of the French garden. The 
scenery around must be naturally rich, that its variety of line 
may relieve the slight stiffness of the architecture itself : and the 
climate must always be considered ; for, as we saw, the chief 
beauty of these flights of steps depends upon the presence of the 
sun ; and, if they are to be in shade half the year, the dark trees 
will only make them gloomy, the grass will grow between the 
stones of the steps, black weeds will flicker from the pedestals, 
damp mosses discolour the statues and urns, and the whole will 
become one incongruous ruin, one ridiculous decay. Besides, 
the very dignity of its character, even could it be kept in proper 
order, would be out of place in any country but Italy. Busts 
of Virgil or Ariosto would look astonished in an English snow 
storm ; statues of Apollo and Diana would be no more divine, 
where the laurels of the one would be weak, and the crescent 
of the other would never gleam in pure moonlight. The whole 
glory of the design consists in its unison with the dignity of the 
landscape, and with the classical tone of the country. Take 
it away from its concomitant circumstances, and, instead of con- 
ducting the eye to it by a series of lofty and dreamy impressions, 
bring it through green lanes, or over copse-covered crags, as 
would be the case in England, and the whole system becomes 
utterly and absolutely absurd, ugly in outline, worse than useless 
in application, unmeaning in design, and incongruous in as- 
sociation. 



250 Hints on Construction. 

It seems, then, that in the approach to the Italian villa, we 
have discovered great nationality and great beauty, which was 
more than we could have expected, but a beauty utterly un- 
transferable from its own settled habitation. In our next paper 
we shall proceed to the building itself, which will not detain us 
long, as it is generally simple in its design, and take a general 
view of villa architecture over Italy. 

We have bestowed considerable attention on this style of 
Garden Architecture, because it has been much abused by 
persons of high authority, and general good taste, who forgot, 
in their love of grace and ideal beauty, the connexion with 
surrounding circumstances so manifest even in its formality. 
Eustace, we think, is one of these ; and, although it is an error 
of a kind he is perpetually committing, he is so far right, that 
this mannerism is frequently carried into excess even in its own 
peculiar domain, then becoming disagreeable, and is always 
a dangerous style in inexperienced hands. We think, however, 
paradoxical as the opinion may appear, that every one who is a 
true lover of Nature, and has been bred in her wild school, will 
be an admirer of this symmetrical designing, in its place ; and 
will feel, as often as he contemplates it, that the united effect of 
the wide and noble steps, with the pure water dashing over 
them like heated crystal, the long shadows of the cypress groves, 
the golden leaves and glorious light of blossom of the glancing 
aloes, the pale statues gleaming along the heights in their 
everlasting death in life, their motionless brows looking down for 
ever on the loveliness in which their beings once dwelt, marble 
forms of more than mortal grace lightening along the green ar- 
cades, amidst dark cool grottoes, full of the voice of dashing 
waters, and of the breath of myrtle blossoms, with the blue of 
the deep lake and the distant precipice mingling at every 
opening with the eternal snows glowing in their noontide silence, 
is one not unworthy of Italy's most noble remembrances. 



Art. II. Hints on Construction : addressed to Architectural Students. 
By George Godwin, Jun., F.S.A. and M.I. A. 

No. 1. Introduction. 

An interest in architectural productions, leading to a know- 
ledge of just principles in regard to visible beauty, and tending 
unquestionably to advance the character of architecture as a fine 
art, has been lately created in the public mind by the concur- 
rence of several causes, to a degree perhaps unprecedented in 
England : and we are disposed to believe that it needs only a 
proper amount of zeal and activity on the part of its professors, 
at this moment, to obtain for themselves a position in public 



Hints on Construction. 25 1 

opinion which shall insure to them hereafter the unfettered 
exercise of their talents when called into operation, and to 
enable them to remove entirely the unfavourable impression in 
regard to English architectural taste, which has long existed in 
the minds of our various Continental neighbours, — perhaps not 
without reason. 

Under this view, it behoves every professor, as we think, who 
has the interest of his noble and elevating pursuit at heart, to be 
up and stirring; and, that their efforts may be seconded, we are 
induced by strong feeling on the subject, modestly, but earnestly, 
to call upon the English students of architecture to apply them- 
selves anxiously and unceasingly to the study of it, in all its 
bearings ; so that opprobrium may not hereafter return to us on 
this head, but that England may become as super-eminent among 
nations for her school of architects, as she now is for commercial 
enterprize and manufacturing skill. They should lose no op- 
portunity of storing their note-book, and through that their 
memory, with beautiful forms ; of cultivating taste and exercising 
their judgment. They should travel in foreign countries, exa- 
mining remains whose character for beauty is established, and 
investigating the principles which guided alike the ancients and 
the architects of the middle ages, both in the arrangement of 
their edifices, and the choice of the decorations and ornaments 
employed, with a view to the formation afterwards of new and 
beautiful combinations, in buildings adapted to their required 
purposes, to the habits of their occupants, and the climate of the 
country in which they are to be erected. 

To effect this end, namely, the creation of visible beauty (to 
which ^fitness is essentially necessary), is the highest office of 
the architect, and requires the highest order of mind, as well as 
the most sedulous study. This is architecture as an art ; but 
before this point can be reached, before the powers of the mind 
can be rendered available to this end, architecture as a science, 
if we may so speak, must be understood ; under which head, 
although requiring a less order of intellect, its ramifications are 
so extensive, and the points to be considered are so numerous 
and of such exceeding importance, that unremitting application 
almost of a life's duration is necessary for its mastery. 

It has been often said that a knowledge of construction is as 
necessary to the architect as that of anatomy to the sculptor; but 
we would go even farther than that, and say it is as necessary to 
him as the latter is to the surgeon, insomuch as it is by means of 
that alone that he can usefully operate. Without it, although an 
artist may possess the greatest powers of invention, and be able 
to produce forms of surprising beauty per se, he cannot mate- 
rially assist in effecting the chief purpose of architecture; namely, 
the comfort and happiness of individuals, and the advancement of 



252 Hints on Construction. 

society. Strange to say, however, a knowledge of construction, 
the study of which, if what we have said be true, forms a most 
important portion of an architect's education, has apparently 
been deemed immaterial ; and, inconsequence, so much neglected 
as to have led to numberless serious results, and to have made 
the idea of an architect's design and estimate of the expense 
synonymous, in the minds of some, with that of a falsely stated 
or unwise scheme. 

The scientific and influential body of men known as civil en- 
gineers owes its establishment, perhaps, to the inattention shown 
by architects to a knowledge of construction ; it may, in fact, be 
termed that section of the profession which consists of those who, 
neglecting in a degree the production of beauty, have studied more 
immediately that which the others have neglected. Now so far 
as they are concerned, this division of labour, by means of which 
greater excellence is attained, is advantageous to society, in- 
somuch as constructive skill and scientific knowledge may be 
of the greatest value without fine taste or acquaintance with ar- 
chitecture as an art : but in regard to the architect it is dif- 
ferent ; for, without a knowledge of construction, as we have said 
already, he cannot pi*oceed a single step with any advantage to 
his fellows. 

In the face of this, however, we have known many young 
men of talent to leave offices of first-rate practice wherein 
they had been educated, not merely profoundly ignorant of all 
that relates to construction (even of the workman's nomencla- 
ture, and therefore certain not to command any attention from 
workmen) ; not merely unable to point out how they would have 
their ideas carried into execution, and to discover if the work 
were properly or improperly performed ; not merely unable to 
arrange their plans with a view to the relative expense of certain 
methods and materials, so that the greatest effect might be pro- 
duced at the least cost ; but so thoroughly imbued with the 
notion that such mechanical portions of their professional duties 
were unworthy of their attention, that they were not likely to at- 
tempt to gain any acquaintance with them, until they had been 
slowly taught their error by experience. The Council of the 
Institute of British Architects have done much to induce more 
immediate attention to construction on the part of students, and 
have shown the importance which they themselves attach to a 
knowledge of it, by the number of papers relating thereto 
which have been read, and the lectures on specific portions of 
it which have been delivered. It must, however, be urged 
again and again, before we can hope that good results will be 
strikingly apparent; and, feeling that every attempt, however 
humble, to direct the attention of the student to this department 
of his profession will necessarily effect good, in a greater or 



Hints on Construction. 253 

less degree in proportion as the effort may be well directed, we 
propose to issue, with this end in view, a series of disjointed re- 
marks under various heads ( such as, Foundations ; Bricks, and 
Brickwork; Mortar and Cements: Carpentry ; Iron, Zinc, and 
Lead ; Internal Finishing, &c, &c.,), embodying information 
concerning materials generally used, the modes of executing 
certain works, points to be especially attended to by the architect 
during his superintendence of an ordinary dwelling-house, and 
such others matters of detail as we may deem likely to be of 
value to the tyro. 

These papers will put forward no pretensions to be considered 
a complete treatise on construction, nor aim at any thing further 
than a small degree of usefulness : so that, if our endeavours 
should fail to be successful, they will not at all events subject us 
to be termed presumptuous. We commence with some memo- 
randa regarding the preparation of 

FOUNDATIONS. 

Although we do not very often hear of I he entire destruction 
of a building through inattention to the nature of the soil on 
which it stands, or want of judgment in the means employed to 
remedy the defects in it, or see numerous buildings emulating the 
towers at Pisa and Bologna, there are few rows of newly built 
houses whose " compo'd " fronts will not prove, by diagonal 
cracks over the window openings (usually caused by the sinking 
down of the part}' walls with their heavy load of chimneys), t! :it 
a reiteration of the necessity of carefully examining the ground 
on which either a public building or a private dwelling is to be 
erected, may still be serviceable. All " newly made ground," to 
use a technical expression, should be removed ; clayey soil, even 
if apparently compact, should be viewed with distrust and treated 
with precaution, being likely to shrink and crack. Dry gra- 
velly soils sometimes contain vacuities which collapse when 
loaded with a certain weight : and even a rock will not always 
prove a good foundation. Indeed, under certain circumstances, 
rock affords the least trustworthy foundation that can be quoted. 
If, for example, its bed is not horizontal but oblique, as is often 
the case, there will always be a probability, especially if exca- 
vations are made near it, that portions subjected to any pres- 
sure, will slip, and the building, if one be upon it, be destroyed. 
At St. Mary's Cemetery in Liverpool, the chapel, erected on a 
mass of the new red sandstone (on one side of which there is a 
deep cutting), is in this predicament. Rain water, collected in 
the fissures, and expanded by frost, has caused the rock to 
split obliquely, which is the direction of its bed, in several places ; 
and, although the surface of the rock has been pared down so 
as to prevent the lodgement of water as far as is possible, and 



254? Hints on Construction. 

other precautionary measures adopted, it is to be feared that 
the injury will extend to the building. 

Previously, then, to the commencement of an edifice, the ground 
should be tried by ramming, and if this examination be unsa- 
tisfactory, by boring. Digging deeper into the earth does not 
always secure a better bottom, indeed we should at times commit 
an error by so doing; thus St. Paul's Cathedral stands tolerably 
securely on a stratum of pot-earth or clay, under which, for forty 
feet in depth, is said to be dry sand that will run through the 
finders; and part of Greenwich Hospital is erected upon a thin layer 
of travel immediately above a similar quicksand, In either case, 
had this stratum been removed, which now serves as the one 
broad footing on which each building stands, a considerable dif- 
ficulty would have been created. 

If was formerly the custom when the natural soil was bad to a 
oreater depth than could be digged down to, and the building 
was not of sufficient importance to admit the expense of piling, 
to excavate to a certain distance, and then, having attained a 
perfect level (which in all cases is essentially necessary), to form 
a platform, by means of logs of wood, or sleepers, 5 or 6 inches 
square, and placed 3 or 4- feet asunder in the direction of the 
thickness of the wall, on which was laid strong planking in the 
opposite direction, securely spiked down, and on this the walls 
were built. The foundation of many houses in Westminster, 
the soil of which is, for the most part, of a marshy nature, was 
prepared in that way, and we have seen Jir sleepers, some cen- 
turies old, taken up in that neighbourhood, which having been 
exposed to no alternations of temperature, or of dampness and 
dryness, but constantly embedded in the boggy earth, were 
exceedingly sound. Except under extraordinary circumstances, 
however, all woods are subject to decay, and destructible by 
worms, and their employment therefore should be avoided in 
foundations, where restoration is almost impossible, and stabi- 
lity of vital importance. Not many years ago, part of a large 
building at Amsterdam, which had formerly belonged to the old 
Dutch East India Company, fell into the river during the night, 
without giving any warning, in consequence of the gradual 
and unobservable decay of the piles on which it stood in common 
with most buildings there. 

When the soil on the site of a proposed edifice was un- 
equally bad, portions were excavated, and piers of masonry or of 
brickwork, as the case might be, were built up from the solid 
ground, and connected by arches on which the walls were built. 
In as much, however, as a building so raised was put upon a 
series of props or legs, some of which would probably settle 
down or penetrate the earth more than others, and in most cases 
did do so, this plan may not be deemed infallible. 



Construction of Waterloo a?id London Bridges. 255 

At the present moment, the mode of preparing foundations 
most generally adopted depends on the concreting power of 
lime, by means of which a solid rock of any size or substance, 
may be formed for the building to stand on ; and this method, on 
account of its excellence, will soon, probably, render all others 
obsolete, except as accessories. 

By the use of " Concrete," we may almost prevent the possi- 
bility of failure, so far as regards foundation, and that too 
with a comparatively trifling increase of expense. For our own 
part, we would not build a common " eight-room'd " house, if 
circumstances allowed it, without a bed of concrete in trenches 
under all the walls. In ordinary cases, if this were 9 in. 
wider on each side than the footings, 12 in. in thickness, and 
put in with proper care, the probability of settlements would be 
entirely removed. Concrete serves, too, to prevent dampness in 
the walls, and as its presence generally lessens the quantity of 
brickwork required, only a small addition to the expense would 
be caused by its introduction. In some situations, indeed, as it 
may be put in on ground on which brickwork could not safely 
be commenced, and as it is of itself cheaper than brickwork, a 
considerable saving may be effected by its use. 

The subject of Concrete, the various modes of preparation, 
its advantages and peculiarities, are somewhat fully treated of in 
the first volume of the Transactions of the Institute of British 
Architects^ to which we venture to refer our readers ; but as it is 
a most important materia] in construction, and its application of 
every-day occurence, we shall briefly describe the best mode of 
compounding it, and mention some points to be attended to in 
its use. 

Art. III. Remarks on the Construction of Waterloo Bridge and 
London Bridge. By an Architect. Communicated by T. B. W. 

In these days of railroads and bridge-building, when every 
architect is more or less an engineer as well as an artist, and 
when every one studying the art ought not only to acquire a 
knowledge of the principles of taste, but be familiar with all 
the principal problems of practical mathematics, the following 
document, as it appears to me, well deserves a place in your 
pages. It was written by an architect who is now high in 
his profession; and, though I give you his name, yet I should 
not wish you to publish it at present. The document was in 
circulation ten or twelve years ago, at which time I was fortu- 
nate enough to procure a copy of it. 



Proposed new London Bridge. — The design of the late John 
Rennie, Esq., has been recommended by the committee. This 
is, in principle of construction, similar to Waterloo Bridge 



256 Remarks on the Construction 

which has been frequently referred to as the ground and autho- 
rity for the intended mode of proceeding. 

Waterloo Bridge Construction is open to the following Ob- 
jections. First, The mode of founding in cofferdams and piling 
to receive the piers. The natural bed of the river is a gravel, 
and a blue clay under. This is a good and sufficient foundation ; 
and is injured, not mended, by piling. At Waterloo Bridge, by 
driving the piles, the bed was wholly disturbed and raised into 
a sort of puff paste, whereby the competency of the natural bed 
was destroyed, and the dependence is wholly on the piles, whose 
feet stand on a stratum no better, except that being deeper it 
has been less disturbed by the piling. The insufficiency of such 
foundation was exemplified at Orleans Bridge, in France, where 
the body of one of the piers went down with its load nineteen 
inches, and the cutwaters were entirely broken off. 

Second, The mode of connecting the springing of the arch 
with the cutwaters of the piers has a discrepancy very offensive 
to an eye at all conversant with the principles of construction. 
There is no obvious workmanlike mode of constructing them as 
there exhibited. The arch stones appear at the springing to be 
reduced to a point ; and although we may guess that they are 
continued in some secret way behind the facade of the pier, yet 
we are satisfied it must be a great drawback on the solidity of 
the one or the other. 

Third, The mode of projecting the piers beyond the face of 
the bridge (and which, in the late Mr. Rennie's model, is ex- 
cessive) is useless for stability, possibly dangerous ; and cer- 
tainly an unnecessary expenditure. When the piers of Orleans 
Bridge went down, it broke away from the cutwaters, notwith- 
standing the grating of whole timbers connecting them ; and 
left the cutwaters at their original level. At Waterloo Bridge 
the arches are settling away from the cutwaters, and the bed of 
the river having been loosened and raised by pile-driving, the 
settlement will continue to increase probably for some years, 
before it becomes consolidated; and time only can determine 
whether the sand and tenacity of the material will be sufficient 
to resist a more dangerous separation. The uselessness of the 
projecting cutwaters for stability is, therefore, demonstrated. 
For the purpose of dividing the stream, they are far short of 
what the case demands and what science can effect. 

Fourth. Regarding the trussed centre. A dissected model 
of one of the arches of the design of the late Mr. Rennie was 
exhibited for a day or two on the table of the committee room, 
with a model of the trussed centre under it. In the presence of 
several members, it was pointed out to be a copy in principle of 
the Blackfriars and Waterloo centres ; that it was defective, in 
as much as it contained no principle to resist change of form 



of Waterloo and London Bridges. 257 

when partially loaded, as is the case in the progressive building 
of an arch ; that it had, consequently, failed at Blackfriars and 
at Waterloo Bridges. At both those places the defect was helped 
by loading the crown of the centre previously to building the 
haunch of the arch. But this is a clumsy and unscientific way 
of overcoming the difficulty, and does not fully answer the pur- 
pose. The centre still undergoes continual change of form by 
the progressive loading. The arch, of course, participates in 
this change of form ; and its stability is thereby impaired, if 
not endangered. The form of the arches at Waterloo Bridge 
is evidently much crippled, and at Blackfriars' Bridge consider- 
able spaults took place. At Waterloo Bridge, the excellence of 
the stone was sufficient to resist spaulting; and the injury is 
there limited to the unsightly distortion of form. 

Upon the whole, to those who are conversant with the his- 
tory of bridge-building, and with the best examples, this design 
of the late Mr. Rennie is, in art and science, a retrograde move- 
ment ; and, if it should be carried into effect, will be a disgrace, 
instead of an honour, to the city. 

Regulated by these principles, I formed the design which I 
delivered to the committee ; but the committee was pleased to stop 
me in the explanation thereof; alleging that it was unnecessary 
for me to repeat anything that had been committed to writing 
in my papers, which were already before them, as those papers 
would be printed, and a copy given to every member. There is 
in them, as I conceive, matter sufficient to deter the adoption or 
repetition of the principles of Waterloo Bridge construction ; 
but I am fearful the elucidation of these my principles has not 
been read. 

If it were a question of taste only, such as to decide an eleva- 
tion, or the decoration of it, I should remain silent; but, as the 
question is upon principles of construction, implicating stability 
and security, which are capable of being discussed with logical 
precision ; and, correct conclusions being deduced therefrom, I 
think it right to press their consideration. 

In my design there are the following improvements on the 
usual mode : — 

The arches virtually spring from the bed of the river, by 
which there is no lateral pressure beyond the pier, and every 
arch is independent of its neighbour. And I am ready to pro- 
duce a responsible person, who will undertake to build the middle 
arch first and alone, and deposit ample security to remove it in 
case it does not incontrovertibly establish the principle. 

From the mode of construction, the apparent springing may be 
made where most desired, which should be not lower than high- 
water mark, but rather at the height of the highest floods ; thus 
the greatest water-way is obtained where it is most wanted. 

Vol. V. — No. 52. s 



258 Ventilation of large Buildings 

The shape of the pier presents the only form which divides 
the stream with greatest facility, and allows it to pass with the 
least danger of undermining the pier. 

The shape is, also, the best for receiving and supporting the 
weight of the arches, and for spreading that weight in the most 
ample manner on the bed of the river. In both arch and pier, 
the line of pressure is ascertained by a simple mechanical pro- 
cess ; and the joint is, in all cases, cut at right angles to the line 
of pressure ; thus the whole of the contiguous surfaces of the 
stones of arch and pier bear on each other ; whereas, in the usual 
construction, nearly all of them perch on one edge or the other. 

The advantages of this invention are, that the construction 
is rendered more easy, the stability more certain, the con- 
venience greater, and the expense much less. 

As regards the trussed centre, I have produced a model of 
one which has been used, and was fully proved to resist all 
change of form during the building of the arch. 

The amount of my estimate is 280,000/. ; and I have re- 
sponsible builders ready to guarantee, by the most ample se- 
curity, the complete execution at that amount. 



Art. IV. On the Ventilation of large Buildings by the Intervention 
of Openings in the Windows. By II. Mallet. 

When in Liverpool, last September, at the meetings of the 
British Association, I went once to St. Jude's church. This 
edifice, which is in a sort of Gothic style, presents, when filled 
with people, a very imposing interior ; partly from its magnitude 
intrinsically, but much more from this property not being, as it 
is so often, frittered away by innumerable divisions and sub- 
divisions of parts, in the arrangement of ornaments on walls and 
ceilings. The ceilings are in this church particularly good, being 
simply divided across by the tie-beams (or representations of 
them) of the roof principals, which are moulded in a very bold 
style, and terminate at the walls in rich open Gothic brackets. 
The underline of these mouldings passes level and straight across, 
while the ceiling forms a large angle at the centre, probably of 
about 160° ; thus giving an aspect of great strength and solidity. 
But to the point. There are two rows of windows at either side, 
one over and one under the galleries ; and each window has a 
considerable portion of the sash cut out, and inclined inwards, 
and so fixed ; with glazed sides and an open top, furnished with 
a glazed lid to open and shut by a cord. Fig. 90. is a section of 
one of these, which represents them all, and is sufficiently plain 
without reference. The doors are judiciously contrived to pre- 
vent the currents of air which are often so distressing in 



by Openings in the Windows. 



259 




churches : and hence ventilation may be con- 
sidered as confined to these openings in the 
windows. Now, while the church is filling, 
and for, perhaps, the first half hour or so of 
service, nothing can be better than the venti- 
lation : a delightful aura spreads through 
every part of the building, and feels fresh 
and breezy ; but as the church heats this 
rapidly declines ; and in about an hour, on 
putting my hand to one of the ventilators, 
where there had been a strong current in 
before, I could find none perceptible. This 
struck me as curious ; and, on a little subse- 
quent consideration, I believe I have seen the 
cause ; and, as a great number of churches 
and other buildings are ventilated in this way, 
I have deemed it possibly worthy of notice 
in your Magazine. 

Referring to Jig. 91., and supposing the 
wind to blow against one flank of the church, 
either direct or diagonally, as shown by the 
arrow, it is obvious that, pressing against the 
inclined planes of the ventilators, a portion of 
it will be driven upwards, as shown m Jig. 90. ^ 
and into the church, and will tend to expel 
a certain portion of air, by a retrograde mo- 
tion from the opposite side. The opposing 
forces that the air meets in entering are 
the inertia of the body of air in the building, 
and the force necessary to expel part of it 
from the leeward windows ; but, besides 
this, as the air in the church becomes heated and ascends, it 
has a tendency to lodge above the upper row of windows, and, 
from the commencement of the process, gives a greater freedom 
of entrance to the fresh air below than above ; but, as soon as the 
hot air above has increased so as to have reached the level, or 
below the top, of the upper row of ventilators, the whole or a 
part of the current through them becomes stopped, depending 
on the temperature of the upper region ; because this air to be 
displaced by fresh air, requires to be depressed into air colder, 
and hence denser, than itself, owing to the structure and position 
of the ventilators; so that, in fact, at a certain period, dependent 
on the circumstances of external and internal cooling and heat- 
ing agencies, the heated air becomes itself a valve to stop out 
the fresh air. Now the remedy for this is very plain ; and con- 
sists merely in inverting one set or range of ventilators, as in Jig. 
92. where I have represented a section of the church merely by 

s 2 




260 



Ventilation of large Buildings. 




91 






lines. Here the upper ventilators are inverted ; so that a lateral 
external current, instead of, as before, being urged by the inclined 



/ 





> 





* A 



01 






92 




plane against the issuing hot air, is deflected upwards by it out- 
side the building ; while the slope of the ventilator gives at both 
sides free egress to the heated air, at the same time that the po- 
sition of the lower ventilators is the best possible for freely ad- 
mitting the external atmosphere. This is shown in the figure by 
the directions of the arrows, together with the ascending currents 
of heated air. The protection from rain is equally good in either 
case ; and this latter modification would appear to afford a very 
good and efficient system of church ventilation. 

It is very likely that all this, and much more, may have oc- 
curred on this subject to you and many of your correspondents, 
it was, however, new to me. 



94-. Cajiel Street, Dublin, Feb. 10. 1838. 



Sectional Form for Weirs and River Dams. 26 1 

Art. V. On the most proper sectional Form to be given to Weirs or 
River Dams. By Robert Mallet. 

The section of weirs or dams, when of masonry, appears, in 
most instances, to be pretty nearly a rule of thumb business, with 
the exception of some examples by Mr. Telford. The model of 
an earth embankment appears to have been adopted for stone 
ones, with but little care either as to the best position for the 
stones of the masonry, for maximum strength, or as to the out- 
line that would give the easiest descent for the falling fluid, and, 
by consequence, the least wear and tear to the structure. Not to 
encumber your pages with a parade of analysis, I shall just state 
the results I have arrived at, and leave your mathematical read- 
ers, who will at once see what I would be at, to judge for them- 
selves ; while the practical man can discern from the figure 
whether the positions and forms I have assigned to the stones 
of the masonry are the most suitable. Supposing, then, the 
plan of the weir to- be an arch pointing up the stream : I con- 
ceive the line of section, from d to a mjig. 93., should either be 

93 




a right line (or, possibly, a parabolic segment, presenting a con- 
vex inclined surface to the water in very deep streams). The 
line from a to 6, I consider, should be a parabola, to which 
the water-level should be a tangent ; because this curve gives 
the easiest change from direct to curvilinear motion, and hence 
with the least expenditure of force. Lastly, I think the line 
from b to c should be a cycloid, as being the curve of quickest 
descent ; so that the combination of these two curves will fulfil 
the condition of giving the easiest change of motion to the 
water, from a rectilineal to a curved, and back again to a rec- 
tilineal, possible, and hence the minimum wear and tear to the 
structure ; while they possess the coordinate property of a ju- 
dicious form to resist the hydrostatic pressure. 

I believe a weir thus formed would cause the fluid to de- 
scend in every part in an unbroken sheet, and produce little 
or no ripple below it. I also think the principles of the form 
proposed are now for the first time stated. 

s 3 



262 



An Architect's Desk. 



For weirs subject to waves, certain modifications are re- 
quired ; but the investigation of these is plainly out of place 
in this Magazine. 

94. Capel Street, Dublin, Feb. 10. 1838. 



Art. VI. An Architect's Desk. By E. B. Lamb, F.R.I.B.A. 

I have recently had a new desk made ; and, as it comprises 
some things which, perhaps, are novel, I send you five 
sketches of it ( figs. 94. 



94- 



to 98.), together with f ^ p// ^^' - ^^^^ J 



some of the reasons which 
led me to adopt this de- 
sign; though, as a pro- 
duction of my own, I may 
show a greater degree of i^ 
partiality for it than it j 
merits. | 

I found that the most | 
convenient drawing-table \ 
or desk, for mv own 



I 

I 



' 






' ty.<w////.v//,vs/,vr/77777?/.w;w& 



kL.:zzz2i 



a. 



rr-^z 



■I 

j 



! 

\ \ 

i 

. i 

.! 




use, was one that would take little room, and, at the same 
time, could be extended at pleasure, so as to give me an oppor- 
tunity of having a number of drawings or books of reference 
always within my reach ; and, that 1 might not be frozen in 
inclement weather, by being obliged to be seated at a fixed desk, 
or, at least, one that could be moved only with difficulty, the 
one I required should move with 
the greatest facility ; so that, in 
whatever situation I might choose 
to place myself in my study, little 
more than the mere will was neces- 
sary to obtain it. 

A flat table I considered objec- 
tionable to draw upon, for obvious 
reasons ; and a movable support 
for a drawing-board I have always 
found to be inconvenient ; there- 
fore, an inclined desk was deter- 
mined upon, as, on removing the 
drawing-board, a writing-desk is 
obtained. The means of extend- 
ing the top by flaps {figs. 96. 

and 97.) is the most simple and expeditious I could devise. I 
found it desirable to keep the centre part higher than the sides, in 
order that, when the centre is occupied by a drawing-board, which 
may extend somewhat over the flaps, they being lower, drawing- 



2 



! i iii i iiiiii m ii m ii ii iiii iii,mmiiiiNiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiii»ii||iiM Br 



An Architect's Desk. 



263 



Of) 



«b 



I 11 
n 

i 

in 

in 
in 
in 

IH 

111 
til 
III 
III 
ill 
J 

II 

ll 
II 
II 
II 



n 



boards may be placed upon them when necessary, without being in 
the way of the free use of the T square on the centre board ; or books 
and papers may be laid here open, without the liability of their being 
injured or pushed off by any movement required by the centre 
board. Injfg - . 94. will be seen the general plan of the lower part ; 
in which a is the space for the knees in front, 18 in. wide, 13 in. 
deep, and 25 in. high to the drawer rail : b b are side closets, 
with one shelf in each ; the dotted curve lines show the way these 
closets open : c is a closet at the back, with one shelf for books, 
papers, &c. ; the closets in front being used for rolled up draw- 
ings, and other papers in present use : d d, the side-flaps, when 
down. It will be seen from this plan 
that the mouldings at the angles are 
all of the same form, and return 
round the sides; thus making a 
border to the flaps the same as the 
one to the desk in the centre. The 
sections of these mouldings are ne- 
cessarily quadrants of circles, or what 
workmen call quarter rounds. By 
the perspective sketch [Jig. 98.) the 
effect of this arrangement will be 
seen. 

Fig. 96. is the plan of the top, 
with both flaps up ; the whole extent 
of which, when thus opened, is 6 ft. 
9 in. ; the top of the desk alone is 2 ft. 
1 1 in. wide, and the depth 2 ft. 1 in. ; 
the flaps are 2 ft. 1 in. by 1 ft. 11 in. 
The dotted lines at e in this figure 
show a small drawer, over the recess 
for the knees ; f is a long drawer for 
pens, pencils, wax, &c. This drawer 
is divided in the manner shown on the 
sketch ; and one part, which turns 
nearer the hand, is supplied with ink- 
stands ; the dotted lines in the upper 
part show the situation this drawer 
occupies ; and the dotted lines at g 
show the situation of the bearers of 
the flaps, which bearers draw out 
from under the desk. 

Fig. 95. is an elevation of one of 
the sides. The back, with the flaps 
up, is shown in^fo-. 97. Fig. 98. is a 
perspective sketch, showing the ap- 
pearance when the flaps are down. 

s 4 



n 



o 






ICS> 



LI 



264. 



An Architect's Desk. 



97 




The drawer, the front closets, and the desk are, by a very 
simple contrivance, fastened at the same time ; and only one 
lock is required to be used. The closet at the back has a separate 
lock ; but the same means of securing this at once could be 
applied, if it should be required. 

This design might be useful for a small library, the centre 
top being horizontal ; or as an office or counting-house desk I 
think it would be found convenient. It would then, perhaps, be 
necessary to cover the centre top with leather, in the usual way 
of office tables; but, for an architect's desk, a leather top would 
be liable to be scratched and defaced by drawing-boards. It 
might display a great deal of ornament, or be constructed with 



Royal Exchange Competition. 



265 




ornamental woods. The one I have had made is of wainscot ; my 
object being to obtain convenience combined with neatness and 
simplicity. 

London, Henrietta Street, Feb. 1838. 



Art. VII. The Royal Exchange Competition. By Candidus. 

Although nothing has been yet definitively settled (at least, 
not announced to the public), there is some reason to suppose 
that there will be a public competition for the Royal Exchange ; 
and, should such really prove the case, it is to be hoped that 
both the public and the profession will strenuously demand, not 
only an exhibition of all the designs, but that it shall take 
place before the choice is actually made. I made some remarks 
to this effect, which were inserted in the Number for February; but, 
as I do not find they have been seconded by any of your other 
correspondents, either enforced by the expression of a similar 
wish, or noticed for a contrary purpose, 1 beg leave to revert 
to the subject, and to state more pointedly what I conceive to 
be valid reasons for adopting such mode of proceeding. 

Even the after exhibition of the designs for the Houses of 
Parliament was a great step towards a better system. It did 
a great deal of good, if it was only by calling public attention to 
architecture, and by rendering, for the moment at least, the 
subject one of general interest. There can be no doubt that this 
exhibition caused architecture to be the topic of more conver- 
sation and discussion during those two or three months, than 
had been bestowed upon it during the ten years previous. Yet 



266 Royal Exchange Competition. 

that good will have been but temporary, if the occasion that 
produced it is to be a solitary one. Instead of permitting it to 
remain such, it rather behoves us to improve upon what was 
then done, by affording the public the opportunity of expressing 
their opinions before the final decision be pronounced. A com- 
petition so conducted would really deserve to be styled an 
open one ; but, if its openness consists in nothing more than that 
any one is at liberty to send in a design, it can hardly deserve 
such an epithet ; there being nothing to prevent secrecy afterwards, 
and to guarantee to the competitors that no undue arts or in- 
fluence will be exercised in favour of any individual. 

It will, perhaps, be said that the very circumstance of inviting 
architects to competition, whether an unlimited or limited num- 
ber, ought to preclude the suspicion of all unfairness ; since the 
only object can be to obtain the best, or what is considered to 
be the best, or, if even not the best, the most eligible, design of- 
fered. Be it so ; but then, I ask, why should there be any 
concealment ? why should even an opportunity be afforded to 
suspect, or make others suspect, any sort of unfairness ; or to 
say, as has been done ere now, that advantage was taken of some- 
thing in another design ? I have heard it argued, that an exhibi- 
tion previous to decision would not only imply mistrust in the 
competency of those appointed to be judges, but would tend ra- 
ther to embarrass than facilitate their choice, in consequence of 
the variety of conflicting opinions they would hear expressed 
beforehand. I do not at all see this : in the first place, so far 
from implying that they were inadequate to their task, and, 
possessing no judgment of their own, required to be directed, 
if not dictated to, by that of the public, it would afford presump- 
tion that the parties accepting such office were individuals 
who felt confident that they should be able to justify their deci- 
sion, even though it might be impugned by many. In the next 
place, it is to be presumed that, instead of being at all perplexed 
or embarrassed by the various comments of the public, they 
would have no difficulty in distinguishing the reasonings of 
sound criticism from futile censure or praise. To a certain 
extent, indeed, they would and ought to be guided by the opi- 
nions so elicited ; that is, they would weigh the matter more 
maturely than they otherwise would do, and have their atten- 
tion directed to what might else escape it; yet this is a very 
different thing from being swayed by popular opinion, with- 
out venturing to exercise any opinion of their own. 

It may further be objected, that an opportunity would thus be 
afforded for much caballing and intriguing, as the parties most 
interested in the decision would endeavour, either directly or 
indirectly, to recommend their own designs by favourable com- 
ments on them, inserted in the public papers and journals; and 



Royal Exchange Competition. 267 

Ijere, I conceive, lies the objection, — all, in fact, that can be ob- 
jected, against the scheme of a previous exhibition. Nevertheless, 
I do not consider it an insuperable one ; partly for the reason 
above assigned, namely, that the judges could hardly be swayed to 
adopt a design undeserving preference; and also because in- 
triguing of the sort on one side would be neutralised by counter- 
intriguing, perhaps I should say counter-statements, on the other. 
Knowing that they were liable to be instantly met by some ad- 
versary, people would be rather cautious or shy of attempting to 
advocate that whose title to preference they could not, in some 
way or other, make tolerably good ; for it is hardly to be ima- 
gined that those who entertained a different opinion would 
choose to remain silent on so important an occasion. Some of 
the discussion thus provoked might be interested and angry : it 
would elicit much bad criticism as well as good : still it would 
be discussion ; and that is, at all events, better than indifference 
and apathy. People would begin to find out the necessity of 
studying, at least of making themselves tolerably acquainted 
with, the subject, lest they should commit themselves, and betray 
their ignorance. 

The first experiment of the kind has proved that the af- 
fording the public an opportunity of examining and comparing 
all the designs sent in on that occasion drew an unusual degree 
of attention to the subject of architecture, and was the means of 
rendering it one of some interest even to those who were before 
quite indifferent to it. Such having been the case when, the 
prizes having been previously adjudged, all that was afforded to 
the public was the opportunity of satisfying their curiosity, and 
ascertaining how far the choice itself appeared to have been 
a satisfactory one, it is no more than reasonable to presume that 
they would be incited to a far more diligent examination, and 
by other motives than curiosity alone, when they felt themselves 
in some measure appealed to, and were aware that the proper ex- 
pression of their opinions would meet with due consideration. 
The competitors themselves, on the other hand, would be spurred 
on by a double stimulus; foreseeing that, whether they succeeded 
or failed in the main point, the merits of their drawings would 
be warmly canvassed, and their interest, perhaps, obstinately 
espoused, by those who, having once declared in their fa- 
vour, would not retract their opinion, if they could possibly 
defend it. 

By no means do I pretend to affirm that such a mode of 
competition would not be violently objected to by many profes- 
sional men ; and that for reasons easier to be discerned than 
openly defended. The question, however, is not what mode 
is best calculated to promote the interests of particular indivi- 
duals, and prove agreeable to them, but what is most likely to 



268 Lewis's Address on Education, 

excite emulation, and to advance the art itself. At all events^ 
I say, Fac periculum, Make the experiment : should it prove a 
failure, should none of the advantages proposed by it have been 
attained, we can then very properly revert to the system hitherto 
followed, under the conviction, then forced upon us, that, objec- 
tionable as is it in itself, it is, nevertheless, the best. 



REVIEWS. 

Art. I. An Address on the Subject of Education, as connected toith 
Design in every Department of British Manufacture ; together 
•with Hints on the Education of the Poor generally. By Geo. R. 
Lewis, Author of " Anato-Chirurgical Views," &c. Pamph. 8vo. 
1838. 

Mr. Lewis is well known as an eminent artist, who has 
published a series of anatomical plates, displaying great know- 
ledge of the subject and artistical skill ; and also a series of 
etchings, portraying the physiology, manners, and character of 
the people of France and Germany. In the work before us, he 
proves himself to be a man of enlightened mind and benevolent 
heart, and, at the same time, highly patriotic in his views. We 
should not feel ourselves justified in giving a detailed analysis of 
Mr. Lewis's " Address" in a magazine devoted to architecture: 
nevertheless, as the improvement of architecture is one object of 
Mr. Lewis's plan, we consider it our duty strongly to recom- 
mend this pamphlet to all who take an interest in the subject, 
and to give one or two extracts, to show the essence of the author's 
ideas on the subject. 

With respect to the education of the poor, Mr. Lewis ob- 
serves — 

" Let a National System of Education be fully gone into by the Legislature, 
and based entirely upon a thorough knowledge of human nature, and we shall 
then have no genius wasted, no faculty lost. All will then be made the most 
of, and turned to good account. Soon, then, should we see this nation rise in 
the greatest of all her resources, manufactures, which it is at present so much 
in need of. Our manufactures have long suffered through the arts being at 
such an immeasurable distance from them . The designs which constitute the 
ornamental part of our goods being imitative instead of inventive, keep us in 
the background, and lower us into the degraded state of servile imitators 
which no nation in the scale of intellect should ever allow itself to be. 

" To raise ourselves from this state of degradation, we should establish 
schools of art in every city and manufacturing town throughout the United 
Kingdom, that the rising generation may no longer be excluded from that 
source out of which so much valuable knowledge springs. Such schools of 
art should be formed for the purpose of opening the wide field of nature, that 
the true foundation may be laid in the minds of our youth in early age ; that 
the only materials for forming new arrangements and combinations may, as 
soon as received, be permanently held, and thus enable them to lay up a 
never-ending store of information ; that design, original thinking, and in- 
vention may have a perpetual supply of that food which will at all times 
keep it in a high state of vigour and activity. 



as connected with Design. 269 

" To effect this, the groundwork must be the construction of those 
geometrical problems that are necessary to the comprehension of per- 
spective, the only foundation for accurate delineation of all forms, whether 
artificial or natural. 

" There is one point, above all, I consider to be of the greatest consequence 
in the instruction of youth as regards design ; that is, the greatest care should 
be taken by the instructors not to enforce their notions (or any others') of 
design in the demonstrations to the students, as that would have a tendency 
to destroy the peculiar combinations, arrangements, contrivances, and other 
original qualities of their minds, and, consequently, put a stop to original 
thinking, which would otherwise be evinced, if the peculiarities of one mind 
were not drilled into the other. The instructors should, to the utmost of their 
power, show how far natural forms and colours may be arranged, combined, 
and contrived in every variety of way to accomplish the design required. 
And, when those of the ancients may be thought necessary to be produced for 
the same purpose, they should only be so to show the use they made of the 
like materials for effecting the same object, but not for imitation : on this too 
much cannot be said, that all designers may be made originals. 

" Common sense, above all things, should be considered first, and infused 
into their young minds as early as possible, that they may have a thorough 
knowledge of the various things that are used and connected with the em- 
ployment of which they are likely to enter into for their subsistence. 

" A natural system should be established, that natural qualities may be 
demonstrated, by which means only can their faculties be properly exercised 
and perfected." 

According to our ideas of what a national system of education 
ought to be, all children whatever should be subjected to the 
same degree of education from infancy till they attain a certain 
age; say from 14 to 16 years. None ought to be taken from 
school, or put to work sooner. The degree of education which 
all should receive, should include all the useful and agreeable 
knowledge which children are capable of acquiring previously 
to the age mentioned, according to the most improved modes of 
teaching, commencing with infant schools. At the age of 14 or 
15, it will then be time for the parents to consider what is 
proper to be done, with a view to the future welfare of their 
children, and to direct the remaining part of their education 
accordingly. Children whose parents could do nothing further 
for them would be taken from school, and put out as assistant 
servants, labourers, or mechanics ; while the more wealthy 
would continue their children at school, commence a pro- 
fessional education, or send them to college, &c. Ten or twelve 
years ago, when we used to advocate this doctrine of high and 
equal education to all, we were told that we should unfit children 
for manual labour, and that the result would be that it would 
be impossible to get servants, &c. The public, however, are, 
we believe, now generally convinced that the relative differences 
between individuals would still be so great, that there would be 
just as great a proportion of the population ready to become 
servants and labourers as there is at present. To be convinced 
of this, it is only necessary to observe the differences which 



270 Brujfs Treatise on Engineering Field-Work. 

exist in the taste, knowledge, abilities, and pursuits of the very 
highest classes who have been highly and equally educated. 
But enough in this place. We regret to observe that the 
country generally is not yet fully aware of the importance of 
this subject. 

Art. II. A Treatise on Engineering Field-Work ; containing Prac- 
tical Land-surveying for Railways, fyc.j ivith the Theory, Principles, 
and Practice of Levelling, and their Application to the Purposes of 
Civil Engineering : also, Parish and Subterranean Surveying, with 
Sectio-Planography, and every Information necessary to be known 
in the elementary Parts of Civil Engineering ; with Descriptions of 
the best Instruments used in Surveying and Levelling, their Adjust- 
ments and Methods of using in the Field. Illustrated by numerous 
Plates and Diagrams. By Peter Bruff, Surveyor, &c. 8vo, pp. 162, 
and 8 plates. London. 10s. 6d. 

This is a work much wanted at the present time, and which 
could not have been produced, had there not been, for the last 
seven years, so many surveys made in all parts of the country, for 
the purpose of determining the lines of railroads, and making 
arrangements connected with them. It is also very justly ob- 
served by the author, in his Preface, that no treatise on sur- 
veying has " been published since the fine mathematical instru- 
ments at present in use have been considered a necessary 
adjunct to the successful prosecution of land-surveying." The 
Engineering Field- Work may, therefore, be confidently recom- 
mended to all engineers and surveyors, as at once new and 
practical. 

Art. III. Catalogue of Works on Architecture, Building, and Fur- 
nishing, and on the Arts more immediately connected therewith, 
recently published. 

The Carpenter's and Joiner's Pocket Director ; containing the 
most useful and select Prices of Carpenter's and Joiner's Work, 
eye. ; comprehending advantageous Tables and. Caladations, with 
a Variety of other Information of practical Utility ,• including, 
also, a copious List of the Trade, eye. By John Ben net, En- 
gineer, &c, Author of " Artificer's Lexicon," &c. 12mo, cuts, 
pp. 232. London, 1838. 45. 

A useful little work, of the same nature as Bennet's Engineer 
and Pocket Director, noticed in p. 130. 

The Bricklayer's, Plasterer's, Stone-Mason's, and Slater's Pocket 
Director ; comprehending select and useful Prices applicable to 
those Trades : also, valuable Tables and Calculations, with 
other Information of practical Utility ; including a copious 



Catalogue of Works on Architecture. 271 

List of the Trade, fyc. By J. Bennet, Engineer, &c. ] 2mo, 
pp. 82. London, 1838. 

The lists occupy 42 pages, and the rest of the work 82 pages ; 
so that it is sufficiently dear at 3s. It is true there is a fron- 
tispiece of the Houses of Parliament on fire ; but, as that is of no 
manner of use in a work of this kind, it goes for nothing. 

The Arcanum : comprising a concise Theory of Practical, Ele- 
mentary, and Definitive Geometry; exhibiting the various 
Transmutations of Supafcies and Solids ; obtaining, also, their 
actual Capacity by the Mathematic Scale, including Solutions to 
the yet unanswered Problems of the Ancients. By John Bennet, 
Engineer. Parts I. and II., 8vo, plates. London, 1838. 2s. 6d. 

This work is to be completed in sixteen parts, with upwards of 
600 engravings. The frontispiece contains a figure entitled 
" The Problem of Napoleon Bonaparte to his Staff," of which 
the author gives the following history : — 

" The frontispiece to this work commences with the sublimely beautiful 
problem of Napoleon Bonaparte to his staff. The manner of obtaining this 
very valuable and desirable axiom is as follows : — During the publication of the 
work entitled ' Geometrical Illustrations,' and on the 9th of May, 1836, a 
paper was left for the author thereof at the publisher's. The following is a 
literal copy, viz. : — 

" ' Napoleon, on his voyage from Egypt, amused himself and staff with 
circular geometry : what circular geometry might be was only to be collected 
from the tradition, that the problem given by the future Emperor was " To 
divide the circumference of a circle into four equal parts by means of circles only." 
The story, however, created the impression, that the idea which had passed 
through the mind of that eminent practical geometer was, that in the 
properties of the circle, or still more probably in the sphere, might be dis- 
covered the elements of geometrical organisation.' " (Introduction, p. 1.) 

The Churches of London : a History and Description of the 
Ecclesiastical Edifces of the Metropolis. By George Godwin, 
jun., F.S.A., Associate of the Institute of British Architects. 
Containing Views of St. Mary Somerset; St. Vedast, Foster 
Lane; and St. Nicholas Cole Abbey. Engraved by Le 
Keux and S. Williams. No. XVI., 8vo. London, 1838. Is. 

The present number completes the first volume of this very 
beautiful and singularly cheap work. Among other enjoyments 
which we promise ourselves, when we have sufficient leisure, is 
that of making a tour of all the churches and churchyards within 
the ancient city of London ; and this is the work which we should 
take as our guide. 

No. xvii., the first number of the second volume, has since 
been received. 

Memorials of Cambridge : a Series of Views of the Colleges, Halls, 
Churches, and other Public Buildings of the University and Town 



272 Literary Notices. 

of Cambridge. Engraved by J. Le Keux, from Drawings by F. 
Mackenzie and J. A. Bell ; with historical and descriptive Ac- 
counts of the Buildings, fyc. By Thomas Wright, MA., 
F.S.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, and English Corre- 
spondent of the Historical Commission appointed by the 
Government of France. No. VI., 8vo. London, 1838. \s. 

It may be sufficient to state of this work, that it is a fit com- 
panion for the Churches of London. We regret to find that 
Mr. Le Keux is in a precarious state of health ; and that, finding 
it necessary to abstract himself from professional labours for 
some time, the publication of the work is of necessity postponed. 
Nearly all the drawings, however, are made, and the work will 
ultimately be completed. 

Report of the Committee of Management of the Association for the 
Promotion of the Fine Arts, called the Art Union of London, 
for the Year 1836-7. Pamph., 8vo, 22 pages. 

The object and present state of the Art Union having been no- 
ticed in preceding Numbers, and, very recently, in p. 227., any 
further details here would be superfluous. 

Observations on a proposed Line of Road from Shotley B?-idge to 
Middleton in Teesdale, forming, with existing Roads, a direct 
and easy Line of Turnpike Road from Newcastle upon Tync to 
Brough, Lancaster, Preston, and Liverpool . By T. Sopwith. 
Pamph. 8vo, 16 pages. 

Like all Mr. Sopwith's writings, this tract is fraught with 
practical knowledge, and enlightened and extensive views ; but, 
its main objects being local, we should not feel justified in de- 
voting more space to it than a passing notice. 



Art. IV. Literary Notice. 

The History of the Edifice of the Metropolitan Church of St. 
Peter, York, illustrated by Extracts from the Records of the See, 
$c, by Plans and Sectio?is, and by Drawings of the Embel- 
lishments, by John Browne, Artist, &c, will shortly appear, 
and be completed in about 25 numbers. 

Rlustrations of the London and Birmingham Railway, sketched 
from nature, and drawn on stone, by John C. Bourne ; with 
topographical and descriptive accounts of the origin, progress, 
and general execution of that great national work, by John 
Britton, F. S. A. The work will consist of 32 prints, showing 
so man}' of the remarkable scenes and buildings at and between 
the termini of the line. It will correspond in size and style of exe- 
cution with the works of Harding, Roberts, Lewis, and Stanfield. 



General Notices. 273 

MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

Art. I. General Notices; 

British Artists and Writers on Art. — There is an excellent article on this sub- 
ject in the British and Foreign Rcviciv for April, in which the writer has pointed 
out the erroneous principles laid down in Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses on 
Painting. This had been previously done, to a certain extent, by Hazlitt, 
in his Essay on certain Inconsistencies in Sir Joshua Reynolds's Discourses, 
to which, however, justice was never done by the public. The chief error 
which Sir Joshua committed was in denying that there is such a thing as 
natural genius ; an opinion which was fashionable, both in Britain and France, 
from the time of Helvetius and Burke down to the present century, and 
which still prevails among a number of persons in this country. The common 
sense of mankind always declared the contrary opinion, as many familiar 
expressions in common use amply testify; such as "capacity of mind," 
" strength of parts," " original powers," " natural faculties," &c. The article 
occupies nearly fifty pages, and is well worth the price of the Review. But 
there is another article, on the prospective Changes in Mechanics, occupying 
upwards of thirty pages, which induces us to recommend every young architect 
to peruse the number if possible. 

The prospective Changes in Mechanics are the substitution of locomotive 
engines on common roads for railroads ; the use of Hague's pneumatic transfer 
of power in such a manner as to distribute those manufactories which are now 
crowded together in large towns, like Manchester, all over the country, in vil- 
lages. As minor changes may be mentioned, the use of distilled water in 
steam engines at sea ; the application of the voltaic battery as a primary power; 
greater width between the rails in railways ; lighter railway carriages ; the 
construction of steam craft for war, &c. If what is stated by the reviewer, 
respecting the superiority of steam carriages on common roads to steam car- 
riages on railroads, should prove true, the result to those who have sunk their 
money in railways will be most disastrous. (British and Foreign Review, 
April, 1838.) 

Railroads. — Railroads are monopolies, and must ever remain so. " As an 
investment of capital, the railroad appears to be among the worst in point of 
security, and the most questionable in point of interest. Liverpool and Man- 
chester are admitted to be the two greatest points of intercourse for goods 
and persons in the kingdom : that railway is said to have paid from the returns 
about nine per cent per annum. Is that sufficient interest for the quality of 
the security ? Should another railway, or any other method of transport as 
desirable, be established, what becomes of the interest on the interest on the 
capital invested ? What is the actual value of the property, iron, wood, 
bricks, buildings, and engines, of any railway ? Not a fiftieth part of the sum 
expended. What, then, is the actual security for the capital invested ? It 
is reduced to the probability that the road will continue for ever to mo- 
nopolise the transit of that particular line ; a probability which every engineer 
is slily smiling at. If the most promising line of railway, with a monopoly, can 
only return nine per cent, what will the others of less promise return ? 

"The London and Birmingham railway will sink six millions of money ; the 
interest of that sum, at five per cent, is 300,000/. per annum ; add as much 
more for expenses, and that will be a minimum, and we have 600,000/. per 
annum, to be gained, so as to pay the shareholders five per cent, and to keep 
their railway in order, in all its branches and details. Should any cheaper and 
as efficient method of travelling in that direction be established, what would 
be the value of the shares'? The younger Brunei, a man of spirit and talent, 
must have seen that railways on the same construction as those of Liverpool, 
London, and Birmingham, were not sufficiently advanced to realise the promises 
so profusely made, and has therefore determined to endeavour to improve on 
those lines of railway, and has succeeded." 

Vol. V.— No. 52. t 



274 General Notices. 

Steam Carriages on common Roads. — There is no doubt that steam carriages 
on the common roads are under perfect control ; are the safest steam machines 
ever used ; are to be propelled at great velocity ; are capable of ascending the 
loftiest hills ; and of being regulated in their speed down any descent. They 
are not to be stopped by snow which is not high enough to cover the engines ; 
and, even in that case, a proper front would open a passage where horses could 
not work. In weather like that which now prevails, the roads are superior 
for locomotive carriages to railways, as they present as hard a fulcrum, with as 
much more surface friction as to allow the engines to work with the greatest 
effect. In summer, they make no dust ; in winter, they can be kept at any 
required temperature ; as the fire is behind, no ashes come in contact with the 
passengers, as on the railways ; the motion is the easiest known ; and there is 
less noise than in a common carriage. Can any mechanic or reflecting man 
doubt that those vehicles will not soon be placed on the roads ? As soon as 
coachmasters, innkeepers, and the proprietors of property on the common 
roads, feel the injury that must ensue, if the whole transit is diverted from 
them to the railways, they will come forward and support the application 
of steam mechanical power for carriage of persons and goods. Where the 
roads are so soft (which is the worst condition they can present to a steam 
carriage) as to retard the required velocity, they will be made hard ; where 
the hills are very steep, they will be lowered, though that is by no means 
necessary; and where rough they will be made smooth. The concrete road, 
of which there is a specimen beyond Lower Grosvenor Place, towards Vaux- 
hall Bridge, is, taking into consideration every circumstance, superior to a 
railway for practical purposes. On a well-made road, consisting of hill, and 
dale, and level, a steam carriage will go at the rate of twenty miles an hour, 
carrying thirty persons, and the usual quantity of luggage, either on the 
vehicle or in a covered cart behind. The average number of persons who 
go on a train in the Liverpool and Manchester line is sixty, and generally 
a second engine is required to assist their ascent up the inclined plane : it 
follows, mercantilely speaking, that there is little or no difference between 
the railway carriage and the vehicle destined to run on the common roads. 
When the expense of a railway, and all its appendages, are brought into 
the calculation, the balance is decidedly in favour of the common road. 

It has been said by the uninformed that the wear and tear on the roads 
would be so great as to prevent steam being applied for that purpose. Now, 
those who possess the greatest experience know that the wear and tear 
of the steam carriages on the common roads is not one half as great as on 
the railway ; and, if the roads are made all as good as the great western 
or the northern road out of London, the wear would be still less. By the 
employment of steam on the roads, monopoly, which the railways foster, 
would not be upheld ; the money and the interest lent on the tolls is se- 
secured ; from the improvement of the roads all the community would be 
benefited, and the steam carriages rather roll than injure the surface. (British 
and Foreign Review, April, 1838, p. 702.) 

Enough has been said to put the public on their guard against the mania for 
railways ; and, perhaps, to turn their attention to the approaching substitution 
of mechanical for animal power on the common roads. (lb., p. 703.) 

Hague's transferring Power. — " Our manufactories are, for the most part, 
erected where coals are to be cheaply and readily obtained, as they constitute 
at present the means of obtaining power. Thus, thousands and tens of thou- 
sands of human beings are crowded together in narrow streets and alleys, 
canopied, not by the sky, but by clouds of smoke and deleterious gases. 
When masses are so congregated, the heterogeneous collections are more diffi- 
cult to bring under municipal regulations, and more difficult to civilise by 
moral and religious instruction, while greater facilities for vice are afforded. 
The necessity of manufactories being localised once destroyed, and a new era 
must commence. Two methods now exist which will gradually effect the 
change : one is perfected, and in operation; the other is as yet in embryo, but 



General Notices. 275 

so far advanced, that the result may be looked on as certain. We will briefly 
describe the former, first in general terms, then in detail. The general term is, 
the method of transferring power. The greater the distance it is transferred, 
the more perfect will be its action. It can be subdivided as numerously as the 
gas which illuminates our streets. It is inodorous, innocous, not perceptibly 
affected by heat or cold ; it will neither burn, explode, rust, nor corrode; it 
may be conveyed from the same source, so as to be made to forge an anchor, 
which will hold the largest ship, or to fabricate the finest lace. The ocean- 
tide ; the current of a river ; a mountain torrent ; may be made a source of 
power, producing effects in exact proportion to the original velocity or weight. 
Any primary power, whether fire, water, or wind, may be transferred with un- 
erring certainty. We may live to see the waters of the Humber working the 
machinery of Leeds, Halifax, and Bradford ; and the power of the Mersey 
conveyed by the side of the railway, to perform the same labour at Manchester 
and the neighbouring districts. We may, and blessed be the day ! live to see 
our pyramids of manufactories, with their living masses, converted into vil- 
lages, and systems of domestic industry, where the parent may work his 
loom, aided by his child, and yet the whole be under superintendence and 
regulation; and where even the quantity of power used will be unerringly 
registered, and, consequently, the quantity of work which has been done ex- 
actly known ; where, instead of an atmosphere loaded with smoke, steam, 
and effluvia, may be for ever seen the clear vault of heaven ; where, in- 
stead of polluted alleys and streets, never free from dirt and disease, gar- 
dens may smile, and afford an useful and intellectual occupation for the 
operative after the labour of the day. 

We may now venture to describe, as simply as we can, the modus operandi. 
Suppose a torrent of water, in an almost inaccessible mountain, several miles 
from a spot admirably calculated for establishing a manufactory. If the torrent 
be made to work, by means of a water-wheel, exhausting pumps, which draw 
out the air from an air-tight tube, made of iron, or any material which will 
remain air-tight, and bear at the utmost, fifteen pounds external on the square 
inch, it is clear that, if the other end of the tube is connected with the slides 
of an engine, one side of the piston in the engine would be exhausted of 
the air in it : if the air is allowed to enter on the other side, it is evident, if 
the vacuum be perfect, that there would be the pressure of fifteen pounds on 
the square inch of the area of the piston ; as the vacuum never is complete, 
make the calculation at two thirds, or ten pounds effective pressure. The 
position of the slides changing in the usual way, the reciprocative action 
ensues as in a steam engine. It is working with air instead of steam, and 
which air is exhausted through a tube at any distance, and carried either above 
or under ground, as most convenient, so that it be only kept air-tight. The 
friction of attenuating air, though trifling, must be considered. It must be 
always kept in mind that no power is or can be gained: it is only transferred, 
and that with some loss. But, as the difference between the same power pro- 
duced by coals and steam, and the expenses of locality and other incidents, 
are great, the little loss can be easily borne. It must be clear that the original 
amount of power may be kept whole, or divided either into a few or many 
branches, and each taken to its separate engine ; so that the aggregate, allow- 
ing for friction, does not exceed the primary amount of power obtained from 
the torrent, river, wind, or fire. John Hague, the engineer, of Cable Street, 
Wellclose Square, has earned the immortal honour of bringing to perfection 
that pneumatic transfer of power, and thus enrolled his name as a benefactor 
to his country. (lb., p. CS5.) 

Harper and Joyce's Stove. — The fuel used in this stove, and for the pre- 
paration of which a patent was taken out, turns out to be nothing more than 
charcoal, prepared in such a manner as to free it from its smell; and, as some 
say, to render it on that account still more dangerous than a common charcoal 
stove. As the analysis of the fuel has been given in the Athenaeum for April 
28., and in the Mechanic's Magazine for May 5 , we consider it unnecessary 

t 2 



276 Foreign Notices : — France 



a' 



to republish them here. Wc shall only say that, according to the examination 
of Professor Everitt, the fuel used by Messrs. Harper and Joyce " appeared 
to be only well-burnt wood charcoal, with, perhaps, ajittle additional alkaline 
carbonate, not containing, as common charcoal often does, portions of wood 
half charred, which, when the charcoal is lighted, give off some smoke and cer- 
tain vapours, irritating to the eyes and nose ; but, as respects the quantity of 
carbonic acid and heat produced during the burning of a given weight of this 
and the same weight of well prepared charcoal, there is no appreciable 
difference." The analysis of Gay Lussac, which will also be found in the Me- 
chanic's Magazine, is to the same effect ; so that this stove, which has made 
so much noise during a short period, will probably very soon be only a matter 
of history. — Cond. 

Dr. Arnotfs Stove. — On this subject we refer to p. 230., and we shall again 
recur to it, probably in our July No. In the mean time we expect to see a 
new stove and new open fireplace, both by Julius Jeffreys, Esq. One 
peculiar feature in Mr. Jeffrey's stove is, that where there is no chimney the 
smoke will be carried off in an underground drain, probably on the double 
current ventilation principle. — Cond. 

Neiv Camera Lucida. — M. Kruines has presented to the Academy of 
Sciences a new camera lucida, by means of which the image of any distant ob- 
ject may be transferred to paper by tracing its outlines with a pencil. M. 
Kruines has substituted, for the quadrangular prism of Wollaston, two glasses, 
placed at such an angle to each other that the image of the object, after strik- 
ing obliquely on the upper glass, is reflected to the lower glass, and from the 
latter to the eye, which at the same time sees clearly the paper and pencil 
through the lower glass. The image formed by this instrument is seen in an 
upright position, in consequence of being twice reflected ; but it is not so dis- 
tinct as in the old instrument, which forms an image that can be easily traced 
with a pencil. In other respects, the instrument of M. Kruines has the ad- 
vantage, as it only costs half the price of the others. (L' Echo die Monde 
savant, Aug. 30. 1837.) 

Zinc not oxidisuble. — M. d'Arlingcourt has invented a kind of zinc which is 
not oxidised by the action of weak acids, or by atmospheric influences, al- 
though it is not yet known whether or not it will resist the effects of sea 
water ; if it does, there would be a saving of two thirds by employing it instead 
of copper for sheathing ships. It is a compound of zinc, lead, and tin. 
(L'E'cho du Monde Savant, Nov. 8. 1837.) Ornaments for affixing to cast- 
iron objects are frequently formed of this composition in London. 



Art. II. Foreign Notices. 



FRANCE. 

ARCHITECTURAL Prize by the Institute of France. — At the last distribution of 
the prizes by the Institute of France, the subject for the grand prix in archi- 
tecture was " a Pantheon," which the instructors directed the competitors to 
consider as an edifice consecrated to the memory of those distinguished men 
who add lustre to their country by their virtues, their services, or their 
talents ; which might be regarded as a Temple of Glory, anil treated with an 
architectural magnificence commensurate with the importance of the monu- 
ment. The exterior, as well as the interior, were required to indicate the pur- 
pose of the building ; and, besides, the hall of the Pantheon should contain 
porticoes, vast vestibules and halls of introduction, with a tribune in the 
interior, for the delivery of orations. The basement was to contain vaults for 
the burials, with ample staircases to go down to them. An enclosure, sur- 
rounded by porticoes, sufficiently large to contain the carriages and processions 
connected with the solemnities. Quarters were to be provided for four hun- 
dred soldiers, to whose care the building was to be confided. The first grand 



Foreign Notices : — France. Ill 



'a 



prix was awarded to M. J. F. B. Guenepin, aged thirty years, pupil of M. 
Guenepin, member of the Institute of France, and of the Royal Institute of 
British Architects. The second was gained by M. A. J. Henard, aged twenty- 
five years, pupil of MM. Huyot and Le Bas, also members of the Institute of 
France, and of the Royal Institute of British Architects; the third medal was 
adjudged to M. Jules Durn, aged 24 years, pupil of M. Callet. — M. I. B. A. 
Feb. 1838. 

Canal parallel to the Banks of the Rhine, from Basle to Strashurg. — M. 
Fourneyron has. communicated to the Academy the project for a railroad, with 
a parallel and navigable canal, from Basle to Strasburg, by Mulhouse, Col- 
mar, &c. It has been found that, at low water, the waters of the Rhine, in 
their passage from Basle to Strasburg, have a force of from 400,000 to 500,000 
horse power. The project in question consists in collecting a very small part 
of this power, by means of a lateral canal, upon which 100 metres (325 ft.) of 
elevation will be divided into thirty falls, from Mulhouse to Strasburg. On 
this line a total force of 40,000 horse power will be obtained, which will 
produce an annual revenue of about 40,000,000 of francs. Alsace is now 
covered with steam engines, for which fuel is procured at about 80 or 100 
leagues' distance. The expense of a steam engine is reckoned at 1200 or 
1500 francs for each horse power, by the year ; and it is believed that by the 
projected canal this same power might be produced for 200 francs per 
annum. 

It is also proposed to form a railroad between Basle and Strasburg, upon 
which the waggons would be moved by hydraulic power (moteurs) ; for which 
purpose it is intended to employ another part of the strength of the waters of 
the river. The waggons and the diligences on this road would go at the rate 
of from six to eight leagues an hour. (L'E'eho, Dec. 13. 1837, p. 207.) 

Cathedral of Chartres. — Last year, as it is well known, the imprudence of a 
journeyman plumber had nearly caused the destruction of the Cathedral of 
Chartres. The loss would have been irreparable ; for the cathedral of Chartres 
is one of the richest monuments which remain to us of the middle ages. Its bells, 
painted windows, and the magnificent (jube) gallery which surrounds its choir, 
add to the beauty of its somewhat austere form, and compose a whole which 
real connoisseurs alone can appreciate. Fortunately the progress of the fire left 
the most interesting parts almost uninjured. The recent experience which has 
been obtained, of the danger of introducing fire among old dried timbers, has 
prevented a repetition of the fault which was committed in 1822, in the case 
of the Cathedral of Rouen, when the wooden framework of the roof, having 
been set on fire by lightning, was reconstructed of wood. It has been now 
decided that that of the Cathedral of Chartres is to be made of metal; and the 
government, in adopting this plan, has only yielded to the advice of almost all 
the men of science. It has been thought necessary especially to order the con- 
struction of two bays of joists (travees), which were to be formed at the workshop 
of the artificer to whom this attempt was intrusted. These bays are to be com- 
posed of three trusses (fermes), in the form of ogee arches (d'arcs ogives) in- 
scribed svithin a triangle, the form of which is determined by the gable ends 
(pignons) of masonry, which surmount the principal facade and each arm of 
the cross. The ogee arch (Tare ogive), of about 40 ft. in extent (ouverture), 
is formed of a framework of metal, with open grooves (chassis de fonte evides a 
jour) of an elegant but simple form, connected by large iron pins (boulons): the 
head rafters (arbaletriers) which form the exterior triangle, and which are in- 
tended to support the roof, are made of wrought iron. The trusses (fermes) 
are connected by cross quarters of timber (entretoises), which answer the double 
purpose of fixing them firmly (assujettir), and of supporting a grating intended 
to be covered with zinc or copper. Nothing can be imagined more elegant, 
and at the same time more imposing, than this construction ; the effect of 
which will be increased when placed on the arches (voutes) of the church : it 
will be in some degree a new cathedral, raised (improvisee) on the old one. The 

t 3 



278 Foreign Notices : — France. 



5 



project entrusted to M. Baron, architect of the cathedral, has obtained the 
unanimous approval of the visiters. (UF/cho, Nov. 29. 1837, p. 187.) 

Horlogc de la Mort du lioi. — It is intended to reestablish at Versailles, in the 
court called Cour de Marbre, the clock of the king's death. This clock is, as is 
well known, without works, and it has but a single hand, which is placed at the 
precise hour at which the late king of France died, and which does not move 
during the whole of the reien of his successor. This royal custom dates from 
the time of Louis XIII. (L'E'cho, Nov. 29. 1837, p. 188.) 

Safety Apparatus contrived by a Galley-Slave. — An individual named Tester, 
a mechanic, and Leterrier, a clockmaker, now confined in the Bagne at Brest, 
have lately invented a safety apparatus, calculated to prevent explosion in steam 
boilers. (L'E'cho, Dec 13. 1 837, p. 204.) 

Museum of Besancon. — M. Magnencourt, the deputy, has presented to the 
museum of Besancon a copy in plaster of the friezes of the Parthenon, which 
he has brought from Italy. (L'Echo, Dec. 13. 1837, p. 201.) 

Ancient Church in Brittany. — A curious fragment of a very ancient church, 
which is mentioned in history under the name of Notre Dame de l'Hotellerie, 
had long been preserved in the town of Dinan, in Brittany. This fragment, 
which consisted of an old gate, had often attracted the admiration of antiquaries ; 
and it was the more valuable, as, though it dated from the romantic era, it had 
full arches (ii plein cintre), and was ornamented like the richest architecture of 
the 16th century. It has just fallen a sacrifice to modern civilisation. {L'E'cho, 
Nov. 18. 1837, p. 175.) 

FonvieUe's Filtering Apparatus. — M. Arago read to the Academy of Sciences 
a report made by a committee appointed to enquire into the subject of M. 
Henri de FonvieUe's newly invented filter. It is well known that rain water 
collected in cisterns cannot be preserved pure, unless it be made to pass 
through a stratum of some porous substance, in the interstices of which it may 
deposit the foreign matter collected in flowing over the roof, &c. Well water, 
on the other hand, always contains some earthy particles received in its 
passage through the soil ; and river water, with respect to its purity, may be 
considered as intermediate between these two. Thus, the waters of the 
Seine, and those of the Garonne, are considerably purer than the waters of 
the springs and fountains in their neighbourhood; but this advantage is more 
than compensated for by the constant muddiness of the river water after rains 
or thaws. For example, the quantity of foreign matter held in suspension in 
the waters of the Seine, during floods, is sometimes as much as 1 in 2000; 
so that a person who drinks six pints of water in a day would also take J oz. 
of earthy matter. To obviate this, it has in modern times been tried to purify 
water by filtration ; and it was to effect the same end that the ancients con- 
structed such expensive aqueducts. Standing at rest is not sufficient to 
purify the water which is required for the wants of a large town, for it would 
require at least eight or ten separate reservoirs, large enough to contain all 
the water wanted for one day's consumption ; and this water, remaining stag- 
nant for six or eight hours, could not fail to acquire a bad taste, from the de- 
composition of insects that had fallen into it, and from the vegetation there 
produced. Allowing water to stand at rest can only be considered as a means 
of disengaging the grosser impurities ; and it is under this point of view only 
that reservoirs have been established in England and France. Science, or 
rather chance, has discovered a means of hastening, and even of rendering 
almost instantaneous, the precipitation of earthy matter held in suspension in 
water. This consists in throwing into it powdered alum. In the water of 
the Seine, by this process, the mud is seen to collect into long thick strips, 
and to be quickly deposited. This mode is, however, expensive; and, as it 
only separates the grosser particles, it does not supersede the ordinary modes 
of filtration. Sand and gravel have been tried, and found to answer to a 
certain extent, but they only deprive water of its earthy particles. Since it 
has been known that charcoal has the property of absorbing matters resulting 
from the putrefaction of organised bodies, filters of charcoal have been em- 



Foreign Notices : — Germany. 279 

ployed; and this, at the present day, is the limit of the theory of filtration, no 
farther advance having been made as far as regards the question considered in 
an economical point of view. The only water company in London that 
purifies its water, that of Chelsea, does so by means of three large reservoirs 
of an acre in extent, and communicating with each other. In the first two 
the water is allowed to deposit its silt, and in the third it passes through a 
bed of sand and gravel 6 ft. thick, where it is finally purified. When the third 
basin is entirely empty, the sediment is removed, and replaced by a new layer 
of sand. The system introduced at Greenock in 1828, by Mr. Thorn, has this ad- 
vantage over that at Chelsea, that the clearing of the water is effected by itself, 
and that the whole mass of filtering sand is brought into use. This mass forms a 
bed about 5 ft. in thickness. The water may enter the basin filled by the sand 
and gravel either above or below. If the filtration is going on by the descent 
of the water, for example, when the filter is perceived to be obstructed, and 
flows slowly, the water is made to enter below, and in its ascent it carries 
away the sediment in the upper part by a discharge pipe. In France, filtra- 
tion has not as yet been tried on a grand scale. It is done by means of a 
great number of small prismatic cases lined with lead, open above, and con- 
taining at the bottom a layer of charcoal between two layers of sand and 
gravel. The filtering matter, or at least the upper layers, in these boxes, 
should be renewed or cleaned every day, or even twice a day. Every super- 
ficial metre (3ift.) of filter gives about 3000 litres (1300 gallons) of clear 
water in the 24 hours. (" II faudrait done 7 metres superficiels ou 7 caisses 
cubiques d'un metre de cote par pouce de fontaine, et 7000 caisses pareilles pour 
le service d'une ville ou la consommation serait de 1000 pouces.") There is, 
however, a very simple means of augmenting the product of these boxes, 
which consists in having them hermetically closed, and causing the water to 
pass through the filtering mass, not by means of its own weight, or by a slight 
pressure, but by the action of great pressure. This is the principle of M. 
Fonvielle of the Hotel Dieu's filter, which, although it has only 1 metre 
(3 ft. 3 in.) of superficies, gives every day, by the pressure of 35 in. of mercury 
(an atmosphere and a sixth), at least 50,000 litres (more than 50,000 quarts 
imperial measure) of clear water, or, at a maximum, 137,000 litres. 

M. Ducommun has claimed the priority in the employment of pressure in 
filtration ; but it appears certain that M. Fonvielle was the first to prevent the 
return of the filtered matter by the action of the pressure ; and, lastly, his ap- 
paratus, like that of Mr. Thom at Greenock, has the advantage of admitting 
the water either above or below, and consequently of cleansing itself when 
choked up by the sediment. (IS Echo du Monde Savant, Aug. 23. 1837.) 

GERMANY. 

A Temple dedicated to the eminent Men of Germany. — The king of Bavaria 
is going to erect an edifice dedicated to all the worthies (gloires) of Germany, 
on a mountain situated on the banks of the Danube, near Ratisbon. The 
mountain is to be divided into terraces, and on the platform, at the summit a 
Grecian temple will be erected. A flight of steps 60 ft. broad will lead to 
the first terrace; stairs divided into two flights will lead to a second terrace, 
and thence to three others. In all, there will be 300 steps, from the base of 
the mountain to the temple. 

The edifice will be of grey marble : the exterior, decorated with pillars and 
pediments, will have some resemblance to the Madeleine at Paris. The pillars 
will be 54 in number, and of the same colour as the rest of the building, Under 
the vestibule, will be an entrance 24 ft. high, which will have a bronze door, 
leading to a gallery 150 ft. long by 50 ft. broad, and nearly of the same 
height. Projecting pilasters (des pilastres mis en saillie) will divide this apart- 
ment into three sections ; and are intended to break the uniformity. The 
ceiling of each section will be in the form of a tent, and will be covered with 

T 4 



280 Domestic Notices ; — England, 



bronze, and perforated for a skylight. Above the cornice, on both sides, a row 
of red marble panels will contain the names of those celebrated men whose 
portraits have not been obtained, in letters of gold. Fourteen giants, represent- 
ing German warriors, will support the ceiling above the pillars and pilasters. 

In the gallery, the busts will be arranged along the walls, on stylobates of 
grey marble. This gallery will be separated by pillars from a back chamber 
(ar'ricre sallc), executed in imitation of the opisthodome of the Greek temples. 
A frieze 300 ft. in length will extend along the gallery, on which the most 
remarkable events of ancient Germany will be sculptured in Carrara marble. 
The two pediments will present two large historic pages : the one will represent 
the victory of Arminius over the Romans, and the other the regeneration of 
Germany, after the fall of Napoleon. The figures of these pediments will not 
be in bas relief: they will be in alto relievo (rondes basses), like the Pantheon 
at Athens. By this means, they will be rendered visible at a much greater 
distance. {VE'cho, Dec. 13. 1837, p. 201.) 

Railroads in Austria. — By the Augsburg Gazette, we are informed that the 
Austrian government has at length resolved on executing a double project of 
vast utility to its Italian possessions, that of establishing two railroads ; one 
from Vienna to Trieste, and the other from Venice to Milan. A regular 
weekly steam-boat communication is already established between Trieste and 
Venice, and this station will receive an adequate augmentation of its efficiency 
when the railroads are finished. The railroad from Venice to Milan is to be 
subdivided into three branch lines : the first, 62 leagues in length, will intersect 
the whole Lombardo- Venetian kingdom ; the second, about the same length,will 
traverse Mantua, Lodi, the Milanese territory, and the whole of Lower Italy ; 
and the third, 64 leagues in extent, will traverse the rich vicinity of the Lake of 
Guarda, and pass the great towns of Brescia, Padua, Vicenza, and Verona. 

Ope?iingofa Railroad at Vienna. Letters from Vienna of November 23. 
state : — This morning the opening of our northern railroad took place. The 
number of spectators was immense, and it was easily perceived by this con- 
course how much interest the inhabitants of Vienna take in the progress of the 
arts (I'industrie). The emperor and empress were present at this solemnity. 
The hours of starting were 10 in the morning, noon, and 3 in the afternoon. 
The distance from the Danube to Wagram, which is 3 leagues, was performed 
in 23 minutes. The trains (convois) consisted each time of eight carriages, 
containing at least 130 persons. {VE'cho, Sfc, Dec. 13. 1837, p. 201.) 

ITALY. 

The Excavations at Pompeii have been carried on for some time past with 
great activity ; near the Street of Tombs, four pillars in mosaic, in good pre- 
servation, of the height of 15 ft., have been found in the passage (allee) of a 
house. This is the first discovery of the kind. {VE'cho, Dec. 23. 1837, 
p. 207.) 

GREECE. 

Ancient Tomb. — A tomb has been opened at Athens, in which was found 
the body of a woman, having two candelabra of silver at her sides, as high as 
the thigh, but fallen to pieces. . There were also a rich garland of flowers in 
solid gold, reaching from the left shoulder towards the right side, and in ex- 
cellent preservation ; seven gold rings with cut stones, ivory tablets, and 
other small ornaments. {VE'cho, Dec. 23. 1837, p. 207.) 



Art. III. Domestic Notices. 

ENGLAND. 

Lancashire. — Manchester Architectural Society. The fifth conversa- 
zione of this Society took place in the rooms, Mosley Street, on Wednesday 



Retrospective Criticism. 281 

evening. There was a numerous attendance of the members and their friends, 
and the soiree was of a very delightful and instructive nature. Amongst the 
works of art exhibited, we noticed drawings by Prout, Stanfield, Cattermole, 
Aspland, Crouch, R. Lane ; two clever drawings by J. W. Hance, one a view 
of Windsor, the other a design for a new Exchange ; several very spirited 
female heads by C. A. Du Val, &c. There were two cabinet pictures by 
Bradley, one by Liverseege, a fine landscape by J. W. Frazer, Esq., and a very 
clever painting (" A boy selling fish ") by C. A. Du Val. George Peel, Esq., 
contributed three exquisite bronzes ; and Messrs. Agnew, Grundy, and Zanetti 
also furnished numerous works of art. 

The Society being desirous of exhibiting the designs lately sent in com- 
petition for the Catholic Church in Manchester (under the impression that 
public examination is the most effectual mode of insuring just decisions in com- 
petitions), such architects as were candidates are respectfully requested to 
forward their designs as early as possible to the Society's rooms. — John JVm. 
Hance, Hon. Secretary. 45. Mosley Street, April 6. 1838. (Newspaper.) 

Patent Roof. — We have had an opportunity of seeing a roof erected over a 
new building in Tasle Street, which is upon Witty and Co.'s patent principle, 
that was announced in the Staffordshire papers some time past. It is asto- 
nishing to see the simple plan and its power in supporting the lead roof. The 
principle is founded upon correct mechanical science. We understand the 
British Gas Company, at Hanley, have a beam upon the same plan over their 
retort house, of 50 ft. span, supporting an iron roof of 25 tons. This beam is 
made of sheet iron, and is as simple as the above-named roof in its appearance. 
The uses of complicated timber work in floors, roofs, and beams, upon the 
common system of carpentry, will, no doubt, be ultimately superseded by this 
principle, as it combines, in so rare a manner, simplicity and lightness with 
strength and economy. We believe this roof has been executed under the 
superintendence of Mr. Arthur Woolley, architect, of Princess Street. (Man- 
chester Times, May 5.) 

Laying the first Stones of the New Bridge, Manchester. — On Saturday 
week, the first three stones were laid of the bridge about to be erected in lieu 
of the Old Bridge, connecting Manchester and Salford, on a fine smooth bed 
of red sand-rock, about 12 ft. below the surface of the water. Mr. Armitage, 
the boroughreeve of Salford, and a few other gentlemen, including Mr. Car- 
rington, the bridge-master, were present. The three first stones contain 124 
cubic feet, weighing 9 tons 10 cwt, and the remainder vary from 1a tons to 
5 tons each, from the quarries of Bank Lane, near Bury, and the summit near 
Blackstone Edge. (Blackburn Standard, April 11. 1838.) 

SCOTLAND. 

Perthshire. — Victoria Bridge. On Thursday, the 29th ult, the founda- 
tion-stone of a new bridge over the river Gauir was laid by Sir Niel Menzies 
of that ilk, Bart., and others, in due masonic form, and various coins and news- 
papers of the day deposited in a bottle, hermetically sealed. The ceremony 
taking place so soon after the accession of our youthful queen, and the scene 
being in the immediate vicinity of the village of Georgetown, and the barracks 
built soon after the "Forty-five," it naturally occurred that the building should 
be named after the queen. After drinking success to Victoria Bridge, an 
overflowing bumper was dedicated to Her Majesty Victoria I., accompanied 
with cheers that made " Garb-mheal " and the surrounding mountains echo ; 
wishing her long life and happiness, and " that she may never forget the princi- 
ples that placed the House of Brunswick on the British throne." (Perth 
Constitutional.) 

Art. IV. Retrospective Criticism. 
Erratum. — In p. 205. line 4. of note, for " Monasteres " read " Monu- 



mens. 



282 



Retrospective Criticism. 



Fancy's Natural Convergence of Perpendiculars. (Vol.V. p. 92.) — I am much 
gratified by the gentle and courteous disposition which Mr. Parsey manifests in 
his reply to the remarks of Mr. Pocock and myself. Had we all such an- 
tagonists to contend with, we should be in no danger of forgetting the object 
of enquiry, in the desire of showing our own powers of sarcasm, as is too fre- 
quently the case in such discussions. I am well aware, also, of the disagreeable 
character of a dispute, in which one party is opposed by another with argu- 
ments which, long ago, and at an early period of his investigation, occurred to, 
and were answered in, his own mind. But Mr. Parsey must excuse me for 
bringing forward such arguments, inasmuch as the public will never be satisfied 
until they have all been answered : he must farther excuse me for doubting, as 
all disputants do, that they can all be answered. Mr. Pocock and I should 
certainly consider Mr. Parsey's fear of injury from our remarks as very com- 
plimentary, but it is altogether ungrounded. No mind whose opinion is worth 
anything is biassed by the mere assertion of individuals; but its spirit of enquiry 
is stimulated, and it immediately commences an investigation of the subject 
which Mr. Parsey, confident as he is of the truth of his practice (of -his prin- 
ciples none can doubt the truth), ought not to dread, which, if he did dread, he 
could not, as the institutor of a new practice in drawing, avoid. However, as 
he invites us to " fair and courteous discussion," let me hope that he will find 
neither Mr. Pocock nor me more desirous of proving ourselves right than of 
arriving at the truth. 

We all agree in principle : the disputed point is, whether vertical convergence 
should be represented in a drawing. Now, Mr. Parsey says that I err in 
affirming convergence is trifling when the object only subtends an angle of 
elevation of 60°: I do so, on calculating the convergence trigonometrically. I 
find Mr. Parsey's conclusion quite right, but I do not understand his diagram, 
owing to the misprinting of the letters ; and he has not given us the mode by 
which he arrived at his conclusion. Perhaps the annexed demonstration is 
clearer. Let b c d c (fig. 99.)Jbe the front of any building, 100 ft. wide, and 176 
ft. above the level of the eye. Let the eye of the spectator be at a. Let a b 
a cbe each 100 ft. ; consequently, angle c a b=60° f and angles ba e,ca d also 
equal 60°. Therefore c fl=200 ft., and d a=200 ft. And as e d= 100 ft. angle 
e a rf=about 29°, that is, less than half of angle cab. And therefore the ap- 
parent length of e d is rather less than half that of c b. It is evident, then, that I 
was wrong in affirming that this convergence was not to be represented, because 
it was nearly imperceptible. There is another reason 
for its non-representation, which Mr. Pocock has e 
slightly noticed, but which Mr. Parsey evidently 
had not noticed. It appears strange that this im- 
mense convergence should not show itself by cutting 
angles with parallel perpendicular lines which are 
close to us. Does it do so ? Let Mr. Parsey look 
out of his window, and I will look out of mine. It 
is within 3 ft. of me, and beyond it, at a distance of 
about fifty yards, rises one of the most noble build- 
ings in Oxford, to a height of about 72 ft. Its per- 
pendicular lines, therefore, though not quite so con- 
vergent as those of the diagram, must be consider- 
ably so. Yet the perpendicular lines of the window 
frame fall precisely on those of the distant build- 
ing. I try them again and again : there is not an 
angle between them which a mite could measure ; 
and the reason is evident. The argument which 
applies to the diagram, when a b is 100 ft., and 
a c 200 ft., applies with exactly the same force 
12 ft. There is precisely the same difference in the angle, the same in the 
length of the line ; and the convergence of verticals, therefore, is a/ways the 
same when they subtend the same angle, whether they be near or distant, 4 ft. or 




when a b is G ft. and a e 



Retrospective Criticism. 283 

4000 ft. high. The eye, therefore, puts the perpendicular lines of the picture 
into perspective (when the spectator stands at the point at which alone even 
the retiring lines can be in true perspective) exactly as much as it does those 
of nature ; and, therefore, were the artist to represent any such convergence, he 
would be put altogether out by the increased convergence given bv the eye. 

The same is the case with regard to parallel horizontals, which are put into 
perspective in the picture in the same way ; and, indeed, in general, whenever 
the lines in the painting are in the same place which they are in naturally, no 
convergence is to be represented. 

These considerations will free Claude, and Canaletti, and the professor of 
perspective to the Royal Academy, from the charges of desperate error, which 
Mr. Parsey casts upon them ; and we may still look at the works of our 
favourite masters without being annoyed by their ignorance of perspective. 

With regard to what Mr. Parsey says of his spectrometer, he must put it 
aside in applying it to the eye. All perpendiculars, near or distant, correspond 
exactly with each other, and are parallel, apparently as well as actually pa- 
rallel ; that is, as far as regularly convergent lines can be parallel. They all 
meet in the same vanishing points, which are, as I have shown by means of 
reflections in water, one exactly above the spectator's head, and one below his 
feet. 

I have only to add that, in allowing the angle of 60° to be measured wholly 
•above the line of the eye, I have taken a license which Claude sometimes 
avails himself of, but, I think, Canaletti never. The eye is always to be sup- 
posed looking straight forward, and, therefore, can only embrace an angle of 30° 
above the line of sight, and an equal angle below. I have always found that, 
in sketching alps, or other precipices, I never made a satisfactory drawing, if 
the upward angle were more than 30°. However, in architecture, an upward 
angle of 60° is sometimes allowable. I neglected to say that, if Mr. Parsey 
will fix his eye at a given point, looking at a landscape through a pane of glass, 
and will trace on it with a diamond edge lines corresponding to those of the 
landscape, he will find all his retiring lines convergent, all his verticals vertical 
and parallel. This is a true test of perspective, — Kata Phusin. Oxford, Mai/ 1. 
1838. 

Preservation of Architectural Remains. (Vol.V. p.230.). — Mr. F. Lush appears 
to think that devotion is so easily effaced from a congregation, that a mere step 
from the choir to the nave will put to flight all the proper feelings which so 
much pains has been taken to create ; but, in truth, I have a better opinion of 
the really devout, and do not at all apprehend that the making a repository of 
the nave of a cathedral for the fragments of our ancient architecture, any 
more than the unsightly modern monumental tables which generally crowd 
these situations, will interfere with devotional pursuits. The idle, curious, or 
the inattentive, would, no doubt, find a ready excuse for their errors in these 
objects, but the truly religious will rather look upon them as monuments of 
the piety of our forefathers ; and that, by placing them in this situation, we 
are rendering a tribute of the highest respect to their memory. How fre- 
quently might the precepts heard in the choir be brought fresh into our minds 
with redoubled force, upon viewing the known works of some great ecclesi- 
astical benefactor in the nave ! How might we follow up the train of ideas, thus 
created, by a research into the private history of an enlightened mind ! and how 
might we then leave the sacred pile, full of the benevolence which departed 
worth has brought to our recollection ! And, as I have before stated, if one 
only is benefited a great object is attained. The few who would so soon shake 
off the influence of the solemn worship would as easily do so now, when loi- 
tering along the nave, scanning with listless eye the engraven names fixed upon 
its walls ; perhaps names, too, only remembered by a few, and whose deeds are 
only inscribed on the marble tablet. Surely, the evil cannot be so great as 
Mr. Lush states, compared with the good which would be derived from 
the many opportunities of placing before the public numerous classifications 
of the architecture of the middle ages. A national museum could not 



284 Queries and Answers. 

effect this object to so great an extent as it deserves. Not only the naves 
of our cathedrals, but the cloisters, where they are in existence, and sonic 
of the chapterhouses, might very properly be appropriated for this purpose. 
Can the ancient works of art, which are of so much importance to us, be more 
objectionable than the modern, which now crowd the naves of all our cathe- 
drals ? There would be no occasion to block up windows, to cut down orna- 
ments, or remove columns and arches, for the ancient works ; a practice too 
frequently resorted to for modern ones. The simplicity of the nave, and the 
uniformity of the ailes, without these relics of bygone days, is enough to 
create pleasurable sensations in the reflective mind; but, with such additions, 
which call up the zeal and energy of a few individuals who struggled with the 
darker spirits of superstition, can such minds be less humanised ? Rather 
would they tend to soften the wilder passions, and create such benevolent 
associations as would tend to the further developement of an enlightened 
understanding. I would not limit the preservation of these invaluable trea- 
sures of our art by placing them in a single confined spot, where very few 
would have an opportunity of seeing them ; but I would distribute them 
over the whole kingdom, in the manner I have named, so that they may 
be ever before the public, that a simultaneous increase of knowledge might 
be the effect ; for, if we wish knowledge to be generally diffused, the means 
of doing so should not be confined to one spot. There would be little 
danger of cumbering the buildings, as by this general distribution, a few spe- 
cimens would be enough to form a complete classification ; and they would 
certainly add to the pictorial effect, and, in many instances, take off the 
bare and , cheerless appearance of this part of the building. Another ad- 
vantage to be gained by this arrangement is, that the peculiar style of archi- 
tecture of the different parts of the country might be seen in each cathedral. 
— E. B. L. London, May 5. 1838. 



Art. V. Queries and Answers. 

GALVANISATION of Iron-Work, to preserve it from Rust. — M.Sorel of Paris 
has discovered that iron pipes, chimney pots, railings, &c, when galvanised, are 
less liable to rust; and there is, accordingly, an establishment commenced at 
Paris for carrying on the process, of which we expect shortly to give some 
further details. In the mean time, we shall be happy to hear from any of our 
readers who has a practical knowledge of the subject. — Cond. 

Margary's Process for preventing the Dry Rot is said to be about one tenth 
of the cost of Kyan's corrosive sublimate, and to be equally applicable to can- 
vass and cordage. " We have seen the experiments, and watched the progress 
of them. The Admiralty, with becoming zeal, on being informed of the facts, 
directed the fairest trials to be made at Woolwich, and have since had a 
quantity of canvass prepared under their own inspection." (Brit, and For. 
Rev., April, 1838, p. 695.) [We should be glad of some particulars respecting 
this process from some person who has tried it. — Cond.) 



Art. VI. Institute of British Architects. 

Feb. 12. 1838. — P. F. Robinson, V. P., in the chair. 

The balance in the treasurer's hands appeared to be 389/. 2s. 9^/. 

Elected. The Earl of Liverpool as an Honorary Fellow ; F. II. Groves. 
S. S. T. Carlow, and W. A. Buckley, as Associates. 

Presented. Casts of two Capitals of Marble Columns, from the Alhambra. 
An Engraving of the West front of Cologne Cathedral, from Dr. Moller of 
Darmstadt. Bryan's Biographical and Critical Dictionary of Painters ami 



Institute of British Architects. 285 

Engravers, 2 vols. 4to. Impression of the Print of the Portrait of the late Sir 
Thomas Farquhar. Angell's Historical Sketch of the Royal Exchange, 
pamph. 8vo. Churches of London, No 1+. 

Paper read. The History of Llanthony Abbey, in illustration of the Draw- 
ings submitted for the Soane Medallion. 

Soane Medallions. Four sets of Designs were sent in for the Restoration of 
Monasteries ; namely, two for the Abbey of St. Mary, at York ; one for Llan- 
thony Abbey, Monmouthshire; and the fourth for Kirkstal Abbey, Yorkshire. 
The medallion was awarded to Samuel Sharp, Associate of York, for the De- 
sign for the Restoration of St. Mary's Abbey, at York, with the Motto, " Ut 
Rosa flos florum, sic est Domus ista Domorum." The design for the Re- 
storation of Llanthony Abbey, by Mr. G. E. Laing, possessed so much merit, 
that a medal is to be struck for it, from the Institute Die, having the wreath 
on the obverse, and the reverse plain. 

The Essay which gained the Soane medallion was that by W. W. Po- 
cock, Associate, on Athenian Architecture. 

Feb. 26. 1838. — J. B. Papworth, V. P., in the chair. 

Elected. E. Lapidge, as Fellow. 

Presented. Duke of Serradifalco's Work on Athenian Antiquities, vol 3. 
Portrait of the late John Rennie, Esq. A design for the Exchange at Ham- 
burg. Giffard's Short Visit "to the Ionian Islands, Athens, and the Morea, 
1 vol. 8vo. Specimens of Stone from the Neighbourhood of Whitby. Simms 
on Asphaltic Mastic, pamph. 8vo. Outline Drawings of the Abbey of ,St. 
Mary, at York. Wild's Architectural Grandeur, 1 vol. folio. Specimens of 
Felt, from Messrs. Borradaile. 

Read. A paper on the Qualities of Timbers, and their Application to Con- 
struction. A Description of the Sewer built under the Harrow Road, by the 
Great Western Railway Company, by T. L. Donaldson. A Communication 
from the Baron Wellerstedt, describing an anticombustible Mixture for the 
Saturation of Timber, so as to render roofs, floors, &c, less liable to ignition. 

Report of the Council presented at the Annual General Meeting held 1th of 
May, 1838. — When the Council in May last made their Report, it might 
have been thought that topics of congratulation were exhausted in the enu- 
meration of the successful results attending the formation and subsequent pro- 
ceedings of this Institute, which had then acquired stability and importance 
from the Charter of Incorporation granted by his late Majesty William IV. 
The Queen, however, with that love for art and science which has distinguished 
the very first year of Her Majesty's reign, has been pleased to become the 
patroness of this Institute; at once placing us on a footing with the most dis- 
tinguished societies of a similar nature in the empire. This honourable dis- 
tinction renders it a duty still more incumbent upon the members to promote 
the objects of the Institute by their personal cooperation, and the contribution 
of communications. It is by such means only that the body can continue to 
merit the august patronage which has been so graciously conferred. We must 
emulate the zeal with which other scientific societies are pursuing their re- 
searches, and, like them, contribute to the advancement of knowledge, and a 
more general diffusion of the true principles of taste and science. 

The removal of the Institute to apartments at once more convenient, and 
in a more desirable situation, has been productive of a larger attendance of 
members and visiters at the ordinary meetings. This circumstance, together 
with the additions constantly making to the books, models, and casts, prove 
that the rooms previously occupied would have been totally inadequate to the 
accommodation now absolutely necessary. The constant accession of new 
members, and the conviction that the progressive increase of the library and 
collection would outgrow even the present apartments, induced the Council 
to repeat their application to government for accommodation in some public 
building. The Council considered that the present state of the Institute 
rendered the renewal of the application made in 1835 not inopportune. This 



286 Institute of British Architects. 

application was, as you are aware, again unsuccessful. The Council, however, 
cannot but consider that the question of such assistance being rendered to 
public scientific bodies acquires strength in the public mind, and that the 
government will at length feel itself justified in acceding to the reasonable 
expectations of those societies, and thus promote, by their countenance and 
support, the advancement of objects which are not merely of interest to indi- 
viduals, but highly important to the nation. 

The Council have thought it necessary this session to provide series of 
lectures, as complete as possible, upon various subjects connected with con- 
struction, not only for the purpose of general information, but to show that 
the Institute is aware of the advantages which must result to architecture 
from every department of science being made to bear upon the main object 
and purpose for which it is founded. The number of such courses is limited 
only by the pecuniary means of the Society ; but the Council trust that the 
funds may allow the continuance of the same system of instruction, and that 
each session may be distinguished by the delivery of fresh series as satisfactory 
as those to which the members have listened with so much pleasure and 
improvement. There is a wide field still open, and, independently of the 
history and theory of architecture, as an art of design, there are acoustics, 
optics, mechanics, and other subjects, forming parts of the necessary practical 
education of the architect, which still remain to be considered. It is no less 
a matter of congratulation that professors of distinguished merit should be 
induced to consider their respective sciences, not merely in an abstract point 
of view, but in reference to their useful application to our art, which involves 
the comfort, the health, aud consequently the happiness, of every class. 

The result of the competitions for the medals offered by the Institute has 
this year been most satisfactory, and has led to the institution of an additional 
medal of merit, in order that the author of one of the unsuccessful designs, 
which evinced considerable talent, might receive a mark of the approbation 
of the members. This medal may be awarded in future also to those drawings 
and essays which, although distinguished by much merit, have not the first 
medals adjudged to them. The successful manner in which the subject of 
the restoration of a conventual building has been treated has confirmed the 
Council in their opinion of the propriety of caliing the attention of the archi- 
tects scattered over the united kingdom to our national antiquities, confident 
that the timely investigation of these remains, so deeply interesting to us as 
Englishmen, will rescue them from that oblivion which might attend the neglect 
of a few more years. Thus we shall have, ere long, an important accumulation of 
authentic documents and information upon the monuments, the taste, the skill, 
and the customs of our ancestors, valuable not only to the architect, but to the 
antiquarian, the artist, the historian, and the philosopher. We thus at once 
enrich our collection, and pay a debt of gratitude to those from the contem- 
plation of whose works we derive so much instruction and delight. At the 
same time, it is highly important that we should not allow our national predi- 
lections to lead us to neglect the classic works of the ancients. It is therefore 
to be hoped that one of the subjects proposed for the prizes in each year will 
continue to be devoted to Greek or Roman architecture. The investigation 
of the principles which guided the masters of antiquity is essential to the 
student, and opens sources of the sublime and beautiful, indispensable to him 
who would distinguish himself in the art. His perception and powers must 
be necessarily restricted who can reject, as unworthy his notice, the resources 
and suggestions which each style offers. The architecture of every period and 
of every nation has its limits and its peculiar beauties ; for, although it would 
appear that there is a point of perfection beyond which the skill of man cannot 
go, so there is no period in the history of any people in which the taste is so 
degraded, no country so lost in barbarism, where (if the mental faculties be 
vigorously exercised) the productions are undeserving attention, and entirely 
devoid of some characteristic quality. 



Institute of British Architects. 287 

Happily, the Institute has not to deplore the loss of any of its members 
since the last annual meeting ; but we have had an accession of seven Fellows 
and fourteen Associates ; eight Honorary Fellows have been elected during 
the last twelve months, in which list we can enumerate names of the highest 
nobility, and of personages distinguished by their influence, their personal 
attainments, and their love for art. Ten foreign architects have also been 
added as Honorary and Corresponding Members ; the greater number at the 
suggestion of our valued brother in art, Dr. Moller of Darmstadt, whose 
interest in the success of our Institute is as active as it is valuable. The 
members have been gratified in welcoming as a visiter among them Monsieur 
Hittorff; and our zealous colleague, Monsieur Chateauneufof Hamburg, takes 
part in the proceedings of this day. Several foreign students have also visited 
this country, in order to acquire information as to our practical construction 
and the distribution of our buildings, in reference to our usages and customs. 
They have been furnished, by direction of the Council, with letters of intro- 
duction to the principal members of the profession, both in London and other 
parts of the United Kingdom, and have acknowledged the attentions which 
they have in consequence received. Several of our own members have also 
visited the Continent during the past year, and have experienced the most 
cordial welcome from our foreign brethren. Thus has a reciprocal sentiment 
of good feeling been kept up among the architects throughout Europe, and 
the Institute of British Architects is regarded as the central body of the 
profession, consolidating a system of active cooperation and interchange of 
kindly offices. 

The Council has redeemed the pledge given in its last Report ; a catalogue 

of the library and collection having been printed and distributed among the 

members. Since its appearance, however, the Institute has received numerous 

additions. During the year, 4-i volumes have been received, 36 prints, 7 

models and casts, and 76 specimens of stones, besides various other objects 

One other important acquisition has been a volume containing about 100 

original sketches and finished drawings by Bibiena, Panini, Oppenort, and 

others ; a most valuable collection, which, as a work of reference, whether to 

the more experienced professor or the junior member, is rich in original ideas 

and specimens of the mastery of those artists in drawing, perspective, and 

chiaroscuro. This rare collection we owe to the liberality of Sir John 

Drummond Stewart, of Grandtully, Perthshire, who, with a lively interest in 

the objects of the Institute, which cannot be too highly appreciated, has 

promised to make further additions to the class of original drawings. It is 

also to be noticed, that a considerable portion of the books have been 

received as presents from the Pontifical Academy S. Luke at Rome, and the 

Imperial Academy of Vienna ; and that the Academy of Milan only waits an 

opportunity for transmitting its contribution to the library of the Institute. 

Our Honorary and Corresponding Members, Messrs. Hittorff, Guenepin, Vau- 

doyer, De Klenze, Hetsch, Chateauneuf, Moller, have also enriched our 

collection ; and the Chevalier Gasse of Naples has announced a present of a 

copy of the Voyage Pittoresque de Najjels, in the compilation of which he 

took a considerable part. 

The Council would inadequately represent the feelings of the members, 
were they not to record the continued interest in the prosperity of the 
Institute evinced by their noble President. His Lordship, since the last 
annual meeting, has twice thrown open his mansion to receive the members 
and friends of the Institute, as also the leading men in art, science, and 
literature of the day. By this kindness and liberality the profession has 
been brought, as a body, under His Lordship's hospitable roof, into immediate 
intercourse with the noble, the learned, and the distinguished of this period, 
and has felt how much it owed to him for that consideration, which the art 
must acquire from the influence of his generous and munificent example. 
The Council submit to the consideration of the members the balance sheet 



288 Obituary. 

ot the receipts and disbursements of the past year. Among the donations, it 
is impossible to omit particular reference to the liberal contribution of our 
Honorary Fellow G. B. Greenough, Esq., whose name is intimately connected 
with the rapid advance which has been made within so short a period in 
geology, a science immediately allied to the pursuits and studies of the 
architect. It will be perceived that the permanent income has progressively 
improved. On the other hand, an additional expense, also of a permanent 
nature, has been incurred by the increased annual rental of the present apart- 
ments ; and a considerable sum has been expended in the fittings, and other 
unavoidable incidental disbursements, which are not hkely to recur. This 
extraordinary expenditure has necessarily arisen out of the removal to these 
apartments, a measure authorised by the special general meeting of the 10th 
of July, 1837, and consequently occasioning the appropriation of part of the 
funds, otherwise to be invested for permanent uses, which appropriation has 
also been sanctioned by the general meeting of February last. The Council, 
however, are fully impressed with the necessity of keeping the current 
expenditure within the income : but the first establishment of all societies of 
this kind unavoidably requires much expense in the outfit, &c, in which it 
would be equally impolitic to be parsimonious or profuse. It has been the 
desire of the Council to avoid either of these extremes. 

Hitherto the Institute has flourished beyond the most sanguine hopes of 
its founders; but we must not rest satisfied merely with what has been already 
accomplished. An important sphere of duty attaches to the position which 
we have been called upon to assume, by the wishes of the profession, by the 
necessities of the art, and the improving state of these departments of science, 
the application of which is so important to construction. Its members, there- 
fore, are bound to work out the objects of its foundation, to investigate every 
branch of art and science connected with architecture, and thus to keep alive 
the interest now felt in our proceedings. To preserve the continuance of that 
support which we have already received from the learned, the wealthy, and 
the noble, we must make this an active and efficient society, and not rely 
upon a mere name. Each member must reflect that the Institute is in a 
degree dependent upon his personal assistance. It is by a combination of 
individual efforts alone that any value can attach to its proceedings, and that 
architecture, in its widest sense, can profit by our association. Let every 
member, therefore, at the end of each session, put this question to himself: 
" What have I contributed to the Institute during the past year?" and let 
him consider whether his answer be commensurate with the position which 
he holds in society and in the profession, and whether he has fulfilled the 
pledge given by him in the declaration which he signed upon his admission, 
" that by every lawful means in his power he will advance the objects of the 
Institute." 



Art. VIII. Obiti 



\tary. 

M. Fauvel, we learn, by a letter from M. Itizo Rangabc at Athens to the 
Royal Institute of British Architects, lately died at Smyrna. All Grecian 
travellers will remember with respect this patriarch of antiquarians, whose 
Greek antiquities formed the richest furniture of the French consulate at 
Athens, and whose stores of information upon the monuments around were 
open to every student who visited his hospitable though humble dwelling. — 
M.I.B.A. ~May23.\W68. 



THE 

ARCHITECTURAL MAGAZINE. 



JULY, 1838. 



ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

Aht. I. The Poetry of Architecture. By Kata Phusin. 

No. 3. The Villa. 

I. The Mountain Villa. — Lago di Como. (Continued.) 

Having considered the propriety of the approach, it remains 
for us to investigate the nature of the feelings excited by the 
villas of the Lago di Como in particular, and of Italy in 
general. 

We mentioned that the bases of the mountains bordering the 
Lake of Como were chiefly composed of black marble; black, at 
least, when polished, and very dark grey in its general effect. 
This is very finely stratified in beds varying in thickness from 
an inch to two or three feet ; and these beds, taken of a medium 
thickness, form flat slabs, easily broken into rectangular fragments, 
which, being excessively compact in their grain, are admirably 
adapted for a building material. There is a little pale limestone* 
among the hills to the south ; but this marble, or primitive lime- 
stone (for it is not highly crystalline), is not only more easy 
of access, but a more durable stone. Of this, consequently, 
almost all the buildings on the lake shore are built; and, there- 
fore, were their material unconcealed, would be of a dark, mono- 
tonous, and melancholy grey tint, equally uninteresting to the 
eye, and depressing to the mind. To prevent this result, they 
are covered with different compositions, sometimes white, more 
frequently cream-coloured, and of varying depth ; the mouldings 
and pilasters being frequently of deeper tones than the walls. 
The insides of the grottoes, however, when not cut in the rock 
itself, are left uncovered, thus forming a strong contrast with the 

* Pale limestone, with dolomite. A coarse dolomite forms the mass of 
mountains on the east of Lake Lecco, Monte Campione, etc., and part of the 
other side, as well as the Monte del Novo, above Cadenabia : but the bases 
of the hills, along the shore of the Lake of Lecco, and all the mountains on 
both sides of the lower limb of Como, are black limestone. The whole 
northern half of the lake is bordered by gneiss or mica slate, with tertiary 
deposit where torrents enter it. So that the dolomite is only obtainable by 
ascending the hills, and incurring considerable expense of carriage; while the 
rocks of the shore split into blocks of their own accord, and are otherwise an 
excellent material. • 

Vol. V.— No. 53. u 



290 Poetry of Architecture. 

whiteness outside; giving great depth, and permitting weeds 
and flowers to root themselves on the roughnesses, and rock 
streams to distil through the fissures of the dark stones; while 
all parts of the building to which the eye is drawn, by their form 
or details (except the capitals of the pilasters), such as the urns, 
the statues, the steps, or balustrades, are executed in very fine 
white marble, generally from the quarries of Carrara, which 
supply quantities of fragments of the finest quality, which, 
nevertheless, owing to their want of size, or to the presence of 
conspicuous veins, are unavailable for the higher purposes of 
sculpture. 

Now, the first question is, is this very pale colour desirable ? It 
is to be hoped so, or else the whole of Italy must be pronounced 
full of impropriety. The first circumstance in its favour is one 
which, though connected only with lake scenery, we shall notice 
at length, as it is a point of high importance in our own country. 
When a small piece of quiet water reposes in a valley, or lies 
embosomed among crags, its chief beauty is derived from our 
perception of crystalline depth, united with excessive slumber. 
In its limited surface we cannot get the sublimitv of extent, but 
we may have the beauty of peace, and the majesty of depth. 
The object must therefore be, to get the eye off' its surface, and 
to draw it down, to beguile it into that fairy land underneath, 
which is more beautiful than what it repeats, because it is all 
full of dreams unattainable and illimitable. This can only be 
done by keeping its edge out of sight, and guiding the eye off 
the land into the reflection, as if it were passing into a mist, 
until it finds itself swimming into the blue sky, with a thrill of 
unfathomable falling. (If there be not a touch of sky at the 
bottom, the water will be disagreeably black, and the clearer 
the more fearful.) Now, one touch of white reflection of an 
object at the edge will destroy the whole illusion, for it will come 
like the flash of light on armour, and will show the surface, not 
the depth : it will tell the eye whereabouts it is; will define the 
limit of the edge; and will turn the dream of limitless depth 
into a small, uninteresting, reposeless piece of water. In all 
small lakes or pools, therefore, steep borders of dark crag, or of 
thick foliage, are to be obtained, if possible; even a shingly 
shore will spoil them : and this was one reason, it will be re- 
membered, for our admiration of the colour of the Westmoreland 
cottage, because it never broke the repose of water by its 
reflection. But this principle applies only to small pieces of 
water, on which we look down, as much as along the surface. 
As soon as we get a sheet, even if only a mile across, we lose 
depth; first, because it is almost impossible to get the surface 
without a breeze on some part of it ; and, again, because we look 
along it, and get a great deal of sky in the reflection, which, 



The Mountain Villa. '291 

when occupying too much space, tells as mere flat light. But 
we may have the beauty of extent in a very high degree ; and it 
is therefore desirable to know how far the water goes, that we 
may have a clear conception of its space. Now, its border, at a 
great distance, is always lost, unless it be defined by a very 
distinct line; and such a line is harsh, flat, and cutting on the 
eye. To avoid this, the border itself should be dark, as in the 
other case, so that there may be no continuous horizontal line of 
demarcation ; but one or two bright white objects should be set 
here and there along or near the edge : their reflections will 
flash on the dark water, and will inform the eve in a moment of 
the whole distance and transparency of the surface it is travers- 
ing. When there is a slight swell on the water, they will come 
down in long, beautiful, perpendicular lines, mingling exquisitely 
with the streakv green of reflected foliage: when there is none, 
they become a distinct image of the object they repeat, endowed 
with infinite renose. 

These remarks, true of small lakes whose edges are green, 
apply with far greater force to sheets of water on which the 
eye passes over ten or twenty miles in one long glance, and the 
prevailing colour of whose borders is, as we noticed when 
speaking of the Italian cottage, blue. The white reflections are 
here excessively valuable, giving space, brilliancy, and trans- 
parency; and furnish one very powerful apology, even did 
other objections render an apology necessary, for the pale 
tone of the colour of the villas, whose reflections, owing to 
their size and conspicuous situations, always take a consider- 
able part in the scene, and are therefore things to be atten- 
tively considered in the erection of such buildings, particularly 
in a climate whose calmness renders its lakes quiet for the 
greater part of the day. Nothing, in fact, can be more beau- 
tiful than the intermingling of these bright lines with the 
darkness of the reversed cypresses seen against the deep azure 
of the distant hills in the crystalline waters of the lake, of 
which some one aptly says, " Deep within its azure rest, white 
villages sleep silently;" or than their columnar perspective, as 
village after village catches the light, and strikes the image to 
the very quietest recess of the narrow water, and the verv 
furthest hollow of the folded hills. 

From all this, it appears that the effect of the white villa in 
water is delightful. On land it is quite as important, but more 
doubtful. The first objection, which strikes us instantly when 
we imagine such a building, is, the want of repose, the startling 
glare of effect, induced by its unsubdued tint. But this objec- 
tion does not strike us when we see the building; a circumstance 
which was partly accounted for before, in speaking of the 
cottage, and which we shall presently see further cause not to 

i ■> 



292 Poetry of Architecture. 

be surprised at. A more important objection is, that such 
whiteness destroys a great deal of venerable character, and 
harmonises ill with the melancholy tones of surrounding land- 
scape : and this requires detailed consideration. Paleness of 
colour destroys the majesty of a building; first, by hinting at a 
disguised and humble material; and, secondly, by taking away 
all appearance of age. We shall speak of the effect of the 
material presently ; but the deprivation of apparent antiquity is 
dependent in a great degree on the colour, and in Italy, where, 
as we saw before, every thing ought to point to the past, is a 
serious injury, though, for several reasons, not so fatal as might 
be imagined ; for we do not require, in a building raised as a 
light summer-house, wherein to while away a few pleasure 
hours, the evidence of ancestral dignity, without which the 
chateau or palace can possess hardly any beauty. We know 
that it is originally built rather as a plaything than as a monu- 
ment; as the delight of an individual, not the possession of a 
race ; and that the very lightness and carelessness of feeling with 
which such a domicile is entered and inhabited by its first 
builder would demand, to sympathise and keep in unison with 
them, not the kind of building adapted to excite the veneration 
of ages, but that which can most gaily minister to the amuse- 
ment of hours. For all men desire to have memorials of their 
actions, but none of their recreations ; inasmuch as we only wish 
that to be remembered which others will not, or cannot, perform 
or experience ; and we know that all men can enjoy recreation 
as much as ourselves. We wish succeeding generations to 
admire our energy, but not even to be aware of our lassitude ; 
to know when we moved, but not when we rested ; how we 
ruled, not how we condescended : and, therefore, in the case of 
the triumphal arch, or the hereditary palace, if we are the 
builders, we desire stability ; if the beholders, we are offended 
with novelty : but, in the case of the villa, the builder desires 
only a correspondence with his humour ; the beholder, evidence 
of such correspondence ; for he feels that the villa is most 
beautiful when it ministers most to pleasure ; that it cannot 
minister to pleasure without perpetual change, so as to suit the 
varying ideas, and humours, and imaginations of its inhabitant; 
and that it cannot possess this light and variable habit with any 
appearance of antiquity. And, for a yet more important reason, 
such appearance is not desirable. Melancholy, when it is pro- 
ductive of pleasure, is accompanied either by loveliness in the 
object exciting it, or by a feeling of pride in the mind expe- 
riencing it. Without one of these, it becomes absolute pain, 
which all men throw off as soon as they can, and suffer under as 
long as their minds are too weak for the effort. Now, when it is 
accompanied by loveliness in the object exciting it, it forms 



The Mountain Villa. <293 

beauty; when by a feeling of pride, it constitutes the pleasure we 
experience in tragedy, when we have the pride of endurance, or 
in contemplating the ruin, or the monument, by which we are 
informed or reminded of the pride of the past. Hence, it 
appears that age is beautiful only when it is the decay of glory 
or of power, and memory only delightful when it reposes upon 
pride. * All remains, therefore, of what was merely devoted to 
pleasure; all evidence of lost enjoyment; all memorials of the 
recreation and rest of the departed ; in a word, all desolation of 
delight, is productive of mere pain, for there is no feeling of 
exultation connected with it. Thus, in any ancient habitation, 
we pass with reverence and pleasurable emotion through the 
ordered armoury, where the lances lie, with none to wield; 
through the lofty hall, where the crested scutcheons glow with 
the honour of the dead : but we turn sickly away from the 
arbour which has no hand to tend it, and the boudoir which has 
no life to lighten it, and the smooth sward which has no light 
feet to dance on it. So it is in the villa : the more memory, the 
more sorrow ; and, therefore, the less adaptation to its present 
purpose. But, though cheerful, it should be ethereal in its ex- 
pression : " spirituel " is a good word, giving ideas of the very 
highest order of delight that can be obtained in the mere pre- 
sent. It. seems, then, that for all these reasons an appearance 
of age is not desirable, far less necessary, in the villa ; but its 
existing character must be in unison with its country; and it 
must appear to be inhabited by one brought up in that country, 
and imbued with its national feelings. In Italy, especially, 
though we can even here dispense with one component part of 
elevation of character, age, we must have all the others: we 
must have high feeling, beauty of form, and depth of effect, or 
the thing will be a barbarism ; the inhabitant must be an Italian, 
full of imagination and emotion : a villa inhabited by an English- 
man, no matter how close its imitation of others, will always be 
preposterous. 

We find, therefore, that white is not to be blamed in the 
villa for destroying its antiquity ; neither is it reprehensible, as 
harmonising ill with the surrounding landscape : on the con- 
trary, it adds to its brilliancy, without taking away from its 
depth of tone. We shall consider it as an element of landscape, 
more particularly, when we come to speak of grouping. 

There remains only one accusation to be answered ; viz. that it 
hints at a paltry and unsubstantial material : and this leads us to 

* Observe, we are not speaking of emotions felt on remembering what we 
ourselves have enjoyed, for then the imagination is productive of pleasure by 
replacing us in enjoyment, but of the feelings excited in the indifferent specta- 
tor, by the evident decay of power or desolation of enjoyment, of which the 
first ennobles, the other only harrows, the spirit. 

u 3 



294- Poetry of Architecture. 

the second question, Is this material allowable ? If it were 
distinctly felt by the eye to be stucco, there could be no question 
about the matter, it would be decidedly disagreeable ; but all 
the parts to which the eye is attracted are executed in marble, 
and the stucco merely forms the dead flat of the building, not a 
single wreath of ornament being formed of it. Its surface is 
smooth and bright, and altogether avoids what a stone building, 
when not built of large masses, and uncharged with ornament, 
always forces upon the attention, the rectangular lines of the 
blocks, which, however nicely fitted they maybe, are "horrible ! 
most horrible ! " There is also a great deal of ease and softness 
in the angular lines of the stucco, which are never sharp or 
harsh, like those of stone; and it receives shadows with great 
beauty, a point of infinite importance in this climate ; giving 
them lightness and transparency, without any diminution of 
depth. It is also rather agreeable to the eye, to pass from the 
sharp carving of the marble decorations to the ease and smooth- 
ness of the stucco; while the utter want of interest in those 
parts which are executed in it prevents the humility of the 
material from being offensive r for this passage of the eye from 
the marble to the composition is managed with the dexterity of 
the artist, who, that the attention may be drawn to the single 
point of the picture which is his subject, leaves the rest so ob- 
scured and slightly painted, that the mind loses it altogether in 
its attention to the principal feature. 

With all, however, that can be alleged in extenuation of its 
faults, it cannot be denied that the stucco does take away so 
much of the dignity of the building, that, unless we find enough 
bestowed by its form and details to counterbalance, and a great 
deal more than counterbalance, the deterioration occasioned by 
tone and material, the whole edifice must be condemned, as 
incongruous with the spirit of the climate, and even with the 
character of its own gardens and approach. It remains, there- 
fore, to notice the details themselves. Its form is simple to a 
degree; the roof generally quite flat, so as to leave the mass in 
the form of a paralielopiped, in general without wings or 
adjuncts of any sort. Villa Somma-Riva (fig. 87. in p. 247.) is a 
good example of this general form and proportion, though it 
has an arched passage on each side, which takes away from its 
massiness. This excessive weight of effect would be injurious, 
if the building were set by itself; but, as it always forms the 
apex of a series of complicated terraces, it both relieves them 
and gains great dignity by its own unbroken simplicity of size. 
This general effect of form is not injured, when, as is often the 
case, an open passage is left in the centre of the building, under 
tall and well-proportioned arches, supported by pilasters (never 
by columns). Villa Porro, Lago di Como (Jig. 100.)? is a good 



The Mountain Villa. 



295 






100 



ij I : lli 



Jk 




example of this method. The arches hardly ever exceed three 
in number, and these are all of the same size, so that the crowns 
of the arches continue the horizontal lines of the rest of the 
building. Were the centre one higher than the others, these lines 
would be interrupted, and a great deal of simplicity lost. The 
covered space under these arches is a delightful, shaded, and 
breezy retreat in the heat of the day ; and the entrance doors 
usually open into it, so that a current of cool air is obtainable 
by throwing them open. 

The building itself consists of three floors : we remember no 
instance of a greater number, and only one or two of fewer. It 
is, in general, crowned with a light balustrade, surmounted by 

v 4 



296 Poetry of Architecture. 

statues at intervals. The windows of the uppermost floor are 
usually square, often without any architrave. Those of the 
principal floor are surrounded with broad architraves, but are 
frequently destitute of frieze or cornice. They have usually 
flat bands at the bottom, and their aperture is a double square. 
Their recess is very deep, so as not to let the sun fall far into 
the interior. The interval between them is very variable. In 
some of the villas of highest pretensions, such as those on the 
banks of the Brenta, that of Isola Bella, and others, which do 
not face the south, it is not much more than the breadth of the 
two architraves, so that the rooms within are filled with light. 
When this is the case, the windows have friezes and cornices. 
But, when the building fronts the south, the interval is often very 
great, as in the case of the Villa Porro. The ground-floor 
windows are frequently set in tall arches, supported on deeply en- 
gaged pilasters, as in fig. 87. p. 247. (Somma-Riva). The door is 
not large, and never entered by high steps, as it generally opens 
on a terrace of considerable height, or on a wide landing-place 
at the head of a flight of fifty or sixty steps descending through 
the gardens. 

Now, it will be observed, that, in these general forms, though 
there is no splendour, there is great dignity. The lines through- 
out are simple to a degree, entirely uninterrupted by decora- 
tions of any kind, so that the beauty of their proportions is left 
visible and evident. We shall see hereafter that ornament in 
Grecian architecture, while, when well managed, it always adds 
to its grace, invariably takes away from its majesty ; and that 
these two attributes never can exist together in their highest 
degrees. By the utter absence of decoration, therefore, the 
Italian villa, possessing, as it usually does, great beauty of pro- 
portion, attains a degree of elevation of character, which im- 
presses the mind in a manner which it finds difficult to account 
for by any consideration of its simple details or moderate size; 
while, at the same time, it lays so little claim to the attention, 
and is so subdued in its character, that it is enabled to occupy a 
conspicuous place in a landscape, without any appearance of 
intrusion. The glance of the beholder rises from the labyrinth 
of terrace and arbour beneath, almost weariedly ; it meets, as it 
ascends, with a gradual increase of bright marble and simple 
light, and with a proportionate diminution of dark foliage and 
complicated shadow, till it rests finally on a piece of simple 
brilliancy, chaste and unpretending, yet singularly dignified ; 
and does not find its colour too harsh, because its form is so 
simple : for colour of any kind is only injurious when the eye is too 
much attracted to it ; and, when there is so much quietness of 
detail as to prevent this misfortune, the building will possess the 
cheerfulness, without losing the tranquillity, and will seem to 



The Mountain Villa. 297 

have been erected, and to be inhabited, by a mind of that beau- 
tiful temperament wherein modesty tempers majesty, and gentle- 
ness mingles with rejoicing, which, above all others, is most 
suited to the essence, and most interwoven with the spirit, of the 
natural beauty whose peculiar power is invariably repose. 

So much for its general character. Considered by principles 
of composition, it will also be found beautiful. Its prevailing 
lines are horizontal ; and every artist knows that, where peaks of 
any kind are in sight, the lines above which they rise ought to 
be flat. It has not one acute angle in all its details, and very 
few intersections of verticals with horizontals; while all that do 
intersect seem useful as supporting the mass. The just applica- 
tion of the statues at the top is more doubtful, and is considered 
reprehensible by several high authorities, who, nevertheless, are 
inconsistent enough to let the balustrade pass uncalumniated, 
though it is objectionable on exactly the same grounds ; for, if 
the statues suggest the enquiry of " What are they doing there ?" 
the balustrade compels its beholder to ask, " whom it keeps 
from tumbling over ? " The truth is, that the balustrade and 
statues derive their origin from a period when there was easy 
access to the roof of either temple or villa ; (that there was such 
access is proved by a passage in the Iphigenia Taiirica, line 113., 
where Orestes speaks of getting up to the triglyphs of a Doric 
temple as an easy matter;) and when the flat roofs were used, 
not, perhaps, as an evening promenade, as in Palestine, but as a 
place of observation, and occasionally of defence. They were 
composed of large flat slabs of stone (xepoipog *), peculiarly 
adapted for walking, one or two of which, when taken up, left 
an opening of easy access into the house, as in Luke, v. 19., and 
were perpetually used in Greece as missile weapons, in the 
event of a hostile attack or sedition in the city, by parties of 
old men, women, and children, who used, as a matter of course, 
to retire to the roof as a place of convenient defence. By such 
attacks from the roof with the Kepapog the Thebans were 
thrown into confusion in Plataea. (Thucycl., ii. 4.) So, also, we 
find the roof immediately resorted to in the case of the 
starving of Pausanias in the Temple of Minerva of the 
Bsazen House, and in that of the massacre of the aristocratic 
party at Corey ra (T/iucgd., iv. 48.): — 'AvotSavrsg ds ew) ro reyog 
too oIkyji^uto^ xai §»=XoVref tyjv 6po<pyjv, s&aWov tm xspoi^cu. Now, 
where the roof was thus a place of frequent resort, there 

* In the large buildings, that is : tapd/ioc also signifies earthen tiling, and 
sometimes earthenware in general, as in Herodotus, iii. G. It appears that such 
tiling was frequently used in smaller edifices. The Greeks may have derived 
their flat roofs from Egypt. Herodotus mentions of the Labyrinth of the 
Twelve Kings, that 6pop) St tsuvtuv tovtwv \i(Hvtj } but not as if the circumstance 
were in the least extraordinary. 



298 Poetry of Architecture. 

could be no more useful decoration than a balustrade; nor one 
more appropriate or beautiful, than occasional statues in attitudes 
of watchfulness, expectation, or observation : and even now, 
wherever the roof is flat, we have an idea of convenience and 
facility of access, which still renders the balustrade agreeable, 
and the statue beautiful, if well designed. It must not be a 
figure of perfect peace or repose, far less should it be in violent 
action ; but it should be fixed in that quick startled stillness, 
which is the result of intent observation or expectation, and 
which seems ready to start into motion every instant. Its 
height should be slightly colossal, as it is always to be seen 
against the sky; and its draperies should not be too heavy, as 
the eye will always expect them to be caught by the wind. We 
shall enter into this subject, however, more fully hereafter. We 
only wish at present to vindicate from the charge of impro- 
priety one of the chief features of the Italian villa. Its white 
figures, always marble, remain entirely unsullied by the weather, 
and stand out with great majesty against the blue air behind 
them, taking away from the heaviness, without destroying the 
simplicity, of the general form. 

It seems, then, that, by its form and details, the villa of the 
Lago di Corao attains so high a degree of elevation of character, 
as not only brings it into harmony of its locus, without any 
assistance from appearance of antiquity, but may, we think, 
permit it to dispense even with solidity of material, and appear 
in light summer stucco, instead of raising itself in imperishable 
marble. And this conclusion, which is merely theoretical, is 
verified by fact ; for we remember no instance, except in cases 
where poverty had overpowered pretension, or decay had turned 
rejoicing into silence, in which the lightness of the material was 
offensive to the feelings ; in all cases, it is agreeable to the eye. 
Where it is allowed to get worn, and discoloured, and broken, 
it induces a wretched mockery of the dignified form which it 
preserves ; but, as long as it is renewed at proper periods, and 
watched over by the eye of its inhabitant, it is an excellent and 
easily managed medium of effect. 

With all the praise, however, which we have bestowed upon 
it, we do not say that the villa of the Larian Lake is perfection ; 
indeed we cannot say so, until we have compared it with a few 
other instances, chiefly to be found in Italy, on whose soil we 
delay, as being the native country of the villa, properly so 
called, and as even yet being almost the only spot of Europe 
where any good specimens of it are to be found : for we do not 
understand by the term " villa, " a cubic erection, with one 
window on each side of a verdant door, and three in the second 
and uppermost story, such as the word suggests to the fertile 
imagination of ruralisin" cheesemongers ; neither do we under- 

O DO 7 



The Mountain Villa. 299 

stand the quiet and unpretending country house of a respectable 
gentleman ; neither do we understand such a magnificent mass of 
hereditary stone as generally forms the autumn retreat of an 
English noble; but we understand the light but elaborate 
summer habitation, raised however and wherever it pleases his 
fancy, by some individual of great wealth and influence, who can 
enrich it with every attribute of beauty ; furnish it with every 
appurtenance of pleasure ; and repose in it with the dignity of 
a mind trained to exertion or authority. Such a buildinar 
could not exist in Greece, where every district a mile and a 
quarter square was quarrelling with all its neighbours. It could 
exist, and did exist, in Italy, where the Roman power secured 
tranquillity, and the Roman constitution distributed its authority 
among a great number of individuals, on whom, while it raised 
them to a position of great influence, and, in its later times, of 
wealth, it did not bestow the power of raising palaces or private 
fortresses. The villa was their peculiar habitation, their only 
resource, and a most agreeable one ; because the multitudes of 
the kingdom being, for a long period, confined to a narrow ter- 
ritory, though ruling the world, rendered the population of the 
city so dense, as to drive out its higher ranks to the neighbour- 
ing hamlets of Tibur and Tusculum. In other districts of 
Europe the villa is not found, because in very perfect mo- 
narchies, as in Austria, the power is thrown chiefly into the 
hands of a few, who build themselves palaces, not villas ; and in 
perfect republics, as in Switzerland, the power is so split 
among the multitude, that nobody can build himself any 
thing. In general, in kingdoms of great extent, the country 
house becomes the permanent and hereditary habitation ; and 
the villas are all crowded together, and form mnfferbread rows 
in the environs of the capital : and, in France and Germany, the 
excessively disturbed state of affairs in the middle ages com- 
pelled every petty baron or noble to defend himself, and retaliate 
on his neighbours as he best could, till the villa was lost in the 
chateau and the fortress ; and men now continue to build as 
their forefathers built (and long may they do so), surrounding 
the domicile of pleasure with a moat and a glacis, and guarding 
its garret windows with turrets and towers: while, in England, 
the nobles, comparatively few, and of great power, inhabit 
palaces, not villas ; and the rest of the population is chiefly 
crowded into cities, in the activity of commerce, or dispersed 
over estates in that of agriculture; leaving only one grade of 
gentry, who have neither the taste to desire, nor the power to 
erect, the villa, properly so called. 

We must not, therefore, be surprised, if, on leaving Italy, where 
the crowd of poverty-stricken nobility can still repose their 
pride in the true villa, we find no farther examples of it 



300 Notes to the Italian Villa. 

worthy of consideration, though we hope to have far greate